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1.
Neurol India ; 67(4): 1074-1081, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512638

RESUMO

Introduction: Fractional anisotropy (FA), a diffusion tensor image (DTI) derived biomarker is related to invasion, infiltration, and extension of glioblastoma (GB). We aimed to evaluate FA values and their association with intervals of overall survival (OS). Materials and Methods: Retrospective study conducted in 36 patients with GB included 23 (63.9%) males, 46 ± 14 y; and 13 (36.1%) females, 53 ± 13; followed up for 36 months. We measured FA at edema, enhancing rim, and necrosis. We created two categorical variables using levels of FA and intervals of OS to evaluate their relationships. Kaplan-Meier method and correspondence analysis evaluated the association between OS (grouped in 7 six-month intervals) and FA measurements. Results: Median FA values were higher in healthy brain regions (0.351), followed by peritumoral edema (0.190), enhancing ring (0.116), and necrosis (0.071). Pair-wise comparisons among tumor regions showed a significant difference, P < 0.001. The median OS for all patients was 19.3 months; variations in the OS curves among subgroups was significant χ2 (3) = 8.48, P = 0.037. Correspondence analysis showed a significant association between FA values in the edema region and the survival intervals χ2 (18) = 30.996, P = 0.029. Conclusions: Alternative multivariate assessment using correspondence analysis might supplement the traditional survival analysis in patients with GB. A close follow-up of the variability of FA in the peritumoral edema region is predictive of the OS within specific six-month interval subgroup. Further studies should focus on predictive models combining surgical and DTI biomarkers.

2.
Rev Invest Clin ; 71(4): 283-290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448789

RESUMO

Background: Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common complication in children who receive chemotherapy for cancer. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the continuous versus intermittent infusion of piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) in febrile neutropenic pediatric patients. Methods: This is a non-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial. Eligible group consisted of hemato-oncological patients with FN who were candidates to receive TZP. Patients were randomized to one of two groups: Group 1 received antibiotic treatment through intravenous intermittent infusion of TZP 300 mg/kg/day based on piperacillin, divided into four doses, not exceeding 16 g/day; Group 2 received an initial TZP loading dose of 75 mg/kg infusion over 30 min, and then a continuous infusion of TZP 300 mg/kg/day through central line with pump over 24 h. Results: There were 176 episodes that could be assessed, 100 in Group 1 and 76 in Group 2. There was no statistically significant difference in treatment failure in the experimental group (continuous infusion) compared with the intermittent group, 21% versus 13% (p = 0.15). The increase in the absolute risk reduction was 0.08% (95% confidence interval 0.12-0.30), and the number needed to treat was 12.4. One patient in each group died. Conclusions: There were no differences in fever resolution, clinical cure rate, or mortality when comparing the continuous with the intermittent TZP infusion.

3.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 76(3): 106-112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116710

RESUMO

Obesity is a global public health problem with a concerning increasing rate and no conclusive answer related to its causes. The thrifty genotype, proposed by James V. Neel in 1962, is one of the many hypotheses that intend to explain the epidemic. Neel proposed that genetic variations in hunter-gatherer communities-which were selectively favorable in the past since they allowed to confront famine-are currently a disadvantage because food is plentiful and relatively constant. This conclusion remains valid despite being highly criticized. This review discusses that the hypothesis of the thrifty genotype supports an explicative approach based on biological determinism. This approach, such as social determinism, underestimates the role of individuals as free entities responsible for their own behavior. While a drastic change in the current theoretical framework occurs, in which individuals are considered as independent, free and self-responsible agents with the ability to overcome their heredity and their environment, the idea that the obesity pandemic cannot be explained or solved will be present. Although the influence of these elements in behavior is not rejected, it is proposed that behavior potentially and mainly comes from free will, which is neither biologically nor socially determined.

4.
Salud Publica Mex ; 61(2): 212-216, 2019 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958964

RESUMO

In the Mexican health scenario, the hepatitis C virus epidemic is present, along with its comorbidities and premature mortality. Acting immediately will allow its containment in short term with the proper implementation of the current available tools for prevention, diagnosis and highly effective pharmacological therapies. The Coalition for the study of hepatitis C in Mexico has developed a position paper that takes advantage of these containment measures and presents the development of a National program for the detection, timely treatment and follow-up of patients with hepatitis C.

5.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 75(3): 166-177, May.-Jun. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-974041

RESUMO

Resumen: Introducción: Las leyes refieren que los menores no tienen la capacidad para dar su consentimiento informado para su propia atención médica; sin embargo, hay condiciones especiales en las que se les permite determinar lo referente a su salud. Cuanto mayores sean las limitaciones de juicio y experiencia en los menores, menos peso se otorga a los valores y objetivos que expresan; cuanto más adversas sean las consecuencias, se deberá exigir un nivel más alto de autoridad para decidir en nombre del menor, dejando al Estado la capacidad de garantizar el bienestar del menor. Caso clínico: Niña de 12 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfoblástica aguda LI, con antecedentes familiares y sociales precarios; evolución entorpecida por el desapego al tratamiento y sus condiciones insalubres y pobreza extrema. Ambos padres fallecieron al poco tiempo de iniciar su tratamiento, quedando ella al cuidado de su medio hermana mayor de edad. Se exponen la labor y el dilema ético del oncólogo tratante y del personal del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez en la creación de redes de apoyo con el objetivo de priorizar el bienestar de la menor, sin dar lugar al quebrantamiento y la desintegración familiar, consiguiendo exitosamente su recuperación. Conclusiones: El caso fue sometido al Comité de Bioética Hospitalaria. Se formaron redes de apoyo interinstitucionales para intervenir en la dinámica familiar, resolviendo los requerimientos de la menor, y se consiguió con éxito superar la enfermedad.


Abstract: Background: Laws refer that minors do not have the capability to give informed consent for their own medical attention. However, there are special conditions in which they are allowed to decide about their health. The greater the judgement and experience limitations in minors, the less weight is given to the values and objectives they express. Also, the more adverse consequences might be, the higher the level of authority that is demanded to decide on behalf of the minor, thus granting the State the capability to guarantee the well-being of the minor. Case report: 12-year-old female patient with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with precarious social and family background; evolution of the disease obstructed by the disregard of the treatment due to her unsanitary and extreme poverty conditions. Both of her parents died soon after the start of the treatment and she was kept under the care of her half-sister of legal age. The work and the ethical dilemma of the pediatrician and the staff of Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez are exposed within the building of support networks with the objective of prioritizing the minor's well-being, without allowing family break-up or disintegration, thus succeeding in her recovery. Conclusions: The case was submitted to the Hospital Bioethics Committee. Inter-institutional support networks were built in order to improve dynamics of the family, thus solving the needs of the minor. Despite the misfortune of the situation, the disease was successfully overcome.

6.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 75(3): 166-177, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799532

RESUMO

Background: Laws refer that minors do not have the capability to give informed consent for their own medical attention. However, there are special conditions in which they are allowed to decide about their health. The greater the judgement and experience limitations in minors, the less weight is given to the values and objectives they express. Also, the more adverse consequences might be, the higher the level of authority that is demanded to decide on behalf of the minor, thus granting the State the capability to guarantee the well-being of the minor. Case report: 12-year-old female patient with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with precarious social and family background; evolution of the disease obstructed by the disregard of the treatment due to her unsanitary and extreme poverty conditions. Both of her parents died soon after the start of the treatment and she was kept under the care of her half-sister of legal age. The work and the ethical dilemma of the pediatrician and the staff of Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez are exposed within the building of support -networks with the objective of prioritizing the minor's well-being, without allowing family break-up or disintegration, thus succeeding in her recovery. Conclusions: The case was submitted to the Hospital Bioethics Committee. Inter-institutional support networks were built in order to improve dynamics of the family, thus solving the needs of the minor. Despite the misfortune of the situation, the disease was successfully overcome.

7.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190882, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) detected in a patient may not be clinically apparent (potential DDIs), and when they occur, they produce adverse drug reactions (ADRs), toxicity or loss of treatment efficacy. In pediatrics, there are only few publications assessing potential DDIs and their risk factors. There are no studies in children admitted to emergency departments (ED). The present study estimates the prevalence and describes the characteristics of potential DDIs in patients admitted to an ED from a tertiary care hospital in Mexico; in addition, potential DDI-associated risk factors are investigated. METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from 915 patients admitted to the ED of the Hospital Infantil de México "Federico Gómez" was conducted. The Medscape Drug Interaction Checker software was used to identify potential DDIs. The results are expressed as number of cases (%), means (95% CI) and medians (25-75th percentiles). Count data regressions for number of total and severity-stratified potential DDIs were performed adjusting for patient characteristics, number of administered drugs, days of stay, presence of ADRs and diagnoses. RESULTS: The prevalence of potential DDIs was 61%, with a median of 4 (2-8). A proportion of 0.2% of potential DDIs was "Contraindicated", 7.5% were classified as "Serious", 62.8% as "Significant" and 29.5% as "Minor". Female gender, age, days of stay, number of administered drugs and diagnoses of Neoplasms (C00-D48), Congenital malformations (Q00-Q99), Diseases of the Blood, Blood-forming Organs and Immunity (D50-D89) and Diseases of the nervous system (G00-G99) were significantly associated with potential DDIs. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of potential DDIs in the ED is high, and strategies should therefore be established to monitor patients' safety during their stay, in addition to conducting investigations to estimate the real harm potential DDIs inflict on patients.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Admissão do Paciente , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Interações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , México , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração
8.
Rev Invest Clin ; 69(6): 344-348, 2017 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29265112

RESUMO

Background: Facial palsy is the most frequent manifestation of neuroborreliosis in the United States, Europe, and Asia, whereas in Mexico, its frequency is unknown. Objective: We aimed to determine the frequency of Borrelia spp. infection in patients with acute facial palsy in Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional, referral hospital-based survey, 191 patients with facial palsy were selected and clinical and epidemiologic data recorded. IgM and IgG serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by Western-Blot (WB). IgM and IgG antibodies against the herpes viruses HSV-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus were tested by ELISA. Results: 71 patients (37%) tested positive by ELISA to either Borrelia spp. or the herpes viruses. Of 25 patients (13%) who tested positive for B. burgdorferi by ELISA, 23 (12%) were confirmed by WB; 14 had IgM and 9 had IgG antibodies. Among the 14 IgM-WB positive patients, two cases recognized antigens of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), 10 of Borrelia garinii and 2 of B. afzelii, whereas all 9 IgG-WB positive were reactive against B. burgdorferi s.s. 14 patients had facial palsy in addition to other clinical data compatible with Lyme borreliosis. Patients infected with B. burgdorferi s.s. had a longer recovery time and a significantly higher risk (odds ratio 4.4, 95% confidence interval 1.5-12.9) of recurrent facial palsy than patients infected with other Borrelia genospecies. Conclusions: Borrelia infection is frequent in facial palsy patients in Mexico, with B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. garinii being the most frequent causative species.


Assuntos
Paralisia Facial/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Western Blotting , Borrelia burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Paralisia Facial/diagnóstico , Paralisia Facial/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/diagnóstico , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/microbiologia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 74(2): 98-106, mar.-abr. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-888603

RESUMO

Resumen: Introducción: El Programa de Estancias Infantiles (PEI) se enfoca en padres de niños de 1-3 años en situación de pobreza. Incluye educación y cuidado de los niños por 8 h, 5 días por semana. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la asociación entre el tiempo de permanencia en el PEI y el nivel de desarrollo infantil. Métodos: Estudio transversal de base poblacional en dos estados de México. Se incluyeron todos los niños de 12-48 meses inscritos al PEI de noviembre de 2014 a enero de 2015. Se evaluó el nivel de desarrollo con la prueba EDI. Se calculó la razón de momios de prevalencia (RMP) para desarrollo normal por tiempo de estancia, ajustado por sexo, edad y discapacidad, teniendo como referencia a los niños que tenían < 30 días en el PEI. Resultados: Se incluyeron 3387 niños de 177 estancias infantiles: 53% de sexo masculino; 22.3% de 12-24 meses, 37.6% de 25-36 meses y 40.1% de 37-42 meses de edad. El RMP ajustado para desarrollo normal fue de 1.90 (IC95%:1.30-2.78) para 6-11 meses, 2.36 (IC95%:1.60-3.50) para 12-17 meses, 2.78 (IC95%:1.65-4.65) para 18-23 meses y 3.46 (2.13-5.60) para > 24 meses. Por área de desarrollo, se observó una mayor probabilidad de desarrollo normal a partir de 6 meses de estancia para lenguaje y social, y a partir de 12 meses para motor grueso, fino y conocimiento. Conclusiones: El tiempo de permanencia en el PEI a partir de 6 meses incrementa, de forma significativa y progresiva, la probabilidad de tener un desarrollo normal independiente del sexo y edad.


Abstract: Background: Early education program (EEP) was created to support parents with 1 to 3 year olds living in poverty situation in Mexico, and includes education and child daycare for 8 h five days per week. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between length of stay in EEP and the level of development in children. Methods: Cross sectional, population-based study conducted in two Mexican states. All children aged between 12 to 48 months enrolled in EEP from November 2014 to January 2015 were included. Child Development Evaluation (CDE) test was used to screen early development in every child. Normal early development prevalence odds ratio (OR) was calculated adjusted by gender, impairment and state, using as a reference those children with less than 30 days in the program. Results: The study included 3,387 children from 177 EEP nurseries, from which 53% were male; age by group was divided in 12-24 months (22.3%), 25-36 months (37.6%) and 37-42 months (40.1%). Normal development adjusted OR by age was 1.9 (CI95%: 1.30-2.78) for 6-11 months, 2.36 (CI95%: 1.60-3.50) for 12-17 months, 2.78 (CI95%: 1.65-4.65) for 18-23 months and 3.46 (CI95%: 2.13-5.60) for >24 months. By area of development, a greater probability of having a normal result for language and social areas was observed after 6 months in the program, and for motor (both gross and fine) and knowledge areas after 12 months. Conclusion: The length of the stay in the EEP after 6 months significantly and progressively increases the probability of normal development regardless of gender and age.

10.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 74(2): 98-106, 2017 Mar - Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early education program (EEP) was created to support parents with 1 to 3 year olds living in poverty situation in Mexico, and includes education and child daycare for 8h five days per week. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between length of stay in EEP and the level of development in children. METHODS: Cross sectional, population-based study conducted in two Mexican states. All children aged between 12 to 48 months enrolled in EEP from November 2014 to January 2015 were included. Child Development Evaluation (CDE) test was used to screen early development in every child. Normal early development prevalence odds ratio (OR) was calculated adjusted by gender, impairment and state, using as a reference those children with less than 30 days in the program. RESULTS: The study included 3,387 children from 177 EEP nurseries, from which 53% were male; age by group was divided in 12-24 months (22.3%), 25-36 months (37.6%) and 37-42 months (40.1%). Normal development adjusted OR by age was 1.9 (CI95%: 1.30-2.78) for 6-11 months, 2.36 (CI95%: 1.60-3.50) for 12-17 months, 2.78 (CI95%: 1.65-4.65) for 18-23 months and 3.46 (CI95%: 2.13-5.60) for >24 months. By area of development, a greater probability of having a normal result for language and social areas was observed after 6 months in the program, and for motor (both gross and fine) and knowledge areas after 12 months. CONCLUSION: The length of the stay in the EEP after 6 months significantly and progressively increases the probability of normal development regardless of gender and age.

11.
BMC Med Educ ; 16: 166, 2016 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27357211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence, legitimacy and application of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) in the world is growing as a tool that integrates, the best available evidence to decision making in patient care. Our goal was to identify the relationship between self-perception about the relevance of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) and the degree of basic knowledge of this discipline in a group of physicians. METHODS: A survey was carried out in a third level public hospital in Mexico City. Self-perception was measured by means of a structured scale, and the degree of knowledge through parameter or "rubrics" methodology. RESULTS: A total of 320 questionnaires were given to 55 medical students (17 %); 45 pre-graduate medical interns (14 %); 118 medical residents (37 %) and 102 appointed physicians of different specialties (32 %). Self-perception of EBM: The majority of those surveyed (n = 274, 86 %) declared that they were very or moderately familiar with EBM. The great majority (n = 270, 84 %) believe that EBM is very important in clinical practice and 197 physicians (61 %) said that they implement it always or usually. The global index of self-perception was 75 %. Knowledge of EBM: Definition of EBM; Seven of those surveyed (2 %) included 3 of the 4 characteristics of the definition, 82 (26 %) mentioned only two characteristics of the definition, 152 (48 %) mentioned only one characteristic and 79 (25 %) did not include any characteristic of EBM. Phases of the EBM process: The majority of those surveyed (n = 218, 68 %) did not include the steps that characterize the practice of EBM, of which 79 participants (25 %) mentioned elements not related to it. The global index of knowledge was 19 %. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the surveyed physicians have a high self-perception of the relevance of EBM. In spite of this, the majority of them did not know the characteristics that define the EBM and phases of the process for its practice. A major discrepancy was found between self-perception and the level of basic knowledge of EBM among the surveyed physicians.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/educação , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , México
12.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 73(2): 90-104, mar.-abr. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-839020

RESUMO

Resumen: Introducción: La mayoría de las estrategias o programas que apoyan el desarrollo de la primera infancia en México son esfuerzos independientes que varían en escala, servicios que ofrecen y modo de proporcionarlos. Para la evaluación de la calidad de estos programas, un aspecto de suma importancia es el contenido curricular. El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un análisis y comparación curricular de las distintas estrategias o programas enfocados en la promoción e intervención del desarrollo infantil temprano que ofrece el Gobierno Federal en los sectores Salud y Educación en México. Método: Se realizó una revisión de la información de los contenidos curriculares de las estrategias o programas. La fase cualitativa consistió en un análisis documental comparativo con un ejercicio hermenéutico donde se identificaron los 75 indicadores propuestos por el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. La fase cuantitativa consistió en el análisis descriptivo de los indicadores. Finalmente, se compararon los análisis para establecer el desempeño de cada uno. Resultados: Se identificaron seis estrategias o programas. En el análisis de la presencia de indicadores, la estrategia Oportunidades de Aprendizaje (OA) fue la que presentó un mayor número de indicadores. En el análisis de amplitud, tanto PEI-CONAFE como OA fueron los mejor balanceados. Por último, en el análisis de profundidad de los indicadores, OA y Habilidades para la Vida fueron los mejor balanceados, mientras que PEI-CONAFE resultó el mejor balanceado para el área socio-emocional, CeNSIA para lenguaje y OA para el área cognitiva. Conclusiones: La estrategia OA fue la que garantizó un mayor acercamiento a los contenidos establecidos por el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo.


Abstract: Background: Most of the strategies or programs that support early child development in Mexico are independent efforts that vary in scale, services offered and means of providing them. For the evaluation of the quality of these programs, an important aspect is the curriculum content. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the curriculum content of the different strategies or programs focused on the promotion and intervention of early child development, which are offered by the Federal Government in Health and Education sectors in Mexico. Methods: We conducted a review of the curriculum content of the strategies and programs. The qualitative phase consisted of a comparative analysis where 75 indicators proposed by the Inter-American Development Bank were identified. The quantitative phase consisted of a descriptive analysis of the indicators. Finally, the analyses were compared to establish the performance of each one. Results: Six strategies or programs were identified. In the analysis of the presence of indicators, the Oportunidades de Aprendizaje (Learning Opportunities, LO) strategy showed a larger number of indicators. In the amplitude analysis, both PEI-CONAFE and LO were the best balanced. Finally, in-depth analysis of the indicators LO and Skills for life were the best balanced while PEI-CONAFE was the best balanced in the social-emotional area, CeNSIA program for language and LO for cognitive development area. Conclusions: LO strategy showed the closest level of contents established by the Inter-American Development Bank.

13.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 38(1): 80-7, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26499501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physicians identify from 45.7 to 96.2 % of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in their patients, with under-reporting ranging from 6 to 100 %. In order to improve ADR reporting, several interventions have been evaluated in different studies, but not with regard to ADR identification. In addition, it is not known whether some patient characteristics might influence on ADR identification and reporting by physicians. OBJECTIVES: (a) To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention directed to Emergency Department physicians and coordinated by a pharmacist in a tertiary care pediatric hospital on ADR identification and reporting. (b) To assess if some of the children's characteristics might influence on ADR identification and reporting. Setting The Emergency Department of the Hospital Infantil de México "Federico Gómez", which is a national pediatric institute of health in México. METHODS: A Quasi-experimental, pre-post test trial was designed. During the intervention, the pharmacist gave talks on Pharmacovigilance and on the program for electronic capture of data, took part in patient visits, left reminders, improved accessibility to ADR report format and performed feedback activities. To classify and quantify correctly identified ADRs and ADRs reported to the Institutional Pharmacovigilance Center (IPC), 1136 clinical records were reviewed. The models were adjusted for patient variables. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total ADRs, ADRs correctly identified by physicians, ADRs reported to the IPC by physicians. Results Before the intervention, 97 % of ADRs were correctly identified and 6.1 % reported by physicians. During the intervention, 99.6 % were correctly identified and 41.2 % were reported, and after the intervention, 99.6 and 41.7 %, respectively. Identification during the intervention showed a sevenfold increase with regard to preintervention and was maintained post-intervention. ADR reporting during the intervention showed a 14-fold increase with regard to pre-intervention and was maintained during post-intervention. CONCLUSION: Physicians do identify ADRs, but fail to report them. The intervention increased ADR correct identification and reporting. The effect was maintained after the intervention.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais Pediátricos , Farmacovigilância , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacêuticos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Médicos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária
14.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 73(2): 90-104, 2016 Mar - Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of the strategies or programs that support early child development in Mexico are independent efforts that vary in scale, services offered and means of providing them. For the evaluation of the quality of these programs, an important aspect is the curriculum content. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the curriculum content of the different strategies or programs focused on the promotion and intervention of early child development, which are offered by the Federal Government in Health and Education sectors in Mexico. METHODS: We conducted a review of the curriculum content of the strategies and programs. The qualitative phase consisted of a comparative analysis where 75 indicators proposed by the Inter-American Development Bank were identified. The quantitative phase consisted of a descriptive analysis of the indicators. Finally, the analyses were compared to establish the performance of each one. RESULTS: Six strategies or programs were identified. In the analysis of the presence of indicators, the Oportunidades de Aprendizaje (Learning Opportunities, LO) strategy showed a larger number of indicators. In the amplitude analysis, both PEI-CONAFE and LO were the best balanced. Finally, in-depth analysis of the indicators LO and Skills for life were the best balanced while PEI-CONAFE was the best balanced in the social-emotional area, CeNSIA program for language and LO for cognitive development area. CONCLUSIONS: LO strategy showed the closest level of contents established by the Inter-American Development Bank.

15.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 72(6): 376-384, nov.-dic. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-781257

RESUMO

ResumenIntroducción: La prueba Evaluación del Desarrollo Infantil (EDI) es una herramienta de tamiz para la detección oportuna de problemas del desarrollo, diseñada y validada en México. Para que sus resultados sean confiables, se requiere que el personal que la aplique haya adquirido los conocimientos necesarios previamente, a través de un curso de capacitación en la unidad de salud que labore. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el impacto de un modelo de capacitación impartido al personal que trabaja en atención primaria en seis entidades federativas en México. Lo anterior mediante la comparación de los conocimientos adquiridos en la capacitación.Método: Se realizó un estudio de evaluación de antes y después, considerando como intervención el haber acudido a un curso de capacitación sobre la prueba EDI de octubre a diciembre de 2013.Resultados: Se incluyeron 394 participantes. Las profesiones fueron las siguientes: medicina general (73.4%), enfermería (7.7%), psicología (7.1%), nutrición (6.1%), otras profesiones (5.6%). En la evaluación inicial, el 64.9% obtuvo una calificación menor a 20. En la evaluación final, disminuyó al 1.8%. En la evaluación inicial aprobó el 1.8% comparado con el 75.1% en la evaluación final. Las preguntas con menor porcentaje de respuestas correctas fueron las relacionadas con la calificación de la prueba.Conclusiones: El modelo de capacitación resultó adecuado para adquisición de conocimientos generales sobre la prueba. Para mejorar el resultado global se requiere reforzar los temas de calificación e interpretación de los resultados en futuras capacitaciones, y que los participantes realicen una lectura previa del material de apoyo.


AbstractBackground: The Child Development Evaluation (CDE) Test is a screening tool designed and validated in Mexico for the early detection of child developmental problems. For professionals who will be administering the test in primary care facilities, previous acquisition of knowledge about the test is required in order to generate reliable results. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of a training model for primary care workers from different professions through the comparison of knowledge acquired during the training course.Methods: The study design was a before/after type considering the participation in a training course for the CDE test as the intervention. The course took place in six different Mexican states from October to December 2013. The same questions were used before and after.Results: There were 394 participants included. Distribution according to professional profile was as follows: general physicians 73.4%, nursing 7.7%, psychology 7.1%, nutrition 6.1% and other professions 5.6%. The questions with the lowest correct answer rates were associated with the scoring of the CDE test. In the initial evaluation, 64.9% obtained a grade lower than 20 compared with 1.8% in the final evaluation. In the initial evaluation only 1.8% passed compared with 75.15% in the final evaluation.Conclusions:The proposed model allows the participants to acquire general knowledge about the CDE Test. To improve the general results in future training courses, it is required to reinforce during training the scoring and interpretation of the test together with the previous lecture of the material by the participants.

16.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 72(6): 385-396, nov.-dic. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-781258

RESUMO

ResumenIntroducción:La prueba Evaluación del Desarrollo Infantil (EDI), diseñada y validada en México, se ha aplicado en las unidades de atención primaria del país. Los resultados han sido heterogéneos entre los estados en que se aplicaron las pruebas, a pesar de haber utilizado un modelo de capacitación estandarizado con la misma metodología para la aplicación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar un modelo de supervisión que permita identificar la calidad de la aplicación de la prueba EDI a nivel poblacional.Métodos: Se realizó un estudio en la atención primaria tres estados del país para evaluar la aplicación de la prueba EDI por observación directa (estudio de sombra), y verificar la concordancia del resultado a través aplicar la prueba una vez más (estudio de consistencia).Resultados: Se realizaron 380 estudios de sombra a 51 psicólogos. Al comparar el resultado global, se observó una concordancia del 86.1% con el supervisor (n = 327): el 94.5% por resultado verde, el 73.2% por amarillo y el 80.0% por rojo. Se aplicó la prueba nuevamente en 302 casos, con una concordancia del 88.1% (n = 266): el 96.8% por resultado verde, el 71.7% por amarillo y el 81.8% por rojo. No se encontraron diferencias significativas por grupo.Conclusiones: Tanto el estudio de sombra como el de consistencia fueron adecuados para evaluar la calidad de la aplicación de la prueba, y pueden ser de utilidad para supervisar la aplicación de la prueba EDI en atención primaria. La decisión de uno u otro sistema depende de la disponibilidad de supervisores.


AbstractBackground:The Child Development Evaluation (CDE) test designed and validated in Mexico has been used as a screening tool for developmental problems in primary care facilities across Mexico. Heterogeneous results were found among those states where these were applied, despite using the same standardized training model for application. The objective was to evaluate a supervision model for quality of application of the CDE test at primary care facilities.Methods:A study was carried out in primary care facilities from three Mexican states to evaluate concordance of the results between supervisor and primary care personnel who administered the test using two different methods: direct observation (shadow study) or reapplication of the CDE test (consistency study).Results: There were 380 shadow studies applied to 51 psychologists. General concordance of the shadow study was 86.1% according to the supervisor: green 94.5%, yellow 73.2% and red 80.0%. There were 302 re-test evaluations with a concordance of 88.1% (n = 266): green 96.8%, yellow 71.7% and red 81.8%. There were no differences between CDE test subgroups by age.Conclusions: Both shadow and re-test study were adequate for the evaluation of the quality of the administration of the CDE Test and may be useful as a model of supervision in primary care facilities. The decision of which test to use relies on the availability of supervisors.

17.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 72(6): 397-408, nov.-dic. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-781259

RESUMO

ResumenIntroducción: La prueba Evaluación del Desarrollo Infantil (EDI), diseñada en México, clasifica a los niños de acuerdo con su desarrollo en desarrollo normal, rezago en el desarrollo y riesgo de retraso. La versión modificada se desarrolló y validó, pero no se conocen sus propiedades en base poblacional. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la confirmación diagnóstica en niños de 16 a 59 meses identificados con riesgo de retraso por la prueba EDI.Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal de base poblacional en una entidad federativa de México. Se aplicó la prueba EDI a 11,455 niños de 16 a 59 meses, de diciembre de 2013 a marzo de 2014. Se consideró como población elegible al 6.2% (n = 714) que obtuvo como resultado riesgo de retraso. Para la inclusión en el estudio se realizó una aleatorización estratificada por bloques para sexo y grupo de edad. A cada participante se le realizó la evaluación diagnóstica utilizando el Inventario de Desarrollo de Battelle 2ª. edición.Resultados: De los 355 participantes incluidos, el 65.9% fue de sexo masculino y el 80.2% de medio rural. El 6.5% fueron falsos positivos (cociente total de desarrollo ¿ 90) y el 6.8% no tuvo ningún dominio con retraso (cociente de desarrollo de dominio < 80). Se calculó la proporción de retraso en las siguientes áreas: comunicación (82.5%), cognitivo (80.8%), personal-social (33.8%), motor (55.5%) y adaptativo (41.7%). Se observaron diferencias en los porcentajes de retraso por edad y dominio/subdominio evaluado.Conclusiones: Se corroboró la presencia de retraso en al menos un dominio evaluado por la prueba diagnóstica en el 93.2% de la población estudiada.


AbstractBackground: The Child Development Evaluation (or CDE Test) was developed in Mexico as a screening tool for child developmental problems. It yields three possible results: normal, slow development or risk of delay. The modified version was elaborated using the information obtained during the validation study but its properties according to the base population are not known. The objective of this work was to establish diagnostic confirmation of developmental delay in children 16- to 59-months of age previously identified as having risk of delay through the CDE Test in primary care facilities.Methods:A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in one Mexican state. CDE test was administered to 11,455 children 16- to 59-months of age from December/2013 to March/2014. The eligible population represented the 6.2% of the children (n = 714) who were identified at risk of delay through the CDE Test. For inclusion in the study, a block randomization stratified by sex and age group was performed. Each participant included in the study had a diagnostic evaluation using the Battelle Development Inventory, 2nd edition.Results: From the 355 participants included with risk of delay, 65.9% were male and 80.2% were from rural areas; 6.5% were false positives (Total Development Quotient ¿90) and 6.8% did not have any domain with delay (Domain Developmental Quotient <80). The proportion of delay for each domain was as follows: communication 82.5%; cognitive 80.8%; social-personal 33.8%; motor 55.5%; and adaptive 41.7%. There were significant differences in the percentages of delay both by age and by domain/subdomain evaluated.Conclusions: In 93.2% of the participants, developmental delay was corroborated in at least one domain evaluated.

18.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 72(6): 409-419, nov.-dic. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-781260

RESUMO

ResumenIntroducción:La prueba de Evaluación del Desarrollo Infantil (EDI), diseñada y validada en México, clasifica a los niños de acuerdo con su desarrollo en desarrollo normal (verde) y desarrollo anormal (amarillo o rojo). No se conocen los resultados de su aplicación en base poblacional. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el nivel de desarrollo de niños menores de 5 años en situación de pobreza (beneficiarios del Programa PROSPERA) utilizando la prueba EDI.Método:La prueba EDI fue aplicada por personal capacitado y con los estándares para la aplicación de la prueba en menores de 5 años que acudieron al control del niño sano en unidades de atención primaria de noviembre de 2013 a mayo de 2014 en un estado del norte de México.Resultados: Se aplicó la prueba EDI a 5,527 niños de 1-59 meses de edad. El 83.8% (n = 4,632) se encontró con desarrollo normal y el 16.2%, con desarrollo anormal: amarillo con el 11.9% (n = 655) y rojo con el 4.3% (n = 240). La proporción con resultado anormal fue del 9.9% en < 1 año y del 20.8% a los 4 años. Por edad, las áreas más afectadas fueron el lenguaje a los 2 años (9.35%) y el conocimiento a los 4 años (11.1%). Las áreas motor grueso y social tuvieron mayor afección en el área rural. En el sexo masculino, las áreas de motor fino, lenguaje y conocimiento.Conclusiones: La proporción de niños con resultado anormal es similar a lo reportado en otros estudios de base poblacional. La mayor proporción de afección a mayores edades refuerza la importancia de la intervención temprana. La diferencia en las áreas afectadas entre el medio urbano y rural sugiere la necesidad de una intervención diferenciada.


AbstractBackground:Evaluación del Desarrollo Infantil or Child Development Evaluation (CDE) test, a screening tool designed and validated in Mexico, classifies child development as normal (green) or abnormal (developmental lag or yellow and risk of delay or red). Population-based results of child development level with this tool are not known. The objective of this work was to evaluate the developmental level of children aged 1-59 months living in poverty (PROSPERA program beneficiaries) through application of the CDE test.Methods: CDE tests were applied by specifically trained and standardized personnel to children <5 years old who attended primary care facilities for a scheduled appointment for nutrition, growth and development evaluation from November 2013 to May 2014.Results: There were 5,527 children aged 1-59 months who were evaluated; 83.8% (n = 4,632) were classified with normal development (green) and 16.2% (n = 895) as abnormal: 11.9% (n = 655) as yellow and 4.3% (n = 240) as red. The proportion of abnormal results was 9.9% in children <1 year of age compared with 20.8% at 4 years old. The most affected areas according to age were language at 2 years (9.35%) and knowledge at 4 years old (11.1%). Gross motor and social areas were more affected in children from rural areas; fine motor skills, language and knowledge were more affected in males.Conclusions: The proportion of children with abnormal results is similar to other population-based studies. The highest rate in older children reinforces the need for an early-based intervention. The different pattern of areas affected between urban and rural areas suggests the need for a differentiated intervention.

20.
Ageing Soc ; 35(7): 1457-1480, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26190874

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to design and evaluate a pilot programme aimed at promoting the active ageing of older adults at the Mexican Institute of Social Security. The study was conducted in three stages: (a) design; (b) implementation; and (c) before-after evaluation through analysis of changes in functional status, occupational functioning and health-related quality of life. To overcome the limitations of the study design, we evaluated the effect of 80 per cent adherence to the programme on the outcome variables using the generalised linear regression models (GLM). Two hundred and thirty-nine older adults agreed to participate, of whom 65 per cent completed the programme. Most were women; the average age was 77 years. Adherence to the programme was higher than 75 per cent for the group who completed active ageing services and less than 60 per cent for the drop-out group. Overall, 46 per cent of older adults reached an adherence level of 80 per cent or higher. Adherence was significantly associated with improved quality of life total score (coefficient 2.7, p<0.0001) and occupational functioning total score (coefficient 2.2, p<0.0001). Participation of older adults in an active ageing programme may improve their health-related quality of life and occupational functioning. It is necessary to identify the potential barriers and to implement strategies to improve the recruitment and retention rates during the intervention.

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