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1.
N Engl J Med ; 382(14): 1331-1342, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma who have disease progression during or after the receipt of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor therapy have a poor prognosis. KTE-X19, an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, may have benefit in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma. METHODS: In a multicenter, phase 2 trial, we evaluated KTE-X19 in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma. Patients had disease that had relapsed or was refractory after the receipt of up to five previous therapies; all patients had to have received BTK inhibitor therapy previously. Patients underwent leukapheresis and optional bridging therapy, followed by conditioning chemotherapy and a single infusion of KTE-X19 at a dose of 2×106 CAR T cells per kilogram of body weight. The primary end point was the percentage of patients with an objective response (complete or partial response) as assessed by an independent radiologic review committee according to the Lugano classification. Per the protocol, the primary efficacy analysis was to be conducted after 60 patients had been treated and followed for 7 months. RESULTS: A total of 74 patients were enrolled. KTE-X19 was manufactured for 71 patients and administered to 68. The primary efficacy analysis showed that 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84 to 98) of the 60 patients in the primary efficacy analysis had an objective response; 67% (95% CI, 53 to 78) had a complete response. In an intention-to-treat analysis involving all 74 patients, 85% had an objective response; 59% had a complete response. At a median follow-up of 12.3 months (range, 7.0 to 32.3), 57% of the 60 patients in the primary efficacy analysis were in remission. At 12 months, the estimated progression-free survival and overall survival were 61% and 83%, respectively. Common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were cytopenias (in 94% of the patients) and infections (in 32%). Grade 3 or higher cytokine release syndrome and neurologic events occurred in 15% and 31% of patients, respectively; none were fatal. Two grade 5 infectious adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: KTE-X19 induced durable remissions in a majority of patients with relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma. The therapy led to serious and life-threatening toxic effects that were consistent with those reported with other CAR T-cell therapies. (Funded by Kite, a Gilead company; ZUMA-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02601313.).

5.
Transplant Proc ; 52(2): 515-518, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037064

RESUMO

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) recurrence in the renal graft is variable. Several factors can influence the risk of recurrence of IgAN and renal graft failure. We carried out a retrospective observational study between the years 1990 and 2018. The study group was patients diagnosed, by means of biopsy, as having post-renal transplant (RT) IgAN in our hospital in the study period. The control group was patients with pre-RT histologic diagnosis of IgAN who did not develop recurrence of the disease after the RT. A total of 1535 RTs were performed in our center in the study period. Of those, 24 patients developed IgAN in the renal graft. The time elapsed from the RT to the development of allograft IgAN was 7 (SD, 5.3) years. The patients with allograft IgAN tended to be younger (P = .069), and HLA-DR4 was more common in these patients (P = .078). We observed a very significant difference in the use of induction immunosuppressive therapy (study group vs control group: 13.6% vs 57.7%, P < .001). The 3 patients who presented crescents in the biopsy specimen lost the renal graft. As in the native kidney, the presence of crescents is an indicator of poor prognosis. In our experience, the patients with post-RT IgAN received induction therapy less frequently; this finding would support the conclusion that such treatments should be applied to patients with pre-RT diagnosis of IgAN.

6.
Blood ; 135(10): 735-742, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945149

RESUMO

The phase 3 ECHELON-1 study demonstrated that brentuximab vedotin (A) with doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (AVD; A+AVD) exhibited superior modified progression-free survival (PFS) vs doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) for frontline treatment of patients with stage III/IV classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Maturing positron emission tomography (PET)-adapted trial data highlight potential limitations of PET-adapted approaches, including toxicities with dose intensification and higher-than-expected relapse rates in PET scan after cycle 2 (PET2)-negative (PET2-) patients. We present an update of the ECHELON-1 study, including an exploratory analysis of 3-year PFS per investigator. A total of 1334 patients with stage III or IV cHL were randomized 1:1 to receive 6 cycles of A+AVD (n = 664) or ABVD (n = 670). Interim PET2 was required. At median follow-up of 37 months, 3-year PFS rates were 83.1% with A+AVD and 76.0% with ABVD; 3-year PFS rates in PET2- patients aged <60 years were 87.2% vs 81.0%, respectively. A beneficial trend in PET2+ patients aged <60 years on A+AVD was also observed, with a 3-year PFS rate of 69.2% vs 54.7% with ABVD. The benefit of A+AVD in the intent-to-treat population appeared independent of disease stage and prognostic risk factors. Upon continued follow-up, 78% of patients with peripheral neuropathy on A+AVD had either complete resolution or improvement compared with 83% on ABVD. These data highlight that A+AVD provides a durable efficacy benefit compared with ABVD for frontline stage III/IV cHL, consistent across key subgroups regardless of patient status at PET2, without need for treatment intensification or bleomycin exposure. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01712490 (EudraCT no. 2011-005450-60).

7.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 521-530, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403184

RESUMO

It is critical to identify biomarkers and functional networks associated with aggressive thyroid cancer to anticipate disease progression and facilitate personalized patient management. We performed miRNome sequencing of 46 thyroid tumors enriched with advanced disease patients with a median follow-up of 96 months. MiRNome profiles correlated with tumor-specific histopathological and molecular features, such as stromal cell infiltration and tumor driver mutation. Differential expression analysis revealed a consistent hsa-miR-139-5p downexpression in primary carcinomas from patients with recurrent/metastatic disease compared to disease-free patients, sustained in paired local metastases and validated in publicly available thyroid cancer series. Exogenous expression of hsa-miR-139-5p significantly reduced migration and proliferation of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. Proteomic analysis indicated RICTOR, SMAD2/3 and HNRNPF as putative hsa-miR-139-5p targets in our cell system. Abundance of HNRNPF mRNA, encoding an alternative splicing factor involved in cryptic exon inclusion/exclusion, inversely correlated with hsa-miR-139-5p expression in human tumors. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 174 splicing events differentially regulated upon HNRNPF repression in our cell system, affecting genes involved in RTK/RAS/MAPK and PI3K/AKT/MTOR signaling cascades among others. These results point at the hsa-miR-139-5p/HNRNPF axis as a novel regulatory mechanism associated with the modulation of major thyroid cancer signaling pathways and tumor virulence.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo F-H/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo F-H/metabolismo , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
8.
Am J Hematol ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868245

RESUMO

Safety profiles of oral PI3K inhibitors have resulted in US FDA black box warnings regarding fatal/serious toxicities. The approved intravenous PI3K inhibitor copanlisib has low incidence of severe toxicities and no black box warnings, but chronic treatment effects were unknown. We provide an update on safety and efficacy of copanlisib with a minimum 2-year follow-up of the CHRONOS-1 study. A total of 142 patients with histologically confirmed indolent B-cell lymphoma who had relapsed after or were refractory to ≥2 prior treatments received intravenous copanlisib 60 mg on days 1, 8, and 15 (28-day cycle). The primary efficacy endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) after ≥4 cycles (independent assessment). The predominant histology was follicular lymphoma (n = 104). The ORR was 60.6% (seven additional complete responses since primary analysis). Secondary endpoints of median duration of response, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 14.1 months (median follow-up, 16.1 months), 12.5 months (median follow-up, 14.0 months), and 42.6 months (median follow-up, 31.5 months), respectively. Median safety follow-up was 6.7 months; 26% of patients received treatment for >1 year. Common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) (all grade/grade 3/grade 4) were transient hyperglycemia (50.0%/33.1%/7.0%), diarrhea (35.2%/8.5%/0%), transient hypertension (29.6%/23.9%/0%), and neutropenia (28.9%/9.2%/14.8%). Serious AEs were largely unchanged, with no new cases of pneumonitis (4.2%), diarrhea (2.8%), or grade 5 events. Note, TEAEs showed no evidence for increased incidence or worsening following longer exposure in patients treated >1 year. Long-term follow-up of patients with relapsed/refractory indolent B-cell lymphoma treated with intravenous copanlisib demonstrated durable, enhanced responses without evidence of worsening TEAEs, as reported for orally administered PI3K inhibitors.

9.
Elife ; 82019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498079

RESUMO

Genes can encode multiple isoforms, broadening their functions and providing a molecular substrate to evolve phenotypic diversity. Evolution of isoform function is a potential route to adapt to new environments. Here we show that de novo, beneficial alleles in the nurf-1 gene became fixed in two laboratory lineages of C. elegans after isolation from the wild in 1951, before methods of cryopreservation were developed. nurf-1 encodes an ortholog of BPTF, a large (>300 kD) multidomain subunit of the NURF chromatin remodeling complex. Using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing and transgenic rescue, we demonstrate that in C. elegans, nurf-1 has split into two, largely non-overlapping isoforms (NURF-1.D and NURF-1.B, which we call Yin and Yang, respectively) that share only two of 26 exons. Both isoforms are essential for normal gametogenesis but have opposite effects on male/female gamete differentiation. Reproduction in hermaphrodites, which involves production of both sperm and oocytes, requires a balance of these opposing Yin and Yang isoforms. Transgenic rescue and genetic position of the fixed mutations suggest that different isoforms are modified in each laboratory strain. In a related clade of Caenorhabditis nematodes, the shared exons have duplicated, resulting in the split of the Yin and Yang isoforms into separate genes, each containing approximately 200 amino acids of duplicated sequence that has undergone accelerated protein evolution following the duplication. Associated with this duplication event is the loss of two additional nurf-1 transcripts, including the long-form transcript and a newly identified, highly expressed transcript encoded by the duplicated exons. We propose these lost transcripts are non-functional side products necessary to transcribe the Yin and Yang transcripts in the same cells. Our work demonstrates how gene sharing, through the production of multiple isoforms, can precede the creation of new, independent genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Evolução Molecular , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Feminino , Gametogênese , Masculino
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 561-565, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437986

RESUMO

This paper presents a pioneering and practical experience in the development and implementation of a clinical decision support system (CDSS) based on natural language processing (NLP) and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. Our CDSS notifies primary care physicians in real time about recommendations regarding the healthcare process. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first real-time CDSS implemented in the Spanish National Health System. We achieved adherence rate improvements in eight out of 18 practices. Moreover, the provider's feedback was very positive, describing the solution as fast, useful, and unintrusive. Our CDSS reduced clinical variability and revealed the usefulness of NLP and AI techniques for the evaluation and improvement of health care.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Inteligência Artificial , Procedimentos Clínicos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12459, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462673

RESUMO

A primary limitation in hepatic surgery is leaving a remnant liver of adequate size and function. Experimental models have been designed to study processes of liver injury and regeneration in this context, yet a formula to accurately calculate liver mass in an animal model is lacking. This study aims to create a novel and simple formula to estimate the mass of the native liver in a species of pigs commonly used in experimental liver surgery protocols. Using data from 200 male weanling Landrace-Large White hybrid pigs, multiple linear regression analysis is used to generate the formula. Clinical features used as variables for the predictive model are body mass and length. The final formula for pig liver mass is as follows: Liver mass (g) = 26.34232 * Body mass (kg) - 1.270629 * Length (cm) + 163.0076; R2 = 0.7307. This formula for porcine liver mass is simple to use and may be helpful in studies using animals of similar characteristics to evaluate restoration of liver mass following major hepatectomy.

12.
Blood ; 134(13): 1024-1036, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331917

RESUMO

The outcome of patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is poor, particularly in patients ineligible for stem cell transplantation or who fail induction therapy or salvage therapy. The phase 1b portion of this open-label, dose-escalation (3+3+3 design) study examined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and preliminary safety and activity of the regimen in transplant-ineligible adults with histologically confirmed relapsed/refractory DLBCL after at least 1 prior therapy. Patients received once-daily 560 mg ibrutinib, 375 mg/m2 intravenous rituximab day 1 of cycles 1 to 6, and 10, 15, 20, or 25 mg lenalidomide days 1 to 21 of each 28-day cycle. Forty-five patients were treated; median time since diagnosis was 14.1 months, and 51% of the patients had non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) DLBCL, 33% had transformed DLBCL, 60% were refractory, and 27% were primary refractory. Because of dose-limiting toxicities, a de-escalation cohort (10 mg lenalidomide) was initiated, and with subsequent re-escalation up to 25 mg lenalidomide, the MTD was not reached. In response-evaluable patients, the overall response rate (ORR) was 44% (complete response [CR], 28%); among them, the ORR was 65% (CR, 41%) in non-GCB and 69% and 56% in relapsed (n = 16) and secondary refractory (n = 27) disease, respectively. Overall and for non-GCB, median response duration was 15.9 months, with 2 patients receiving therapy beyond 3 years. Phase 2 was initiated with 20 mg lenalidomide in relapsed/refractory non-GCB, whereas the phase 1b 25-mg lenalidomide cohort was being completed; an additional 25-mg cohort in phase 2 is currently ongoing. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02077166.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Lenalidomida/administração & dosagem , Lenalidomida/efeitos adversos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Blood ; 134(11): 851-859, 2019 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340982

RESUMO

Zanubrutinib is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK). In this first-in-human, open-label, multicenter, phase 1 study, patients in part 1 (3 + 3 dose escalation) had relapsed/refractory B-cell malignancies and received zanubrutinib 40, 80, 160, or 320 mg once daily or 160 mg twice daily. Part 2 (expansion) consisted of disease-specific cohorts, including treatment-naive or relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL). The primary end points were safety and tolerability, and definition of the maximum tolerated dose (part 1). Additional end points included pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics and preliminary efficacy. Reported herein are results from 144 patients enrolled in the dose-finding and CLL/SLL cohorts. No dose-limiting toxicities occurred in dose escalation. Median BTK occupancy in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was >95% at all doses. Sustained complete (>95%) BTK occupancy in lymph node biopsy specimens was more frequent with 160 mg twice daily than 320 mg once daily (89% vs 50%; P = .0342). Consequently, 160 mg twice daily was selected for further investigation. With median follow-up of 13.7 months (range, 0.4-30.5 months), 89 CLL/SLL patients (94.7%) remain on study. Most toxicities were grade 1/2; neutropenia was the only grade 3/4 toxicity observed in >2 patients. One patient experienced a grade 3 subcutaneous hemorrhage. Among 78 efficacy-evaluable CLL/SLL patients, the overall response rate was 96.2% (95% confidence interval, 89.2-99.2). Estimated progression-free survival at 12 months was 100%. Zanubrutinib demonstrated encouraging activity in CLL/SLL patients, with a low incidence of major toxicities. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02343120.


Assuntos
Leucemia de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia de Células B/metabolismo , Leucemia de Células B/patologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cell Rep ; 27(13): 3956-3971.e6, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242426

RESUMO

Senescence is a cellular phenotype present in health and disease, characterized by a stable cell-cycle arrest and an inflammatory response called senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP is important in influencing the behavior of neighboring cells and altering the microenvironment; yet, this role has been mainly attributed to soluble factors. Here, we show that both the soluble factors and small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are capable of transmitting paracrine senescence to nearby cells. Analysis of individual cells internalizing sEVs, using a Cre-reporter system, show a positive correlation between sEV uptake and senescence activation. We find an increase in the number of multivesicular bodies during senescence in vivo. sEV protein characterization by mass spectrometry (MS) followed by a functional siRNA screen identify interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) as being partially responsible for transmitting senescence to normal cells. We find that sEVs contribute to paracrine senescence.

15.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(7): 998-1010, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polatuzumab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate targeting the CD79b component of the B-cell receptor, has demonstrated activity as a single agent and in combination with rituximab in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In this study, we evaluated the safety and preliminary activity of polatuzumab vedotin in combination with rituximab or obinutuzumab and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone (CHP) in patients with previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. METHODS: This was an open-label, non-randomised study composed of a phase 1b dose escalation and a phase 2 dose expansion at 11 hospitals and health centres in the USA and France. Patients aged 18 years or older with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma were eligible. Exclusion criteria included peripheral neuropathy with grade greater than 1, major surgery within 4 weeks before enrolment, known CNS involvement of lymphoma, and uncontrolled heart disease. Phase 1b dose escalation had a three-plus-three design and established the recommended phase 2 dose. Phase 2 expansion evaluated the recommended phase 2 dose of polatuzumab vedotin in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with an International Prognostic Index (IPI) of 2-5. Patients received cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2 on day 1 intravenously, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 on day 1 intravenously, and prednisone 100 mg once daily on days 1-5 of each 21-day cycle orally (CHP), plus either rituximab 375 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1 of each cycle (R-CHP) or obinutuzumab 1000 mg intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 of cycle 1 and on day 1 of the following cycles (G-CHP). Polatuzumab vedotin was administered on day 2 of cycles 1 and 2, and on day 1 of the following cycles at 1·0-2·4 mg/kg during the escalation phase and at the recommended phase 2 dose during the expansion phase. Treatment could last six or eight cycles, depending on investigator preference. The primary endpoints of the study were safety and tolerability, and determination of the maximum tolerated dose (or recommended phase 2 dose) of polatuzumab vedotin. All endpoints were analysed per protocol in the safety evaluable population, defined as all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01992653. FINDINGS: Between Dec 4, 2013, and July 26, 2016, 85 patients were enrolled. 82 patients were included in the safety and activity evaluable populations, 25 in phase 1b and 57 in phase 2. In light of information from other studies using polatuzumab vedotin reported during this study, in which the safety profile associated with exposure to polatuzumab vedotin at doses higher than 1·8 mg/kg every 3 weeks was not outweighed by any clinical benefit, the recommended phase 2 dose was set to 1·8 mg/kg in the R-CHP cohort and no higher doses were explored in this study. 66 patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma received the polatuzumab vedotin recommended phase 2 dose (45 R-CHP; 21 G-CHP). In 66 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who received the recommended phase 2 dose, the most common adverse events of grade 3 or worse were neutropenia (20 [30%]), febrile neutropenia (12 [18%]), and thrombocytopenia (six [9%]). Among the 70 patients (any histology) who received the recommended phase 2 dose, 19 (27%) had grade 1 peripheral neuropathy, eight (11%) grade 2, and two (3%) grade 3. Four deaths were reported during follow-up: two treatment-related (one complication of atrial fibrillation and one septic shock) and two due to disease progression. As of the cutoff date of Dec 29, 2017, median follow-up time was 21·5 months (IQR 16·7-24·3) for the untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cohort treated at the polatuzumab vedotin recommended phase 2 dose. 59 (89%) patients achieved an overall response at end of treatment (51 [77%] patients had a complete response, and eight [12%] patients had a partial response). INTERPRETATION: The safety of incorporating polatuzumab vedotin to R-CHP or G-CHP was as expected and managable. Preliminary clinical activity in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma seems promising and encouraged a phase 3 trial comparing polatuzumab vedotin with R-CHP to R-CHOP. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech.

16.
Expert Rev Proteomics ; 16(5): 391-400, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947573

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pluripotency emerges transiently during embryogenesis in two main forms with different developmental potential, termed naïve and primed states. Importantly, these pluripotent states can be recapitulated in vitro under specific culture conditions, representing a unique model to study the regulatory principles of development and cellular plasticity. Areas covered: A complex network of signaling pathways that senses intrinsic and extrinsic cues controls the fine balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Much of our knowledge on this tight regulation originates from epigenetic and transcriptomic approaches. However, the presence of post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms demands a direct assessment of the proteome in its multiple facets. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is now a mature technique and has started to deliver new insights in the stem cell field. Expert opinion: Here, we review our current understanding on the mechanisms that dictate the spectrum of pluripotency levels. We put special emphasis on the emerging proteomic studies that focused on the molecular properties behind the naïve and primed states. In addition, we hypothesize on the impact that future developments in proteomic technologies can have to improve our view of pluripotency.

17.
J Exp Med ; 216(5): 1061-1070, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975894

RESUMO

Liquid biopsies from cancer patients have the potential to improve diagnosis and prognosis. The assessment of surrogate markers of tumor progression in circulating extracellular vesicles could be a powerful non-invasive approach in this setting. We have characterized extracellular vesicles purified from the lymphatic drainage also known as exudative seroma (ES) of stage III melanoma patients obtained after lymphadenectomy. Proteomic analysis showed that seroma-derived exosomes are enriched in proteins resembling melanoma progression. In addition, we found that the BRAFV600E mutation can be detected in ES-derived extracellular vesicles and its detection correlated with patients at risk of relapse.

20.
Front Immunol ; 10: 156, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787933

RESUMO

The trafficking of neoplastic cells represents a key process that contributes to progression of hematologic malignancies. Diapedesis of neoplastic cells across endothelium and perivascular cells is facilitated by adhesion molecules and chemokines, which act in concert to tightly regulate directional motility. Intravital microscopy provides spatio-temporal views of neoplastic cell trafficking, and is crucial for testing and developing therapies against hematologic cancers. Multiple myeloma (MM), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are hematologic malignancies characterized by continuous neoplastic cell trafficking during disease progression. A common feature of these neoplasias is the homing and infiltration of blood cancer cells into the bone marrow (BM), which favors growth and survival of the malignant cells. MM cells traffic between different BM niches and egress from BM at late disease stages. Besides the BM, CLL cells commonly home to lymph nodes (LNs) and spleen. Likewise, ALL cells also infiltrate extramedullary organs, such as the central nervous system, spleen, liver, and testicles. The α4ß1 integrin and the chemokine receptor CXCR4 are key molecules for MM, ALL, and CLL cell trafficking into and out of the BM. In addition, the chemokine receptor CCR7 controls CLL cell homing to LNs, and CXCR4, CCR7, and CXCR3 contribute to ALL cell migration across endothelia and the blood brain barrier. Some of these receptors are used as diagnostic markers for relapse and survival in ALL patients, and their level of expression allows clinicians to choose the appropriate treatments. In CLL, elevated α4ß1 expression is an established adverse prognostic marker, reinforcing its role in the disease expansion. Combining current chemotherapies with inhibitors of malignant cell trafficking could represent a useful therapy against these neoplasias. Moreover, immunotherapy using humanized antibodies, CAR-T cells, or immune check-point inhibitors together with agents targeting the migration of tumor cells could also restrict their survival. In this review, we provide a view of the molecular players that regulate the trafficking of neoplastic cells during development and progression of MM, CLL, and ALL, together with current therapies that target the malignant cells.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Neoplasias Hematológicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/metabolismo , Animais , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Integrinas/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Selectinas/metabolismo
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