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Chest ; 151(6): 1311-1319, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28093269


BACKGROUND: The burden of pneumococcal disease is measured only through patients with invasive pneumococcal disease. The urinary antigen test (UAT) for pneumococcus has exhibited high sensitivity and specificity. We aimed to compare the pneumococcal pneumonias diagnosed as invasive disease with pneumococcal pneumonias defined by UAT results. METHODS: A prospective observational study of consecutive nonimmunosuppressed patients with community-acquired pneumonia was performed from January 2000 to December 2014. Patients were stratified into two groups: invasive pneumococcal pneumonia (IPP) defined as a positive blood culture or pleural fluid culture result and noninvasive pneumococcal pneumonia (NIPP) defined as a positive UAT result with negative blood or pleural fluid culture result. RESULTS: We analyzed 779 patients (15%) of 5,132, where 361 (46%) had IPP and 418 (54%) had NIPP. Compared with the patients with IPP, those with NIPP presented more frequent chronic pulmonary disease and received previous antibiotics more frequently. Patients with IPP presented more severe community-acquired pneumonia, higher levels of inflammatory markers, and worse oxygenation at admission; more pulmonary complications; greater extrapulmonary complications; longer time to clinical stability; and longer length of hospital stay compared with the NIPP group. Age, chronic liver disease, mechanical ventilation, and acute renal failure were independent risk factors for 30-day crude mortality. Neither IPP nor NIPP was an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia is diagnosed by UAT. Despite differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes, IPP is not an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality compared with NIPP, reinforcing the importance of NIPP for pneumococcal pneumonia.

Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos de Bactérias/urina , Bacteriemia/sangue , Hemocultura , Doença Crônica , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/sangue , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/sangue , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/mortalidade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/urina , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/sangue , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/mortalidade , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/urina , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0137128, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26317806


The role of systemic immunity in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis is not fully understood. Analysis of transcriptomic profiles in blood is an easy approach to obtain a wide picture of immune response at the systemic level. We studied gene expression profiles in blood from thirty cirrhotic patients and compared them against those of eight healthy volunteers. Most of our patients were male [n = 21, 70%] in their middle ages [57.4 ± 6.8 yr]. Alcohol abuse was the most frequent cause of cirrhosis (n = 22, 73%). Eleven patients had hepatocellular carcinoma (36.7%). Eight patients suffered from hepatitis C virus infection (26.7%). We found a signature constituted by 3402 genes which were differentially expressed in patients compared to controls (2802 over-expressed and 600 under-expressed). Evaluation of this signature evidenced the existence of an active pro-fibrotic transcriptomic program in the cirrhotic patients, involving the [extra-cellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction] & [TGF-beta signaling] pathways along with the [Cell adhesion molecules] pathway. This program coexists with alterations in pathways participating in [Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism], [Phenylalanine metabolism], [Tyrosine metabolism], [ABC transporters], [Purine metabolism], [Arachidonic acid metabolism]. In consequence, our results evidence the co-existence in blood of a genomic program mediating pro-fibrotic mechanisms and metabolic alterations in advanced cirrhosis. Monitoring expression levels of the genes involved in these programs could be of interest for predicting / monitoring cirrhosis evolution. These genes could constitute therapeutic targets in this disease.

Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade