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1.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82(5): 483-490, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714427

RESUMO

There are limited data on infants with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the neonatal period. We investigated the association between the timing of ART initiation and time-to-suppression among infants who tested HIV-positive and initiated ART within the first 28 days of life. The effect was estimated using cumulative probability flexible parametric spline models and a multivariable generalized additive mixed model was performed to test nonlinear associations. Forty-four neonates were included. Nineteen (43.2%) initiated ART within 7 days of life and 25 (56.8%) from 8 to 28 days. Infants treated within 7 days were 4-fold more likely to suppress earlier than those treated after 7 days [Hazard ratio (HR) 4.01 (1.7-9.5)]. For each week the ART initiation was delayed, the probability of suppression decreased by 35% (HR 0.65 [0.46-0.92]). Age at ART start was linearly associated with time-to-suppression. However, a linear association with normally distributed residuals was not found between baseline viral load and time-to-suppression, with no association found when baseline viral loads were ≤5 log(10) copies/mL, but with exponential increase in time-to-suppression with > log5 copies/mL at baseline. Starting ART within 7 days of life led to 4-fold faster time to viral suppression, in comparison to initiation from 8 to 28 days.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223536, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are not enough nationwide studies on perinatal HIV transmission in connection with a combination of antiretroviral treatments in Spain. Our objectives were to study sociodemographic changes and trends in the rates of HIV diagnoses and perinatal transmission in Spain from 1997 to 2015. METHODS: A retrospective study using data from Spanish Paediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe) and Spanish Minimum Basic Data Set (MDBS) was performed. HIV- diagnosed children between 1997 and 2015 were selected. Sociodemographic, clinical and immunovirological data of HIV-infected children and their mothers were studied in four calendar periods (P1: 1997-2000; P2: 2001-2005; P3: 2006-2010; P4: 2011-2015). Rates of perinatal HIV diagnoses and transmission from 1997 to 2015 were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 532 HIV-infected children were included in this study. Of these children, 406 were Spanish (76.3%) and 126 immigrants (23.7%). A decrease in the number of HIV diagnoses, 203 (38.2%) children in the first (P1), 149 (28%) in the second (P2), 130 (24.4%) in the third (P3) and 50 (9.4%) in the fourth (P4) calendar periods was studied. The same decrease in the Spanish HIV-infected children (P1, 174 (46.6%), P2, 115 (30.8%), P3, 65 (17.4%) and P4, 19 (5.1%)) was monitored. However, an increase in the number of HIV diagnoses by sexual contact (P1: 0%; P2: 1.3%; P3: 4.6%; P4: 16%) was observed. The rates of new perinatal HIV diagnoses and perinatal transmission in Spanish children decreased from 0.167 to 0.005 per 100,000 inhabitants and 11.4% to 0.4% between 1997 and 2015, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A decline of perinatal HIV diagnoses and transmission was observed. However, an increase of teen-agers HIV diagnoses with sexual infection was studied. Public awareness campaigns directed to teen-agers are advisable to prevent HIV infection by sexual contact.

3.
J Biomed Sci ; 26(1): 83, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of the circulating Vitamin D (VitD) is transported bound to vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), and several DBP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been related to circulating VitD concentration and disease. In this study, we evaluated the association among DBP SNPs and AIDS progression in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve-HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in 667 patients who were classified according to their pattern of AIDS progression (183 long-term non-progressors (LTNPs), 334 moderate progressors (MPs), and 150 rapid progressors (RPs)) and 113 healthy blood donors (HIV, HCV, and HBV negative subjects). We genotyped seven DBP SNPs (rs16846876, rs12512631, rs2070741, rs2282679, rs7041, rs1155563, rs2298849) using Agena Bioscience's MassARRAY platform. The genetic association was evaluated by Generalized Linear Models adjusted by age at the moment of HIV diagnosis, gender, risk group, and VDR rs2228570 SNP. Multiple testing correction was performed by the false discovery rate (Benjamini and Hochberg procedure; q-value). RESULTS: All SNPs were in HWE (p > 0.05) and had similar genotypic frequencies for DBP SNPs in healthy-controls and HIV-infected patients. In unadjusted GLMs, we only found significant association with AIDS progression in rs16846876 and rs12512631 SNPs. In adjusted GLMs, DBP rs16846876 SNP showed significant association under the recessive inheritance model [LTNPs vs. RPs (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.53; q-value = 0.044) and LTNPs vs. MPs (aOR = 3.28; q-value = 0.030)] and codominant [LTNPs vs. RPs (aOR = 4.92; q-value = 0.030) and LTNPs vs. MPs (aOR = 3.15; q-value = 0.030)]. Also, we found DBP rs12512631 SNP showed significant association in the inheritance model dominant [LTNPs vs. RPs (aOR = 0.49; q-value = 0.031) and LTNPs vs. MPs (aOR = 0.6; q-value = 0.047)], additive [LTNPs vs. RPs (aOR = 0.61; q-value = 0.031)], overdominant [LTNPs vs. MPs (aOR = 0.55; q-value = 0.032)], and codominant [LTNPs vs. RPs (aOR = 0.52; q-value = 0.036) and LTNPs vs. MPs (aOR = 0.55; q-value = 0.032)]. Additionally, we found a significant association between DBP haplotypes (composed by rs16846876 and rs12512631) and AIDS progression (LTNPs vs RPs): DBP haplotype AC (aOR = 0.63; q-value = 0.028) and the DBP haplotype TT (aOR = 1.64; q-value = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: DBP rs16846876 and rs12512631 SNPs are related to the patterns of clinical AIDS progression (LTNP, MP, and RP) in ART-naïve HIV-infected patients. Our findings provide new knowledge about AIDS progression that may be relevant to understanding the pathogenesis of HIV infection.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220552, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with marked immune reconstitution. Although a long term viral suppression is achievable, not all children however, attain complete immunological recovery due to persistent immune activation. We use CD4/CD8 ratio like a marker of immune reconstitution. METHODS: Perinatal HIV-infected children who underwent a first-line cART, achieved viral suppression in the first year and maintained it for more than 5 years, with no viral rebound were included. Logistic models were applied to estimate the prognostic factors, clinical characteristics at cART start, of a lower CD4/CD8 ratio at the last visit. RESULTS: 146 HIV-infected children were included: 77% Caucasian, 45% male and 28% CDC C. Median age at cART initiation was 2.3 years (IQR: 0.5-6.2). 42 (30%) children received mono-dual therapy previously to cART. Time of undetectable viral load was 9.5 years (IQR: 7.8, 12.5). 33% of the children not achieved CD4/CD8 ratio >1. Univariate analysis showed an association between CD4/CD8 <1 with lower CD4 nadir and baseline CD4; older age at diagnosis and at cART initiation; and a previous exposure to mono-dual therapy. Multivariate analysis also revealed relationship between CD4/CD8 <1 and lower CD4 nadir (OR: 1.002, CI 95% 1.000-1.004) as well as previous exposure to mono-dual therapy (OR: 0.16, CI 95% 0.003-0.720). CONCLUSIONS: CD4/CD8 >1 was not achieved in 33% of the children. Lower CD4 nadir and previous exposure to suboptimal therapy, before initiating cART, are factors showing independently association with a worse immune recovery (CD4/CD8 < 1).

5.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 181: 360-368, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158698

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a global public health problem. Detection and reduction of the rates of late diagnosis of HIV-1 infection are one of the main challenges in combating the HIV-1 epidemic. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have several characteristics that make them susceptible to capture HIV-1 of a wide range of biological samples reducing waiting times between the acquisition of HIV-1 infection and its detection by current techniques. Carbosilane dendrons decorated with peripheral carboxyl groups and alcoxysilane function at the focal point have been used to stabilize MNPs by co-precipitation method in one step. The characterization of these systems and of their carboxylate analogues was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), ζ potential and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The ability of carboxyl and carboxylate MNPs to capture R5-HIV-1 and X4-HIV-1 strains was evaluated to achieve a rapid and easy diagnostic method in order to reduce or eliminate the risk of HIV-1 transmission.

6.
Antiviral Res ; 169: 104527, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to analyze the association between HCV coinfection and cumulative infections with the development of a cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected subjects. METHODS: HIV-infected subjects attended at Virgen del Rocio University Hospital, between January 1982 and March 2018, were considered if fulfilled the following criteria: at least two visits to the HIV clinic, clinical records with data about VZV reactivation and bacterial infections, available data on HCV coinfection status. Atherogenic cardiovascular events were registered. To analyze factors associated with the development of cardiovascular event, a logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: 823 subjects were included in the study. During the observational period, 58/823 (7.05%) developed a cardiovascular event. Advanced age at HIV-1 diagnosis, a low T-CD4 nadir, HCV coinfection and the burden of infections were independently associated with the risk of developing a cardiovascular event, apart from lipid levels and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: both HCV and the burden of infections are associated with an increased risk of cardivascular event in HIV-infected patients, together with other cardiovascular risk factors. Therapeutic strategies such as HCV erradication or VZV immunization could ameliorate cardiovascular risk in these subjects.

7.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 69, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major obstacle impeding human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) eradication in antiretroviral treatment (ART) treated HIV-1 subjects is the establishment of long-lived latently infected resting CD4+ T cells. Due to the fact that no drug has been effective, the search for new drugs and combinations are a priority in the HIV cure. Treatments based on nanotechnology have emerged as an innovative and promising alternative to current and conventional therapies. In this respect, nanotechnology opens up a new door for eliminating latent HIV infection. We studied the role of G1-S4, G2-S16 and G3-S16 polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers in the context of latent HIV-1 persistence. Moreover, we study the efficiency of these dendrimers in combination with latency reversal agents (LRAs) against HIV-1 infection. METHODS: J89GFP lymphocyte and THP89GFP monocyte derived cell lines latently infected with HIV-1 p89GFP were used as an in vitro model of latency for our study. Viability assays by 3-(4-5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were performed to determine the working concentrations of dendrimers and LRAs. Both cell lines were treated with G1-S4, G2-S16 and G3-S16 either alone or in combination with bryostatin (BRY), romidepsin (RMD) or panobinostat (PNB) for 24 and 48 h. The expression pattern of GFP was measured by flow cytometry and referred as measure of viral reactivation. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The combination treatment of the dendrimers with the protein kinase C (PKC) agonist did not modify the antilatency activity in J89GFP lymphocyte cell line. Interestingly enough, G3-S16 dendrimer alone and its combination with BRY, RMD or PNB showed a significant increased expression of GFP in the THP89GFP monocyte cell line. CONCLUSION: We showed for the first time that nanoparticles, in this case, G3-S16 anionic carbosilan dendrimer may play an important role in new treatments against HIV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Dendrímeros/química , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Polímeros/química , Silanos/química , Briostatinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Linfócitos/citologia , Monócitos/citologia , Panobinostat/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5732, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952921

RESUMO

Stimuli-responsive nanogels offer promising perspectives for the development of next generation formulations for biomedical applications. In this work, poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) nanogels were synthesized varying the concentration of monomer and crosslinking agent. Thus, the inhibitory effect of poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) nanogels against HIV-1 infection is presented for the first time. In particular, we have demonstrated that one of the synthesized poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) nanogels with initial concentration of 80 mg of vinylcaprolactam and 4% of crosslinking agent shows antiviral behavior against HIV-1 infection since this nanogel inhibits the viral replication in TZM.bl target cells.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213744, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917149

RESUMO

This study examines the relationship between regulatory B (Breg) and T (Treg) compartments, which play crucial roles in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the context of HIV. Using flow cytometry, the phenotypes of different Breg and Treg subsets from HIV-infected and healthy individuals were analyzed, along with the suppressive capacity of Breg. Peripheral blood samples of thirteen HIV+ treatment-naïve individuals, fourteen treated-HIV+ individuals with undetectable viral load and twelve healthy individuals were analyzed. The absolute counts of Breg and Treg subsets were decreased in HIV+ treatment-naïve individuals in comparison to treated-HIV+ and healthy individuals. Interestingly, correlations between Breg subsets (CD24hiCD27+ and PD-L1+ B cells) and IL-10-producing Breg observed in healthy individuals were lost in HIV+ treatment-naïve individuals. However, a correlation between frequencies of CD24hiCD38hi or TIM-1+-Breg subsets and Treg was observed in HIV+ treatment-naïve individuals and not in healthy individuals. Therefore, we hypothesized that various Breg subsets might have different functions during B and T-cell homeostasis during HIV-1 infection. In parallel, stimulated Breg from HIV-infected treatment-naïve individuals presented a decreased ability to suppress CD4+ T-cell proliferation in comparison to the stimulated Breg from treated-HIV+ or healthy individuals. We demonstrate a dysregulation between Breg and Treg subsets in HIV-infected individuals, which might participate in the hyper-activation and exhaustion of the immune system that occurs in such patients.

10.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 177: 77-93, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711762

RESUMO

Peptide epitopes have been widely used to develop synthetic vaccines and immunotherapies. However, peptide epitopes may exhibit poor absorption or immunogenicity due to their low molecular weights. Conversely, fourth-generation polyamidoamine (G4-PAMAM) dendrimers are nonimmunogenic and relatively nontoxic synthetic nanoparticles that have been used as adjuvants and nanocarriers of small peptides and to improve nasal absorption. Based on this information, we hypothesized that the combination of intranasal immunization and G4-PAMAM dendrimers would be useful for enhancing the antibody responses of HIV-1 gp120 peptide epitopes. Therefore, we first used structural data, peptide epitope predictors and docking and MD simulations on MHC-II to identify two peptide epitopes on the CD4 binding site of HIV-1 gp120. The formation of G4-PAMAM-peptide complexes was evaluated in silico (molecular docking studies using different G4-PAMAM conformations retrieved from MD simulations as well as the MMGBSA approach) and validated experimentally (electrophoresis, 1H NMR and cryo-TEM). Next, the G4-PAMAM dendrimer-peptide complexes were administered intranasally to groups of female BALB/cJ mice. The results showed that both peptides were immunogenic at the systemic and mucosal levels (nasal and vaginal), and G4-PAMAM dendrimer-peptide complexes improved IgG and IgA responses in serum and nasal washes. Thus, G4-PAMAM dendrimers have potential for use as adjuvants and nanocarriers of peptides.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Dendrímeros/química , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/química , HIV-1/química , HIV-1/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Nylons/química , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/genética , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Peptídeos/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0203419, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161254

RESUMO

In our work, we analyzed the role of the CD100/CD72 and PD-1/PD-L1 axes in immune response dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in which high expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 were associated with an immunosuppressive state via limitation of the HIV-1-specific T-cell responses. CD100 was demonstrated to play a relevant role in immune responses in various pathological processes and may be responsible for immune dysregulation during HIV-1 infection. We investigated the function of CD72/CD100, and PD-1/PDL-1 axes on T and B cells in HIV-infected individuals and in healthy individuals. We analyzed the frequencies and fluorescence intensities of these four markers on CD4+, CD8+ T and B cells. Marker expressions were increased during active HIV-1 infection. CD100 frequency on T cells was positively associated with the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on T cells from HIV-infected treatment-naïve individuals. In addition, the frequency of CD72-expressing T cells was associated with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in HIV-infected treatment-naïve individuals. Our data suggest that the CD72/CD100 and PD-1/PD-L1 axes may jointly participate in dysregulation of immunity during HIV-1 infection and could partially explain the immune systems' hyper-activation and exhaustion.

12.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1399, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967620

RESUMO

Our aim was to analyze the relationship between plasma inflammatory biomarkers and CD4+ T-cells evolution in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) elite controllers (HIV-ECs) with a suppressed viremia. We carried out a retrospective study in 30 HIV-ECs classified into two groups: those showing no significant loss of CD4+ T-cells during the observation period (stable CD4+, n = 19) and those showing a significant decrease of CD4+ T-cells (decline CD4+, n = 11). Baseline plasma biomarkers were measured using a multiplex immunoassay: sTNF-R1, TRAIL, sFas (APO), sFasL, TNF-α, TNF-ß, IL-8, IL-18, IL-6, IL-10, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1ß, RANTES, SDF1α, GRO-α, and CCL11. Baseline levels of sTNF-R1 and CCL11 and sTNF-R1/TNF-α ratio correlated with the slope of CD4+ T-cells (cells/µl/year) during follow-up [r = -0.370 (p = 0.043), r = -0.314 (p = 0.091), and r = -0.381 (p = 0.038); respectively]. HIV-ECs with declining CD4+ T-cells had higher baseline plasma levels of sTNF-R1 [1,500.7 (555.7; 2,060.7) pg/ml vs. 450.8 (227.9; 1,263.9) pg/ml; p = 0.018] and CCL11 [29.8 (23.5; 54.9) vs. 19.2 (17.8; 29.9) pg/ml; p = 0.041], and sTNF-R1/TNF-α ratio [84.7 (33.2; 124.2) vs. 25.9 (16.3; 75.1); p = 0.012] than HIV-1 ECs with stable CD4+ T-cells. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve [area under ROC curve (AUROC)] were 0.758 ± 0.093 (sTNF-R1), 0.727 ± 0.096 (CCL11), and 0.777 ± 0.087 (sTNF-R1/TNF-α). The cut-off of 75th percentile (high values) for these biomarkers had 71.4% positive predictive value and 73.9% negative predictive value for anticipating the evolution of CD4+ T-cells. In conclusion, the loss of CD4+ T-cells in HIV-ECs was associated with higher levels of two plasma inflammatory biomarkers (sTNF-R1 and CCL11), which were also reasonably accurate for the prediction of the CD4+ T-cells loss.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Future strategies aiming to achieve HIV-1 remission are likely to target individuals with small reservoir size. SETTING: We retrospectively investigated factors associated with HIV-1 DNA levels in European, perinatally HIV-infected children starting ART <6 months of age. METHODS: Total HIV-1 DNA was measured from 51 long-term suppressed children 6.3 years (median) after initial viral suppression. Factors associated with log10 total HIV-1 DNA were analyzed using linear regression. RESULTS: At ART initiation, children were aged median [IQR] 2.3 [1.2,4.1] months, CD4% 37 [24,45] %, CD8% 28 [18,36] %, log10 plasma viral load (VL) 5.4 [4.4,5.9] copies/ml. Time to viral suppression was 7.98 [4.6,19.3] months. Following suppression, 13 (25%) children had suboptimal response [≥2 consecutive VL50-400 followed by VL<50] and/or experienced periods of virological failure [≥2 consecutive VL≥400 followed by VL<50]. Median total HIV-1 DNA was 43 [6,195] copies/10 PBMC.Younger age at therapy initiation was associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA (adjusted coefficient [AC] 0.12 per month older, p=0.0091), with a month increase in age at ART start being associated with a 13% increase in HIV DNA. Similarly, a higher proportion of time spent virally suppressed (AC 0.10 per 10% higher, p=0.0022) and absence of viral failure/suboptimal response (AC 0.34 for those with fail/ suboptimal response, p=0.0483) were associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA. CONCLUSION: Early ART initiation and a higher proportion of time suppressed are linked with lower total HIV-1 DNA. Early ART start and improving adherence in perinatally HIV-1 infected children minimize the size of viral reservoir.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal.

15.
AIDS ; 32(8): 1035-1041, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the main causes of morbimortality in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this work was to evaluate the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CVDs occurrence in HIV-infected patients. Additionally, the functional consequences of carrying these SNPs were analyzed. METHODS: The association of TLR4 SNPs, Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile with CVDs occurrence was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. Clinical, immunological, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were used as covariates. The monocyte phenotype and response were assessed by multiparametric flow cytometry comparing carriers with noncarriers of this SNP. RESULTS: Asp299Gly SNP, assayed in 253 HIV-infected patients, was independently associated with the occurrence of CVDs after adjusting for CD4 T-cell nadir, HCV-coinfection, bacterial pneumonia, diabetes mellitus, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors [odds ratio (confidence interval 95%) = 3.672 (1.061-12.712), P = 0.04). Carriers of Asp299Gly SNP showed higher percentage of patrolling and intermediate monocytes producing a proinflammatory combination of cytokines compared with noncarriers (P = 0.037 and P = 0.046, respectively). Intermediate monocyte subset levels correlated with soluble interleukin-6 levels only in carriers (r = 0.89; P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: TLR4 Asp299Gly polymorphism is independently associated with the occurrence of CVDs in HIV-infected patients. The proinflammatory profile associated to this variant could be involved in the development of atherosclerotic pathologies.

16.
Antiviral Res ; 150: 15-19, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29221798

RESUMO

The role of a 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5Δ32) in HIV-disease progression and response to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is well established. However, the impact of CCR5Δ32 in the long-term survival pre-cART and after cART introduction in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients is unknown. We analyzed the association of CCR5Δ32 deletion in the long-term survival of HIV-infected patients recruited between June 1981 and October 2016 (n = 1006). Clinical and epidemiological variables were recorded and CCR5Δ32 deletion was assessed by PCR and electrophoretic analysis. The association of CCR5Δ32 deletion with the time to death was analyzed by Log-Rank tests and Cox Regression models. The CCR5 WT/Δ32 prevalence was 13.4% (n = 135). We did not find any homozygous subject for CCR5Δ32 deletion. AIDS (n = 85, 41.5%) and non-AIDS (n = 87, 42.4%) events were the main causes of 205 deaths. CCR5Δ32 deletion was independently associated with survival (p = 0.022; hazard ratio (HR): 0.572, confidence interval (CI) [0.354-0.923]), after adjusting by HIV diagnosis before 1997, age at diagnosis, being on cART, risk of transmission, nadir CD4+ T-cell counts and CDC stage C. This result was reproduced when the analysis was restricted to patients on cART (p = 0.045; HR: 0.530 [0.286-0.985]). These results confirm the protective role of CCR5Δ32, and extend it to the long-term survival in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients. Beyond its antiviral effect, CCR5Δ32 enhanced the long-term survival of patients on cART.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , HIV-1 , Heterozigoto , Receptores CCR5/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084751

RESUMO

The response to the HBV vaccine in HIV-infected patients is deficient. Our aim was to analyze whether a suppressive combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) containing maraviroc (MVC-cART) was associated with a better response to HBV vaccine. Fifty-seven patients on suppressor cART were administered the HBV vaccine. The final response, the early response, and the maintenance of the response were assessed. An anti-HBs titer of >10 mIU/ml was considered a positive response. A subgroup of subjects was simultaneously vaccinated against hepatitis A virus (HAV). Lineal regression analyses were performed to determine demographic, clinical, and immunological factors associated with the anti-HBs titer. Vaccine response was achieved in 90% of the subjects. After 1 year, 81% maintained protective titers. Only simultaneous HAV vaccination was independently associated with the magnitude of the response in anti-HBs titers, with a P value of 0.045 and a regression coefficient (B) [95% confident interval (CI)] of 236 [5 to 468]. In subjects ≤50 years old (n = 42), MVC-cART was independently associated with the magnitude of the response (P = 0.009; B [95% CI], 297 [79 to 516]) together with previous vaccination and simultaneous HAV vaccination. High rates of HBV vaccine response can be achieved by revaccination, simultaneous HAV vaccination, and administration of cARTs including MVC. MVC may be considered for future vaccination protocols in patients on suppressive cART.

18.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0186602, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that an HIV vaccine regimen including three doses of HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector expressing HIV-1 antigens from clade B (MVA-B) was safe and elicited moderate and durable (1 year) T-cell and antibody responses in 75% and 95% of HIV-negative volunteers (n = 24), respectively (RISVAC02 study). Here, we describe the long-term durability of vaccine-induced responses and the safety and immunogenicity of an additional MVA-B boost. METHODS: 13 volunteers from the RISVAC02 trial were recruited to receive a fourth dose of MVA-B 4 years after the last immunization. End-points were safety, cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-1 and vector antigens assessed by ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) and ELISA performed before and 2, 4 and 12 weeks after receiving the boost. RESULTS: Volunteers reported 64 adverse events (AEs), although none was a vaccine-related serious AE. After 4 years from the 1st dose of the vaccine, only 2 volunteers maintained low HIV-specific T-cell responses. After the late MVA-B boost, a modest increase in IFN-γ T-cell responses, mainly directed against Env, was detected by ELISPOT in 5/13 (38%) volunteers. ICS confirmed similar results with 45% of volunteers showing that CD4+ T-cell responses were mainly directed against Env, whereas CD8+ T cell-responses were similarly distributed against Env, Gag and GPN. In terms of antibody responses, 23.1% of the vaccinees had detectable Env-specific binding antibodies 4 years after the last MVA-B immunization with a mean titer of 96.5. The late MVA-B boost significantly improved both the response rate (92.3%) and the magnitude of the systemic binding antibodies to gp120 (mean titer of 11460). HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies were also enhanced and detected in 77% of volunteers. Moreover, MVA vector-specific T cell and antibody responses were boosted in 80% and 100% of volunteers respectively. CONCLUSIONS: One boost of MVA-B four years after receiving 3 doses of the same vaccine was safe, induced moderate increases in HIV-specific T cell responses in 38% of volunteers but significantly boosted the binding and neutralizing antibody responses to HIV-1 and to the MVA vector. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01923610.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Imunização Secundária , Vacinas contra a AIDS/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Citometria de Fluxo , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Placebos
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(39): e7858, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28953612

RESUMO

Vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has decreased in industrialized countries in recent decades, but there are no studies on the mechanisms of HIV transmission among infected children in Spain. Our aim was to study the characteristics and trends of diagnoses of vertically HIV-infected children in Spain from 2004 to 2013.Vertically HIV-infected children were selected if they were diagnosed from 2004 to 2013, were aged 0 to 18 years old, and were included in the Cohort of the Spanish Pediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe). Demographic, clinical, immunological, and virological data at diagnosis were obtained. The rate of diagnoses of vertically HIV-infected children was calculated as the number of cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Obstetric data of mothers of Spanish children and prophylaxis at childbirth and postpartum were obtained.A total of 218 HIV-infected children were included in the study. Of this sample, 182 children (83.5%) were perinatally HIV infected, and 125 out of those 182 children (68.7%) were born in Spain. The vertically HIV-infected Spanish children were diagnosed earlier and were in better clinical and immunological condition at diagnosis than were foreign children. The rate of vertically HIV-infected children declined from 0.09 in 2004 to 0.03 in 2013 due to the decrease in the rate of children born in Spain (0.08 in 2004 vs 0.01 in 2013). A total of 60 out of 107 mothers (56.1%) of Spanish children were diagnosed at or after childbirth. However, this number declined between 2004 and 2013.The rate of new HIV diagnoses of vertically HIV-infected children decreased significantly between 2004 and 2013 from 0.09 to 0.03 per 100,000 inhabitants.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
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