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1.
Food Res Int ; 140: 110022, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648252

RESUMO

Sacha inchi is a super seed primarily grown in the Amazon rainforest of Peru. One of the main products obtained from seeds is oil. This product is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, and sterols. The objective of this work was to authenticity evaluate of the Sacha inchi oil by means of characterization of phenols, volatile compounds, and sensory profile. The phenolic and volatile compounds were analyzed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS) and headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS), respectively. A total of 16 phenolic compounds were detected in commercial Sacha inchi oils, while 54 compounds have been found in the volatile fraction. These compounds mainly correspond to notes generated by alcohols, aldehydes, acids, ketones, and terpenoids. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first two PCs account for 71.13% of total variance. Statistical analysis was used to observe the relationships between phenolic and volatile compounds; therefore, consequently, it has been found that 16 volatile compounds may have a significant influence upon overall perceived flavor and odor of the commercial Sacha inchi oils. According to the odor and flavor, the Sacha inchi oil is characterized by "green" odor notes, seed, dried fruit and rough.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452559

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL), global health status (GHS), and deterioration-free survival of an elderly population (> 70 years) with unresectable locally advanced (LAPC) or metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC) treated with nab-paclitaxel in combination with gemcitabine. METHODS: In this open-label, single-arm, multicenter, phase II trial, patients received 4-week cycles of intravenous (i.v.) nab-paclitaxel at a dose of 125 mg/m2, followed by i.v. injections of gemcitabine at a dose of 1000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 and 15 until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity was observed. The primary outcome was the HRQoL (deterioration-free rate at 3 months as evaluated with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30. RESULTS: Eighty patients (median age: 74.6 years) were enrolled (56 with mPC, 24 with LAPC). The percentage of patients who had not experienced deterioration at 3 months was 54.3% (95% CI 41.6-67.0%). The median (interquartile range) time until definite deterioration was 1.6 (1.1-3.7) months. The objective response rate and clinical benefit rate were achieved by 11 (13.8%, 95% CI 6.2-21.3%) and 54 patients (67.5%, 95% CI 57.2-77.8%), respectively. The median overall survival was 9.2 months (95% CI 6.9-11.5), and the median progression-free survival was 7.2 months (95% CI 5.8-8.5). Only fatigue and neutropenia demonstrated a grade 3-4 toxicity incidence > 20%. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the clinical benefit of the combination of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in an elderly population with pancreatic cancer in terms of improved survival and clinical response. However, we were unable to confirm a benefit in terms of quality-of-life.

3.
Ann Hematol ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409621

RESUMO

SF3B1 is a highly mutated gene in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, related to a specific subtype and parameters of good prognosis in MDS without excess blasts. More than 40% of MDS patients carry at least two myeloid-related gene mutations but little is known about the impact of concurrent mutations on the outcome of MDS patients. In applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) with a 117 myeloid gene custom panel, we analyzed the co-occurrence of SF3B1 with other mutations to reveal their clinical, biological, and prognostic implications in very low/low- and intermediate-risk MDS patients. Mutations in addition to those of SF3B1 were present in 80.4% of patients (median of 2 additional mutations/patient, range 0-5). The most frequently mutated genes were as follows: TET2 (39.2%), DNMT3A (25.5%), SRSF2 (10.8%), CDH23 (5.9%), and ASXL1, CUX1, and KMT2D (4.9% each). The presence of at least two mutations concomitant with that of SF3B1 had an adverse impact on survival compared with those with the SF3B1 mutation and fewer than two additional mutations (median of 54 vs. 87 months, respectively: p = 0.007). The co-occurrence of SF3B1 mutations with specific genes is also linked to a dismal prognosis: SRSF2 mutations were associated with shorter overall survival (OS) than SRSF2wt (median, 27 vs. 75 months, respectively; p = 0.001), concomitant IDH2 mutations (median OS, 11 [mut] vs. 75 [wt] months; p = 0.001), BCOR mutations (median OS, 11 [mut] vs. 71 [wt] months; p = 0.036), and NUP98 and STAG2 mutations (median OS, 27 and 11 vs. 71 months, respectively; p = 0.008 and p = 0.002). Mutations in CHIP genes (TET2, DNMT3A) did not significantly affect the clinical features or outcome. Our results suggest that a more comprehensive NGS study in low-risk MDS SF3B1mut patients is essential for a better prognostic evaluation.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245913, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507981

RESUMO

Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection of healthcare workers (HCWs) has been reported as a key player in the nosocomial spreading of COVID-19. Early detection of infected HCWs can prevent spreading of the virus in hospitals among HCWs and patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the asymptomatic infection of HCWs in a private clinic in the city of Santiago, Chile. Our study was conducted during a period of 5 weeks at the peak of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Chile. Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 413 HCWs and tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 using RT-qPCR. We found that a 3.14% of HCWs were positive for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 (14/413). Out of these, 7/14 were completely asymptomatic and did not develop symptoms within 3 weeks of testing. Sequencing of viral genomes showed the predominance of the GR clade; however, sequence comparison demonstrated numerous genetic differences among them suggesting community infection as the main focus of transmission among HCWs. Our study demonstrates that the protocols applied to protect HCWs and patients have been effective as no infection clusters due to asymptomatic carriers were found in the clinic. Together, these data suggest that infection with SARS-CoV-2 among HCWs of this health center is not nosocomial.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , /epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , /virologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , /isolamento & purificação
5.
Parasite ; 27: 69, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277891

RESUMO

Helminth infections are ubiquitous in grazing ruminant production systems, and are responsible for significant costs and production losses. Anthelmintic Resistance (AR) in parasites is now widespread throughout Europe, although there are still gaps in our knowledge in some regions and countries. AR is a major threat to the sustainability of modern ruminant livestock production, resulting in reduced productivity, compromised animal health and welfare, and increased greenhouse gas emissions through increased parasitism and farm inputs. A better understanding of the extent of AR in Europe is needed to develop and advocate more sustainable parasite control approaches. A database of European published and unpublished AR research on gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) was collated by members of the European COST Action "COMBAR" (Combatting Anthelmintic Resistance in Ruminants), and combined with data from a previous systematic review of AR in GIN. A total of 197 publications on AR in GIN were available for analysis, representing 535 studies in 22 countries and spanning the period 1980-2020. Reports of AR were present throughout the European continent and some reports indicated high within-country prevalence. Heuristic sample size-weighted estimates of European AR prevalence over the whole study period, stratified by anthelmintic class, varied between 0 and 48%. Estimated regional (country) prevalence was highly heterogeneous, ranging between 0% and 100% depending on livestock sector and anthelmintic class, and generally increased with increasing research effort in a country. In the few countries with adequate longitudinal data, there was a tendency towards increasing AR over time for all anthelmintic classes in GIN: aggregated results in sheep and goats since 2010 reveal an average prevalence of resistance to benzimidazoles (BZ) of 86%, macrocyclic lactones except moxidectin (ML) 52%, levamisole (LEV) 48%, and moxidectin (MOX) 21%. All major GIN genera survived treatment in various studies. In cattle, prevalence of AR varied between anthelmintic classes from 0-100% (BZ and ML), 0-17% (LEV) and 0-73% (MOX), and both Cooperia and Ostertagia survived treatment. Suspected AR in F. hepatica was reported in 21 studies spanning 6 countries. For GIN and particularly F. hepatica, there was a bias towards preferential sampling of individual farms with suspected AR, and research effort was biased towards Western Europe and particularly the United Kingdom. Ongoing capture of future results in the live database, efforts to avoid bias in farm recruitment, more accurate tests for AR, and stronger appreciation of the importance of AR among the agricultural industry and policy makers, will support more sophisticated analyses of factors contributing to AR and effective strategies to slow its spread.

6.
Medwave ; 20(10): e8066, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361751

RESUMO

Introduction: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, extensive research has been done on the prognosis of patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated with age, biodemographic conditions, comorbidities, social factors, clinical parameters, inflammatory blood markers, coagulation, biochemical and blood gas parameters, among others. Few studies have addressed this problem in Latin America, so it is of interest to know how the disease plays out in this region. Objective: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the course of COVID-19 in patients admitted to a tertiary center in Chile and to assess factors measured close to hospital admission that may be associated with death and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Methods: We did a retrospective cohort study at Indisa Clinic in Santiago, Chile. We included all patients aged 15 years and older hospitalized between March 11 and July 25, 2020. Hospital mortality and severity of the cases were analyzed, and logistic regression models were applied to identify predictors of outcome variables. Results: The sample included 785 subjects. The mean age was 59 years, 59% were men, and 61.3% had comorbidities. Forty five per cent required intensive care, and 24% invasive mechanical ventilation. The overall hospital fatality rate was 18.7%. In intensive care patients, the case fatality was 32.1%, and in those who received invasive mechanical ventilation, it was 59.4%. Independent risk factors for death included age (odds ratio 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 1.12), diabetes (1.68; 1.06 to 2.67), chronic lung disease (2.80; 1.48 to 5.28), increased C-reactive protein, creatinine, and ferritin. No association with sex, public health insurance, history of heart disease, oxygen saturation upon admission, or D-dimer was found. Similar factors were predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation. Discussion: The prognosis and predictive factors in this cohort of patients hospitalized in Chile for COVID-19 were comparable to those reported in similar studies from higher-income countries. Male sex was not associated with a poor prognosis in this group of patients.


Assuntos
/fisiopatologia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /terapia , Chile , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
7.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 93(6): 403-410, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET5-2333

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cáncer es la primera causa de muerte por enfermedad en niños. Se detallan algunos aspectos epidemiológicos del cáncer infantil obtenidos del Registro de Tumores de un hospital de tercer nivel de Madrid, con el fin de aportar información útil para el manejo del cáncer en este grupo de pacientes. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Análisis descriptivo y retrospectivo de los datos del Registro de Tumores de un hospital de tercer nivel (periodo 1999-2016), con el objetivo de analizar la incidencia (global y por categorías diagnósticas) y la supervivencia (global, por grupos diagnósticos y por cohortes de años de diagnóstico) del cáncer infantil. RESULTADOS: Entre 1999 y 2016 se registraron 769 tumores infantiles, 431 en niños y 338 en niñas. Las neoplasias más frecuentes fueron los tumores del sistema nervioso central (32,5%), las leucemias, los síndromes mielodisplásicos y síndromes mieloproliferativos (19%), los linfomas (15%) y los neuroblastomas (7,5%). La supervivencia global a los 5 años fue del 78%. La supervivencia a los 5 años para estas categorías diagnósticas fue del 74% (67-81%) para los tumores del sistema nervioso central; del 80% (72-88%) para las leucemias, síndromes mielodisplásicos y síndromes mieloproliferativos; del 87% (80-95%) para los linfomas y neoplasias reticuloendoteliales; y del 68% (53-84%) para los neuroblastomas y otros tumores de células nerviosas periféricas. La comparativa entre dos cohortes de años de diagnóstico (1999-2004 vs. 2005-2010) revela un incremento de la supervivencia en la cohorte más reciente, que solo es estadísticamente significativo en los tumores del sistema nervioso central. CONCLUSIONES: Nuestros resultados son similares a los del Registro Español de Tumores Infantiles. La información aportada por los Registros de Tumores es necesaria para un mayor conocimiento del cáncer y para garantizar la calidad asistencial de los enfermos oncológicos


INTRODUCTION: Cancer is the leading cause of death from disease in children. Some epidemiological aspects of childhood cancer obtained from the Tumour Registry of a tertiary care hospital in Madrid are detailed, in order to provide useful information for the management of cancer in this group of patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive and retrospective analysis of the data from the Hospital's Tumour Registry (period 1999-2016), with the aim of analysing the incidence (overall, and by diagnostic categories) and survival (overall, by diagnostic groups and cohorts of years of diagnosis) of childhood cancer. RESULTS: A total of 769 childhood tumours were registered between 1999 and 2016, 431 in boys and 338 in girls. The most common neoplasms were central nervous system tumours (32.5%), leukaemias, myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative syndromes (19%); lymphomas (15%), and neuroblastomas (7.5%). Overall 5-year survival was 78%. Five-year survival of these diagnostic categories was 74% (67-81%) for central nervous system tumours; 80% (72-88%) for leukaemias, myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative syndromes; 87% (80-95%) for lymphomas and reticuloendothelial neoplasms; and 68% (53-84%) for neuroblastomas and other peripheral nerve cells tumours. The comparison between two diagnostic cohorts (1999-2004 vs 2005-2010) showed an increase in survival in the most recent cohort, which was only statistically significant in central nervous system tumours. CONCLUSIONS: These results are similar to those of the Spanish Register of Childhood Tumours. The information provided by the Tumour Registries is necessary for greater knowledge of cancer and to ensure the quality of care for cancer patients

8.
Medwave ; 20(10)30-11-2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145803

RESUMO

Introducción Desde el comienzo de la pandemia de COVID-19, se han desarrollado diversas investigaciones sobre el pronóstico de pacientes con SARS-CoV-2 asociado a factores como edad, condiciones biodemográficas, comorbilidades, factores sociales, parámetros clínicos, hematológicos, marcadores inflamatorios, de coagulación, bioquímicos y gasométricos, entre otros. Hasta ahora, existen escasos estudios que hayan abordado el tema en América Latina, por lo que es de interés conocer el comportamiento de la enfermedad en la región. Objetivo Evaluar el curso del COVID-19 en pacientes ingresados en un centro terciario en Chile y analizar factores predictores, medidos en el período cercano a la admisión, que se asocien al pronóstico vital y al uso de ventilación mecánica invasiva. Métodos Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo realizado en Clínica Indisa de Santiago, Chile. Participaron todos los pacientes de 15 años o más hospitalizados entre el 11 de marzo y el 25 de julio de 2020. Se analizó la letalidad hospitalaria, la complejidad de los casos y se aplicaron modelos de regresión logística para identificar predictores de las variables de resultado definidas. Resultados La muestra estuvo constituida por 785 sujetos. La edad media fue 59 años, 59% fueron hombres y 61,3% tenía comorbilidades. El 45% requirió cuidados intensivos y 24% ventilación mecánica invasiva. La letalidad hospitalaria global fue de 18,7%. En pacientes de unidad de cuidados intensivos fue 32,1% y en quienes recibieron ventilación mecánica invasiva 59,4%. Los factores de riesgo independientes de morir incluyeron la edad (Odds ratio 1,09; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,07 a 1,12), diabetes (1,68; 1,06 a 2,67), enfermedad pulmonar crónica (2,80; 1,48 a 5,28) y mayores niveles de proteína C reactiva, creatinina y ferritina. No se demostró asociación con el sexo, pertenencia al seguro público de salud, antecedente de cardiopatía, obesidad, ni dímero D. Similares factores fueron predictores de ventilación mecánica invasiva. Conclusiones El pronóstico y factores predictores en esta cohorte de pacientes hospitalizados en Chile por COVID-19 fueron comparables en su mayoría a los reportados en estudios similares de países de mayores ingresos. El sexo masculino no fue un factor de mal pronóstico en este grupo de pacientes.


Introduction Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, extensive research has been done on the prognosis of patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated with age, biodemographic conditions, comorbidities, social factors, clinical parameters, inflammatory blood markers, coagulation, biochemical and blood gas parameters, among others. Few studies have addressed this problem in Latin America, so it is of interest to know how the disease plays out in this region. Objective The purpose of our study is to evaluate the course of COVID-19 in patients admitted to a tertiary center in Chile and to assess factors measured close to hospital admission that may be associated with death and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Methods We did a retrospective cohort study at Indisa Clinic in Santiago, Chile. We included all patients aged 15 years and older hospitalized between March 11 and July 25, 2020. Hospital mortality and severity of the cases were analyzed, and logistic regression models were applied to identify predictors of outcome variables. Results The sample included 785 subjects. The mean age was 59 years, 59% were men, and 61.3% had comorbidities. Forty five per cent required intensive care, and 24% invasive mechanical ventilation. The overall hospital fatality rate was 18.7%. In intensive care patients, the case fatality was 32.1%, and in those who received invasive mechanical ventilation, it was 59.4%. Independent risk factors for death included age (odds ratio 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 1.12), diabetes (1.68; 1.06 to 2.67), chronic lung disease (2.80; 1.48 to 5.28), increased C-reactive protein, creatinine, and ferritin. No association with sex, public health insurance, history of heart disease, oxygen saturation upon admission, or D-dimer was found. Similar factors were predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation. Discussion The prognosis and predictive factors in this cohort of patients hospitalized in Chile for COVID-19 were comparable to those reported in similar studies from higher-income countries. Male sex was not associated with a poor prognosis in this group of patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Chile , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
9.
Heliyon ; 6(10): e05209, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088964

RESUMO

Mauritia flexuosa L.f. is a palm tree which presents great morphological variability (morphotypes), represented mainly by the mesocarp color of its fruits. The objective of the study was to characterize the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of three morphotypes of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. ("Yellow", "Colour" and "Shambo") of greater economic importance in the Peruvian Amazon. "Shambo" showed a significantly high content of bioactive compounds (total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids) and DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to the "Yellow" and "Colour" morphotypes (p ≤ 0.05). There was a significant correlation between DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids (p ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, milk-based beverages enriched with carotenoids of those morphotypes of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. have been shown to be a good source of bioactive compounds for use in the food industry. The milk-based beverages enriched with carotenoids of those morphotypes of Mauritia flexuosa L.f. showed higher lightness (L∗) and yellowness (b∗).

10.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 93(6): 403-410, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115622

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cancer is the leading cause of death from disease in children. Some epidemiological aspects of childhood cancer obtained from the Tumour Registry of a tertiary care hospital in Madrid are detailed, in order to provide useful information for the management of cancer in this group of patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive and retrospective analysis of the data from the Hospital's Tumour Registry (period 1999-2016), with the aim of analysing the incidence (overall, and by diagnostic categories) and survival (overall, by diagnostic groups and cohorts of years of diagnosis) of childhood cancer. RESULTS: A total of 769 childhood tumours were registered between 1999 and 2016, 431 in boys and 338 in girls. The most common neoplasms were central nervous system tumours (32.5%), leukaemias, myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative syndromes (19%); lymphomas (15%), and neuroblastomas (7.5%). Overall 5-year survival was 78%. Five-year survival of these diagnostic categories was 74% (67-81%) for central nervous system tumours; 80% (72-88%) for leukaemias, myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative syndromes; 87% (80-95%) for lymphomas and reticuloendothelial neoplasms; and 68% (53-84%) for neuroblastomas and other peripheral nerve cells tumours. The comparison between two diagnostic cohorts (1999-2004 vs 2005-2010) showed an increase in survival in the most recent cohort, which was only statistically significant in central nervous system tumours. CONCLUSIONS: These results are similar to those of the Spanish Register of Childhood Tumours. The information provided by the Tumour Registries is necessary for greater knowledge of cancer and to ensure the quality of care for cancer patients.

11.
Rev Chil Pediatr ; 91(1): 27-33, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730410

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Language is one of the most relevant cognitive tasks in child development and its acquisition is me diated, among others, by ethnic and cultural factors. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the practices and be liefs about language teaching and stimulation strategies of rural Mapuche Children aged between 0 to 4 years from an intracultural perspective. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Qualitative study based on Groun ded Theory, which generates an understanding of the study issue from the perceptions of the research subjects. Ethnographic techniques such as observation and field notes were used, and 20 in-depth in terviews and four focus groups were conducted with caregivers (mothers, fathers, and grandparents), intercultural teachers and people with cultural roles (longkos, machis, and intercultural facilitators). 41 Mapuche people from the Ercilla, Curarrehue, Puerto Saavedra, Cholchol and Boroa territories of the Araucanía region, Chile participated. RESULTS: Four dimensions were obtained that characte rized the practices and beliefs regarding the acquisition and use of language in Mapuche children: a) Mapuche culture transcends through children and language, b) speech is a concrete and pragmatic process, c) there are traditional techniques for speech stimulation, and d) there are difficulties and easiness for the development of the indigenous language in young children. CONCLUSIONS: The preser vation and recovery of the indigenous language is a process of reinforcing the cultural identity for the Mapuche people, which has not been valued as a cultural heritage in the national society.

12.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438719

RESUMO

A single-center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of a food supplement based on a combination of grapefruit, bitter orange, and olive extracts administered for eight weeks (n = 51) versus placebo (n = 45) on reduction of cardiovascular risk in healthy volunteers. Study variables included flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, thrombotic status, oxidative stress biomarkers, inflammation-related biomarkers, anthropometric variables, quality of life, and physical activity. The per-protocol data set was analyzed. In the active product group, there were statistically significant within-group differences at eight weeks as compared with baseline in FMD, systolic and diastolic BP, total cholesterol, LDL-C, LDL-oxidase, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, protein carbonyl, and IL-6. Significant between-group differences in these variables were also found. Significant changes in anthropometric variables and quality of life were not observed in the study groups. Changes in the level of physical activity were not recorded. Treatment with the active product was well tolerated. All these findings, taken together, support a beneficial effect of supplementation with a mixture of grapefruit, bitter orange fruits, and olive leaf extracts on underlying mechanisms that may interact each other to decrease the cardiovascular risk in healthy people.

13.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(1): 27-33, feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092784

RESUMO

Resumen: Introducción: El lenguaje es una de las tareas cognitivas más relevantes en el desarrollo infantil cuya adquisición está mediada, entre otros, por factores étnicos y culturales. Objetivo: Caracterizar las prácticas y creencias sobre la enseñanza y estrategias de estimulación del lenguaje de niños/as Mapuche rurales de 0 a 4 años desde una perspectiva intracultural. Sujetos y Método: Estudio cualitativo basado en Teoría Fundamentada que produce una comprensión del problema a partir de las percepciones de los suje tos de investigación. Se utilizaron técnicas etnográficas como observación y notas de campo además de 20 entrevistas en profundidad y 4 grupos focales con cuidadores (madres, padres, abuelos/as), educadores interculturales, asesores culturales y agentes ancestrales de la cultura (longko y machi). Participaron 41 personas Mapuche de los territorios rurales de Ercilla, Curarrehue, Puerto Saave dra, Cholchol y Boroa de la región de La Araucanía/Chile. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 4 dimensiones que caracterizaban las prácticas y creencias en torno a la adquisición y uso del lenguaje en niños/as Mapuche: a) los/as niños/as y el aprendizaje de la lengua representan la mantención de la identidad Mapuche; b) el habla es un proceso concreto y pragmático; c) existen técnicas tradicionales para estimulación del habla, y d) existen dificultades y facilidades para el desarrollo de la lengua indígena en los niños/as pequeños. Conclusiones: La mantención y recuperación de la lengua indígena es un proceso de reforzamiento de la identidad cultural para el pueblo Mapuche, que no ha sido valorado como un patrimonio cultural en la sociedad nacional.


Abstract: Introduction: Language is one of the most relevant cognitive tasks in child development and its acquisition is me diated, among others, by ethnic and cultural factors. Objective: To characterize the practices and be liefs about language teaching and stimulation strategies of rural Mapuche Children aged between 0 to 4 years from an intracultural perspective. Subjects and Method: Qualitative study based on Groun ded Theory, which generates an understanding of the study issue from the perceptions of the research subjects. Ethnographic techniques such as observation and field notes were used, and 20 in-depth in terviews and four focus groups were conducted with caregivers (mothers, fathers, and grandparents), intercultural teachers and people with cultural roles (longkos, machis, and intercultural facilitators). 41 Mapuche people from the Ercilla, Curarrehue, Puerto Saavedra, Cholchol and Boroa territories of the Araucanía region, Chile participated. Results: Four dimensions were obtained that characte rized the practices and beliefs regarding the acquisition and use of language in Mapuche children: a) Mapuche culture transcends through children and language, b) speech is a concrete and pragmatic process, c) there are traditional techniques for speech stimulation, and d) there are difficulties and easiness for the development of the indigenous language in young children. Conclusions: The preser vation and recovery of the indigenous language is a process of reinforcing the cultural identity for the Mapuche people, which has not been valued as a cultural heritage in the national society.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 59(2): 1145-1152, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880921

RESUMO

New cycloplatinated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) compounds with chelate diphosphines (P^P) as ancillary ligands: [Pt(R-C^C*)(P^P)]PF6 (R = H, P^P = dppm (1A), dppe (2A), dppbz (3A); R = CN, P^P = dppm (1B), dppe (2B), dppbz (3B)) have been prepared from the corresponding starting material [{Pt(R-C^C*)(µ-Cl)}2] (R = H, A, R = CN, B) and fully characterized. The new compound A has been prepared by a stepwise protocol. The photophysical properties of 1A-3A and 1B-3B have been widely studied and supported by the time-dependent-density functional theory. These compounds show an efficient blue (dppe, dppbz) or cyan (dppm) emission in PMMA films (5 wt %), with photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) ranging from 30% to 87% under an argon atmosphere. This emission has been assigned mainly to transitions from 3ILCT [π(NHC) → π*(NHC)] excited states with some 3LL'CT [π(NHC) → π*(P^P)] character. The electroluminescence of these materials in proof-of-concept solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes containing 3A and 3B as dopants was investigated. The CIE coordinates for devices based on 3A (0.22, 0.41) and 3B (0.24, 0.44) fit within the sky blue region.

15.
J Food Sci Technol ; 56(10): 4503-4515, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686682

RESUMO

Sacha inchi oil (SIO) is one of the largest vegetable oil exports in Peru, used for consumption, in the food industry, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals; it represents a significant economic income for producers. This study addresses the characterization and quantification of fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, and alcohols of commercial Sacha inchi oils from Peru. Some of the SIO samples received had a high substance consistency, while others differed in the compounds studied. The results showed that some of the commercialized oils present high levels of γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol, while other samples had variable fatty acid compositions; especially in α-linolenic, linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids. Fourteen sterols and eleven alcohols were identified (ß-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, Δ5-avenasterol, triterpene alcohol, lanosterol isomer 1 and cycloartenol) being the major components. Some SIO samples presented the following ratios: The δ-tocopherol/γ-tocopherol ratio was 0.33-0.81, ω-6/ω-3 ratio was 0.77 and a stigmasterol/campesterol ratio of 3.13. The presence of brassicasterol in some commercial oils indicates the addition of rapeseed or canola oil. Tocopherols, fatty acids, sterols and alcohol data provided a classification of SIO samples, by an efficient k-means clustering algorithm analysis. The ANOVA found significant differences between clusters for palmitic acid, oleic acid, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, campesterol and stigmasterol; these compounds could be used as markers of authenticity in commercial Sacha inchi oils.

16.
Biomedica ; 39(3): 601-610, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584773

RESUMO

Introduction: CYP2C9 metabolizes approximately 15% of the prescribed drugs. Its gene has alleles whose frequencies differ between ethnic groups and populations. The alleles CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 account for an enzyme with decreased activity and their frequencies have not been determined in the Peruvian mestizo population. Objective: To characterize the frequencies of the allelic variants *2 (rs1799853) and *3 (rs1057910) of CYP2C9 gen in the Peruvian mestizo population from Lima, Tacna y Junín. Materials and methods: We conducted an observational, prospective cross-sectional study with non-probabilistic, by convenience, and incidental sampling. We included 218 subjects according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, all of whom had signed the informed consent. We obtained the genomic DNA from oral mucosa swab. For the detection of the CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 genotypes, we used real-time-polymerase chain reaction with TaqMan® probes. Results: The genotyping revealed that CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 variants have low frequencies (0.046 and 0.062, respectively). The frequency of intermediate metabolizers was 15.13% (CYP2C9*1/*2: 5.96%; CYP2C9*1/*3: 9.17%) and that of slow metabolizers was 3.22% (CYP2C9*2/*2: 1.38%; CYP2C9*3/*3: 1.38%; CYP2C9*2/*3: 0.46%). Conclusions: It was possible to determine the genotypic and allelic frequencies for the variants *2 and *3 of the CYP2C9 gene in a non-probabilistic sample of the Peruvian mestizo population. The frequencies obtained (0.046 and 0.062, respectively) corresponded to those expected for a South American mestizo population with Amerindian, European, African and Asian ancestry.


Assuntos
Alelos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Frequência do Gene , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Cidades/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Peru/etnologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(5): 561-570, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042696

RESUMO

RESUMEN Cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) es un grano andino que está ganando interés como alternativas nutritivas sin gluten frente a los cereales convencionales de cara a las personas con trastornos relacionados al gluten. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue elaborar un pan libre de gluten a base harina de cañihua y evaluar su aceptabilidad sensorial. Se propusieron y elaboraron tres formulaciones en las que se variaron los porcentajes de harina de cañihua (7,6% 9,5% y 8,3%), almidón de yuca, (19%, 21% y 15,4%), suero de leche (3,8%) y goma xantán (0,6 y 1,2%). La formulación que contenía harina de cañihua (8,3%), almidón de yuca (15,4%), y goma xantán (1,2%) fue el que presentó mayor aceptabilidad (HC83). La composición proximal del pan de Cañihua mostró un contenido de proteínas (11,2%), grasa (11,2%) y fibra dietaría (4,74%). La evaluación sensorial por los consumidores celiacos mostró una aceptabilidad general de 4,6/5 puntos sobre la escala hedónica con una puntuación "me gusta mucho". En conclusión la harina de cañihua es un recurso adecuado y aceptable para los consumidores celiacos y puede utilizarse para la producción de panes.


ABSTRACT Cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) is a naturally gluten-free Andean grain that is gaining interest as a nutritious alternative to conventional cereals for people with gluten-related disorders. The objective of the present investigation was to elaborate a gluten-free bread formulation containing cañihua flour and evaluate its sensory acceptability. Three formulations were proposed that contained: cañihua flour (7.6% 9.5% and 8.3%), cassava starch (19%, 21% and 15.4%), whey (3.8%) and xanthan gum (0.6 and 1.2%). The results showed that the formulation containing cañihua flour (8.3%), cassava starch (15.4%) and xanthan gum (1.2%) obtained a satisfactory acceptability (HC83). The proximal analysis showed a protein content (11.2%), fat (11.2%), and dietary fiber (4.74%). The sensory evaluation by celiac consumers showed a general acceptability of 4.6/5 points on the hedonic scale with a score "I like it a lot". In conclusion, cañihua flour is a suitable source and acceptable for celiac consumers and can be used for the production of breads.

18.
Homo ; 70(2): 147-154, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486824

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of anatomical variants of maxillary lateral incisors in archaeological and modern populations from the Maya region. Both populations were derived from the state of Yucatan, Mexico. The archaeological sample consisted of human remains representing 122 individuals from the ancient Maya archaeological site of Xcambo (AD 250-700). The modern sample consisted of 475 dental models from the municipality of Tahdziú, Yucatan. The anatomical variants evaluated included microdontia, barrel-shaped incisors, and talon cusp. The prevalence of each anatomical variant for each population was calculated and compared (Fisher p < 0.05). The prevalence of anatomical variants was 15.57% (n = 19) in the archaeological sample and 14.11% (n = 67) in the modern one; the difference was not significant (p = 0.666). When compared by specific anatomical variants, a significant (p = 0.013) association was observed for microdontia: 2.45% (n = 3) in the archaeological population and 9.05% (n = 43) in the modern population. Barrel-shaped incisors (p = 0.522) and talon cusp (p = 0.466) did not exhibit significant associations. The overall prevalence of anatomical variants in the maxillary lateral incisors in this region has not changed. The prevalence of microdontia has increased over the last 1500 years, and different microevolutionary processes may be called into question for such change.


Assuntos
Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Incisivo/patologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Anormalidades Dentárias/patologia , Arqueologia , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , México , Paleodontologia , Anormalidades Dentárias/história
19.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(3): 601-610, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038819

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción. El citocromo CYP2C9 metaboliza, aproximadamente, el 15 % de los fármacos prescritos. Su gen presenta alelos cuyas frecuencias difieren entre grupos étnicos y poblaciones. Los alelos CYP2C9*2 y CYP2C9*3 dan cuenta de una enzima con actividad disminuida cuya frecuencia no ha sido determinada en la población mestiza peruana. Objetivo. Caracterizar la frecuencia de las variantes *2 (rs1799853) y *3 (rs1057910) del gen CYP2C9 en muestras de población mestiza peruana provenientes de Lima, Tacna y Junín. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo, observacional y prospectivo, con muestreo no probabilístico, por conveniencia e incidental. Se incluyeron 218 sujetos según los criterios de inclusión y exclusión; todos los participantes otorgaron su consentimiento informado. El ADN genómico se obtuvo mediante hisopado de mucosa oral, y la detección de los genotipos para los alelos CYP2C9*2 y CYP2C9*3 se hizo mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) en tiempo real, utilizando sondas TaqMan™. Resultados. Las variantes de CYP2C9*2 y CYP2C9*3 están presentes en la población mestiza peruana con frecuencias de 0,046 y 0,062, respectivamente. El análisis de las frecuencias genotípicas observadas permitió predecir que la frecuencia de fenotipos metabolismo intermedio sería del 15,13 % (CYP2C9*1/*2: 5,96 %; CYP2C9*1/*3: 9,17 %), y la de fenotipos de metabolismo lento, del 3,22 % (CYP2C9*2/*2: 1,38 %; CYP2C9*3/*3: 1,38 %; CYP2C9*2/*3: 0,46 %). Conclusiones. Se lograron determinar las frecuencias genotípicas y alélicas para las variantes *2 y *3 del gen CYP2C9 en una muestra no probabilística de población mestiza peruana. Las frecuencias obtenidas (0,046 y 0,062, respectivamente) están entre las esperadas para una población mestiza sudamericana con ascendencia amerindia, europea, africana y asiática.


Abstract Introduction: CYP2C9 metabolizes approximately 15% of the prescribed drugs. Its gene has alleles whose frequencies differ between ethnic groups and populations. The alleles CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 account for an enzyme with decreased activity and their frequencies have not been determined in the Peruvian mestizo population. Objective: To characterize the frequencies of the allelic variants *2 (rs1799853) and *3 (rs1057910) of CYP2C9 gen in the Peruvian mestizo population from Lima, Tacna y Junín. Materials and methods: We conducted an observational, prospective cross-sectional study with non-probabilistic, by convenience, and incidental sampling. We included 218 subjects according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, all of whom had signed the informed consent. We obtained the genomic DNA from oral mucosa swab. For the detection of the CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 genotypes, we used real-time-polymerase chain reaction with TaqMan® probes. Results: The genotyping revealed that CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 variants have low frequencies (0.046 and 0.062, respectively). The frequency of intermediate metabolizers was 15.13% (CYP2C9*1/*2: 5.96%; CYP2C9*1/*3: 9.17%) and that of slow metabolizers was 3.22% (CYP2C9*2/*2: 1.38%; CYP2C9*3/*3: 1.38%; CYP2C9*2/*3: 0.46%). Conclusions: It was possible to determine the genotypic and allelic frequencies for the variants *2 and *3 of the CYP2C9 gene in a non-probabilistic sample of the Peruvian mestizo population. The frequencies obtained (0.046 and 0.062, respectively) corresponded to those expected for a South American mestizo population with Amerindian, European, African and Asian ancestry.

20.
Oncologist ; 24(8): e687-e695, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147489

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The VELOUR study evaluated the efficacy and safety of adding aflibercept to FOLFIRI (fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan) in second-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, a nomogram that can stratify patients according to prognosis is unavailable, and the frequency and effect of the pragmatic use of modified schedules in actual practice remains unknown. METHOD: The sample consists of 250 patients with mCRC treated with aflibercept and irinotecan-based chemotherapy at nine Spanish academic centers between January 2013 and September 2015. The result of a Cox proportional hazards model regression for overall survival (OS), adjusted for covariates available in daily practice, was represented as a nomogram and web-based calculator. Harrell's c-index was used to assess discrimination. RESULTS: The prognostic nomogram for OS includes six variables: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, tumor location, number of metastatic sites, mutational status, better response to previous treatment(s), and carcinoembryonic antigen. The model is well calibrated and has acceptable discriminatory capacity (optimism-corrected c-index, 0.723; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.666-0.778). Median OS was 6.1 months (95% CI, 5.1-8.8), 12.4 months (95% CI, 9.36-14.8), and 22.9 months (95% CI, 16.6-not reached) for high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups, respectively. Age, comorbidity, or use of modified FOLFIRI regimens did not affect prognosis in this series. Grade 3-4 adverse events were less common following modified schedules. The admission rate because of toxicity was higher in ≥65 years (9.7% vs. 19.6%; odds ratio, 2.26; p = .029). CONCLUSION: We have developed and internally validated a prognostic model for use in individuals with colorectal cancer initiating therapy with FOLFIRI-aflibercept to predict both OS and the effect of pragmatic modifications of the classic regime on efficacy and safety. This can aid in decision making and in designing future trials. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: In this study, the authors developed and conducted the internal validation of a prognostic nomogram that makes it possible to stratify patients who are eligible for second-line FOLFIRI-aflibercept based on their probability of survival. This model was developed in a multicenter sample from nine Spanish hospitals. Furthermore, to increase the study's validity, the practical use of aflibercept in this setting was investigated, including doses or pragmatic modifications. The results suggest that the modified schedules often used in this daily clinical practice-based patient population are associated with less severe toxicity without apparent detriment to survival endpoints. It is believed that these data complement the information provided by the VELOUR trial and are relevant for the oncologist in treating colon cancer in the second-line setting.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Nomogramas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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