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1.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) diphosphorylase (UAP) catalyzes the formation of UDP-GlcNAc, the precursor for the production of chitin in ectodermally derived epidermal cells and midgut, for GlcNAcylation of proteins and for generation of glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol anchors in all tissues in Drosophila melanogaster. RESULTS: Here, we identified a putative HvUAP gene in Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata. Knockdown of HvUAP at the second-, third- and fourth-instar stages impaired larval development. Most resultant HvUAP hypomorphs showed arrested development at the third-, fourth-instar larval or prepupal stages, and became paralyzed, depending on the age when treated. Some HvUAP-silenced larvae had weak and soft scoli. A portion of HvUAP-depleted beetles formed misshapen pupae. No HvUAP RNA interference pupae successfully emerged as adults. Dissection and microscopic observation revealed that knockdown of HvUAP affected gut growth and food ingestion, reduced cuticle thickness, and negatively affected the formation of newly generated cuticle layers during ecdysis. Furthermore, HvUAP deficiency inhibited development of the tracheal respiratory system and thinned tracheal taenidia. CONCLUSION: The phenotypical defects in HvUAP hypomorphs suggest that HvUAP is involved in the production of chitin. Moreover, our findings will enable the development of a double-stranded RNA-based pesticide to control H. vigintioctopunctata.

2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104934, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446203

RESUMO

Chitin synthase (CHS) plays a critical role in chitin synthesis and excretion. In most insects, CHSs have been segregated into 1 and 2 classes. CHS1 is responsible for chitin production in the ectodermally-derived epidermal cells. CHS2 is dedicated to chitin biosynthesis in the midgut peritrophic matrix (PM). Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata is a serious pest of Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae plants. In this study, we identified HvCHS1 and HvCHS2. We found that HvCHS1 was abundantly transcribed in the larval tracheae and epidermis, whereas HvCHS2 was mainly expressed in the guts. Escherichia coli HT115 expressed double stranded RNAs targeting HvCHS1 and HvCHS2 (dsCHS1 and dsCHS2) were used to immerse potato foliage and the treated leaves were provided to the newly-molted fourth- and third-instar larvae. Ingestion of dsCHS1 by the fourth-instar larvae significantly diminished the target mRNA level and had slight influence on the expression of HvCHS2. In contrast, consumption of dsCHS2 significantly lowered the target mRNA level but triggered the transcription of HvCHS1. Knockdown of HvCHS1, rather than HvCHS2, arrested larval development and impaired larva-pupa-adult transition. A large proportion of HvCHS1 hypomorphs became stunting prepupae, deformed pupae or misshapen adults. Moreover, knockdown of HvCHS1 damaged gut integrity, decreased cuticle thickness, and delayed the formation of newly-generated cuticle layer during ecdysis. Furthermore, depletion of HvCHS1 inhibited the development of trachea system and thinned tracheal taenidia. Ingestion of dsCHS1 at the third-instar stage caused similar but severe negative effects. Our results demonstrated that HvCHS1 is responsible for chitin biosynthesis during ecdysis. Moreover, HvCHS1 is a potential amenable target gene and young larvae are more susceptible to dsRNA.


Assuntos
Quitina Sintase , Besouros , Animais , Quitina/metabolismo , Quitina Sintase/genética , Quitina Sintase/metabolismo , Besouros/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Muda/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA
3.
Bull Entomol Res ; : 1-10, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112278

RESUMO

Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata is one of the most serious insect pests to a large number of nightshades and cucurbits. RNA interference (RNAi) triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) offers a reduced risk approach to control the beetle. Identification of amenable target genes and determination of appropriate life stage for dsRNA treatment are two critical steps in order to improve RNAi efficiency. In the present paper, we identified three vATPase genes, namely HvvATPaseC, HvvATPaseE and HvvATPaseH. We found that the three transcripts were widely expressed in the eggs, first- to fourth-instar larvae, prepupae, pupae and adults. They were abundantly transcribed in the hindgut and Malpighian tubules, in contrast to the epidermis and fat body. Three days' ingestion of dsvATPaseC, dsvATPaseE and dsvATPaseH by the fourth-instar larvae significantly decreased corresponding transcript level by 90.1, 88.9 and 97.2%, greatly reduced larval fresh weight by 28.0, 29.9 and 28.0%, and caused 66.7, 100 and 78.7% larval lethality respectively. Comparably, 3 days' exposure of the third-instar larvae to dsvATPaseC significantly reduced HvvATPaseC mRNA level by 89.5%, decreased approximately 80% of the larval fresh weight, and killed 100% of the treated larvae. Therefore, the three vATPase genes, especially HvvATPaseE, are potential amenable target genes and young larvae are more susceptible to dsRNA. Our findings will enable the development of the dsRNA-based pesticide to control H. vigintioctopunctata.

4.
Insect Sci ; 28(2): 419-429, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162469

RESUMO

Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata is a serious insect pest which attacks a large number of nightshades and cucurbits in Asian countries, Brazil and Australia. Prolonged application of traditional pesticides has caused environmental pollution and exerted deleterious effects on human health. Finding new approaches with high target specificity and low environmental contamination has become an urgent task. RNA interference (RNAi) induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is expected to be applicable to managing this pest. Here we evaluated the effects of Escherichia coli-expressed dsRNAs targeting ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene via dietary delivery in laboratory and foliar spraying in a greenhouse. The target transcript was successfully knocked down when the 4th-instar larvae had fed on potato foliage dipped with dsEcR in a laboratory bioassay. Around 85% of the HvEcR RNAi larvae remained as prepupae or became abnormal pupae, and failed to emerge into adults. Ingestion of dsEcR-immersed foliage by the 3rd-instar larvae effectuated a comparable RNAi response and brought about more severe defects: all the resultant larvae arrested development, remained as prepupae and finally died. For assay in the greenhouse, a dsEcR-contained E. coli suspension was directly sprayed to the foliage of greenhouse-growing potato plants and the 3rd- and 4th-instar larvae were transferred to the leaves. High RNAi efficacy was obtained and identical RNAi phenotypes were observed in treated larvae. In addition, spraying dsEcR reduced leaf damage. Our results indicate a possibility of practical application of dsEcR as an environmentally friendly RNA pesticide to control H. vigintioctopunctata larvae.


Assuntos
Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Interferência de RNA , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Animais , Besouros/genética , Besouros/metabolismo , Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo
5.
Gene ; 751: 144779, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428697

RESUMO

In insects, nuclear receptors (NRs) including EcR (NR1H1), USP (NR2B4), E75 (NR1D3), HR3 (NR1F), HR4 (NR6) and FTZ-F1 (NR5A3) mediate the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling cascade to play a critical role during larval metamorphosis. In this present paper, we focused on hormone receptor 38 (HR38) in Leptinotarsa decemlineata, the only insect homolog of the NR4A subclass. RNA interference (RNAi) of LdHR38 in the penultimate (third) instar larvae reduced the expression of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene and declined the titer of 20E. Knockdown of LdHR38 intensified the expression of LdUSP, LdE75, LdE74, LdE93, LdBroad and LdHR3, whereas repressed the transcription of LdFTZ-F1. Disruption of 20E signaling inhibited chitin biosynthesis in the larval cuticle. Approximately 25% of the LdHR38 RNAi larvae died, around 40% of the resultant larvae remained as prepupae or become deformed pupae. The body surface of the HR38 depleted abnormal prepupae and pupae looked wet, just like the cuticle being covered with a layer of liquid. Moreover, the increase of larval mortality, and the impairment of pupation and emergence exhibited dose-dependent manners. Furthermore, silencing LdHR38 at the final (fourth) instar caused similar but less severe impairment of pupation. Dietary supplement with 20E for the third instar larvae did not rescue the high larval death and only slightly alleviated the low pupation rate in the LdHR38 RNAi hypomorphs. Accordingly, we propose that HR38 is necessary for tune of ecdysteroidogenesis and for mediation of 20E signaling during metamorphosis in L. decemlineata.


Assuntos
Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Insetos/fisiologia , Metamorfose Biológica , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/fisiologia , Animais , Quitina/biossíntese , Besouros/genética , Besouros/metabolismo , Ecdisterona/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Blood ; 135(17): 1472-1483, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315388

RESUMO

Internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations within the FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) can be found in up to 25% to 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and confer a poor prognosis. Although FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown clinical responses, they cannot eliminate primitive FLT3-ITD+ AML cells, which are potential sources of relapse. Therefore, elucidating the mechanisms underlying FLT3-ITD+ AML maintenance and drug resistance is essential to develop novel effective treatment strategies. Here, we demonstrate that FLT3 inhibition induces histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) upregulation through FOXO1- and FOXO3-mediated transactivation in FLT3-ITD+ AML cells. Upregulated HDAC8 deacetylates and inactivates p53, leading to leukemia maintenance and drug resistance upon TKI treatment. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of HDAC8 reactivates p53, abrogates leukemia maintenance, and significantly enhances TKI-mediated elimination of FLT3-ITD+ AML cells. Importantly, in FLT3-ITD+ AML patient-derived xenograft models, the combination of FLT3 TKI (AC220) and an HDAC8 inhibitor (22d) significantly inhibits leukemia progression and effectively reduces primitive FLT3-ITD+ AML cells. Moreover, we extend these findings to an AML subtype harboring another tyrosine kinase-activating mutation. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that HDAC8 upregulation is an important mechanism to resist TKIs and promote leukemia maintenance and suggests that combining HDAC8 inhibition with TKI treatment could be a promising strategy to treat FLT3-ITD+ AML and other tyrosine kinase mutation-harboring leukemias.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Mutação , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Regulação para Cima , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 160: 30-39, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519255

RESUMO

An exploration of novel control strategies for Leptinotarsa decemlineata is becoming more pressing given rapid evolution of insecticide resistance and rise of production loss of potato. Dietary delivery of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a promising alternative for management. An important first step is to uncover possible RNA-interference (RNAi)-target genes effective against both young and old larvae. Taiman (Tai) is a basic-helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim transcription factor that is involved in the mediation of both juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling. In the present paper, we found that continuous ingestion of dsTai for three days by third (penultimate)-instar larvae caused approximately 20% larval mortality and 80% pupation failure. The larval lethality resulted from failed cuticle and tracheae shedding, which subsequently reduced foliage consumption and nutrient absorption, and depleted lipid stores. In contrast, pupation failure derived from disturbed JH and 20E signals, and disordered nutrient homeostasis including, among others, inhibition of trehalose metabolism and reduction of chitin content. Knockdown of LdTai caused similar larval lethality and pupation impairment in second and fourth (final) larval instars. Therefore, LdTai is among the most attractive candidate genes for RNAi to control L. decemlineata larvae.


Assuntos
Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Ecdisterona/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA
8.
Front Physiol ; 10: 724, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263425

RESUMO

Insect Taiman (Tai) binds to methoprene-tolerant to form a heterodimeric complex, mediating juvenile hormone (JH) signaling to regulate larval development and to prevent premature metamorphosis. Tai also acts as a steroid receptor coactivator of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) receptor heterodimer, ecdysone receptor (EcR) and Ultraspiracle (USP), to control the differentiation of early germline cells and the migration of specific follicle cells and border cells in ovaries in several insect species. In holometabolous insects, however, whether Tai functions as the coactivator of EcR/USP to transduce 20E message during larval-pupal transition is unknown. In the present paper, we found that the LdTai mRNA levels were positively correlated with circulating JH and 20E titers in Leptinotarsa decemlineata; and ingestion of either JH or 20E stimulated the transcription of LdTai. Moreover, RNA interference (RNAi)-aided knockdown of LdTai at the fourth (final) instar stage repressed both JH and 20E signals, inhibited larval growth and shortened larval developing period. The knockdown caused 100% larval lethality due to failure of larval-pupal ecdysis. Under the apolysed larval cuticle, the LdTai RNAi prepupae possessed pupal thorax. In contrast, the process of tracheal ecdysis was uncompleted. Neither JH nor 20E rescued the aforementioned defectives in LdTai RNAi larvae. It appears that Tai mediates both JH and 20E signaling. Our results uncover a link between JH and 20E pathways during metamorphosis in L. decemlineata.

9.
Leukemia ; 33(10): 2365-2378, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940905

RESUMO

Bone marrow (BM) niche responds to chemotherapy-induced cytokines secreted from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells and protects the residual cells from chemotherapeutics in vivo. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for the induction of cytokines by chemotherapy remain unknown. Here, we found that chemotherapeutic drugs (e.g., Ara-C, DNR, 6-MP) induced the expression of niche-protecting cytokines (GDF15, CCL3 and CCL4) in both ALL cell lines and primary cells in vitro. The ATM and NF-κB pathways were activated after chemotherapy treatment, and the pharmacological or genetic inhibition of these pathways significantly reversed the cytokine upregulation. Besides, chemotherapy-induced NF-κB activation was dependent on ATM-TRAF6 signaling, and NF-κB transcription factor p65 directly regulated the cytokines expression. Furthermore, we found that both pharmacological and genetic perturbation of ATM and p65 significantly decreased the residual ALL cells after Ara-C treatment in ALL xenograft mouse models. Together, these results demonstrated that ATM-dependent NF-κB activation mediated the cytokines induction by chemotherapy and ALL resistance to chemotherapeutics. Inhibition of ATM-dependent NF-κB pathway can sensitize ALL to chemotherapeutics, providing a new strategy to eradicate residual chemo-resistant ALL cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Citocinas/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo
10.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(5): 526, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743561

RESUMO

Somatic cells acquire stem cell-like properties during cancerous transformation; however, mechanisms through which committed cells develop stemness and malignancy remain largely unknown. Here we uncovered upregulated stem cell program in leukaemic lymphoblasts of patients with IKZF1 alterations by analysing the archived gene-expression profiling datasets. We then used a frequent IKZF1 deletion, IK6, as a model via transduction into human primitive haematopoietic cells, followed by xenotransplantation in mice. Immunophenotypically defined stem, pro-B, and immature/mature (IM/M)-B cells were collected from primary recipients for functional assay and transcriptome profiling. Successful reconstitution in secondary recipient mice revealed the stemness of IK6+ pro-B and IM/M-B cells. Upregulated stemness and malignancy programs in IK6+ cells confirmed IK6 effects. Interestingly, these programs corresponded to distinct canonical pathways. Remarkably, the pathway profile mapped in the modelled cells well mirrored that in patients' leukaemic cells; therefore, our study provides a seminal insight into the cancerous reprogramming of somatic cells.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição Ikaros , Leucemia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/genética , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/metabolismo , Leucemia/genética , Leucemia/metabolismo , Leucemia/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia
11.
Oncotarget ; 8(38): 63360-63369, 2017 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968996

RESUMO

Anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is essential for cell cycle progression. Recently, its non-mitotic functions were also reported but less studied in several tissues including hematopoietic cells. Here, we developed an inducible Anapc2 (a core subunit of APC/C) knockout mice. The animals displayed a fatal bone marrow failure within 7 days after knockout induction. Their hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) demonstrated a sharp decline and could form little colony. Further, the results of BrdU label-retaining cell assay showed that the dormant HPSCs lost rapidly. Analysis of cell cycle regulators, Skp2, P27, Cdk2, and Cyclin E1, suggested that these quiescent stem cells underwent a shift from quiescence to mitosis followed by apoptosis. We next detected Anapc2-expression in the CD34+ HSPCs of patients with aplastic anemia. CD34+ cells were markedly decreased in the bone marrow and Anapc2-expression in the residual CD34+ cells was undetectable, suggesting that APC/C was deficient and might have a relationship with the pathogenesis of aplastic anemia.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28251694

RESUMO

Nilaparvata lugens is a typical phloem feeder. Rice phloem is high in simple sugars and very low in essential amino acids. Nilaparvata lugens harbors an ascomycete Entomomyces delphacidicola that hypothetically biosynthesizes several amino acids to meet the nutrition requirement of the planthopper. Among these amino acids, here, we focused on arginine biosynthesis. A complete cDNA of an E. delphacidicola gene, arginine-succinate lyase, EdArg4, the last step in arginine biosynthesis, was obtained. RNAi-mediated suppression of EdArg4 reduced arginine content in the hemolymph, and decreased the expression of several arginine biosynthesis genes. Silencing of EdArg4 delayed nymphal development and led to nymphal lethality. About 20% of the EdArg4 RNAi surviving adults were deformed. The most obvious defect was wider and larger abdomen. The EdArg4 RNAi-treated planthoppers had thickened wings and enlarged antennae, legs, and anal tubes and a few adults did not normally emerge. Arginine deficiency in the EdArg4 RNAi planthoppers repressed nitric oxide signaling, determined at the transcriptional level. We infer that E. delphacidicola biosynthesizes essential arginine to compensate for nutrition deficiency in N. lugens.


Assuntos
Argininossuccinato Liase/genética , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Abdome/anormalidades , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Argininossuccinato Liase/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , GMP Cíclico/genética , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hemípteros/genética , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ninfa/genética , Filogenia , Interferência de RNA
13.
Int J Hematol ; 105(5): 558-565, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28176227

RESUMO

Increasing studies have revealed that the interaction between malignant cells and the microenvironment (so called niche) in the bone marrow can influence the development and progression of the hematopoietic malignancies. Here, we reviewed the current findings in the field, focusing the niche alterations in promoting the emergency of malignancies, in interfering with the blood reconstitution of normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and in protecting leukemic stem cells from therapy which causes disease relapse. We made efforts to discuss these aspects in view of a kind of disturbance of the microecosystem within BM and thus proposed some new concepts in therapeutics of blood malignancies.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos
14.
Oncotarget ; 8(65): 108981-108988, 2017 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29312584

RESUMO

The fetal liver (FL) is a source of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) for transplantation. However, whether FL-HSPCs collected at distinct developmental stages reconstitute similarly or differently in the recipient bone marrow (BM) remains undetermined. We examined this problem in a congeneic mouse transplantation model. We first analyzed the lineage components of FL from 12.5 days post-fertilization (dpf) to 18.5 dpf. The myeloid and lymphoid cells were dynamic in absolute number and ratio. The largest difference was between 12.5 and 16.5 dpf. The FL-HSPCs (Lin-CD150+CD48-) at these two time points were then respectively transplanted into the recipients. The difference in lineage reconstitution was undetectable at week 4 or 6 post-transplantation and afterward, indicating that the BM environment assimilated the transplanted cells. Profiling lineage-regulation genes of input and output HSPCs showed that the expression levels were much different in the former and almost the same in the engrafted HSPCs. Therefore, the recipient BM microenvironment could determine the developmental lineage-trends of FL-HSPCs.

15.
Int J Biol Sci ; 12(11): 1319-1331, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27877084

RESUMO

Dietary introduction of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has great potential for management of Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Identification of the most attractive candidate genes for RNA interference (RNAi) is the first step. In the present paper, three complete chitin synthase cDNA sequences (LdChSAa, LdChSAb and LdChSB) were cloned. LdChSAa and LdChSAb, two splicing variants of LdChSA gene, were highly expressed in ectodermally-derived epidermal cells forming epidermis, trachea, foregut and hindgut, whereas LdChSB was mainly transcribed in midgut cells. Feeding bacterially expressed dsChSA (derived from a common fragment of LdChSAa and LdChSAb), dsChSAa, dsChSAb and dsChSB in the second- and fourth-instar larvae specifically knocked down their target mRNAs. RNAi of LdChSAa+LdChSAb and LdChSAa lowered chitin contents in whole body and integument samples, and thinned tracheal taenidia. The resulting larvae failed to ecdyse, pupate, or emerge as adults. Comparably, knockdown of LdChSAb mainly affected pupal-adult molting. The LdChSAb RNAi pupae did not completely shed the old larval exuviae, which caused failure of adult emergence. In contrast, silencing of LdChSB significantly reduced foliage consumption, decreased chitin content in midgut sample, damaged midgut peritrophic matrix, and retarded larval growth. As a result, the development of the LdChSB RNAi hypomorphs was arrested. Our data reveal that these LdChSs are among the effective candidate genes for an RNAi-based control strategy against L. decemlineata.


Assuntos
Quitina Sintase/metabolismo , Quitina/biossíntese , Besouros/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA/fisiologia , Animais , Quitina Sintase/genética , Besouros/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética
16.
Clin Immunol ; 173: 109-116, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27664932

RESUMO

MicroRNA 182 has been found to have a distinct contribution in the clonal expansion of activated- and functioning of specialized-helper T cells. In this study we knocked down microRNA 182 in vivo and induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to determine the influences of microRNA 182 in the Treg cells functional specialization through Foxo1 dependent pathway in the peripheral lymphoid organs. Down-regulation of microRNA 182 significantly increased the proportions of Foxp3+ T cells in the peripheral lymph nodes and spleen. In vivo study verified a positive correlation between microRNA 182 levels and symptom severity of EAE, and a negative correlation between microRNA 182 and the transcriptional factor Foxp3. In vitro polarization study also confirmed the contribution of Foxo1 in microRNA 182 mediated down-regulation of Foxp3+ T cells. Together, our results provide evidence that during the development of EAE, microRNA 182 repressed Treg cells differentiation through the Foxo1 dependent pathway.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/imunologia , MicroRNAs/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Linfonodos/citologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Baço/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/fisiologia
17.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 77: 52-68, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27524277

RESUMO

Trehalose is proposed to serve multiple physiological roles in insects. However, its importance remains largely unconfirmed. In the present paper, we knocked down either a trehalose biosynthesis gene (trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, LdTPS) or each of three degradation genes (soluble trehalases LdTRE1a, LdTRE1b or membrane-bound LdTRE2) in Leptinotarsa decemlineata by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of LdTPS decreased trehalose content and caused larval and pupal lethality. The LdTPS RNAi survivors consumed a greater amount of foliage, obtained a heavier body mass, accumulated more glycogen, lipid and proline, and had a smaller amount of chitin compared with the controls. Ingestion of trehalose but not glucose rescued the food consumption increase and larval mass rise, increased survivorship, and recovered glycogen, lipid and chitin to the normal levels. In contrast, silencing of LdTRE1a increased trehalose content and resulted in larval and pupal lethality. The surviving LdTRE1a RNAi hypomorphs fed a smaller quantity of food, had a lighter body weight, depleted lipid and several glucogenic amino acids, and contained a smaller amount of chitin. Neither trehalose nor glucose ingestion rescued these LdTRE1a RNAi defects. Silencing of LdTRE1b caused little effects. Knockdown of LdTRE2 caused larval death, increased trehalose contents in several tissues and diminished glycogen in the brain-corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complex (BCC). Feeding glucose but not trehalose partially rescued the high mortality rate and recovered glycogen content in the BCC. It seems that trehalose is involved in feeding regulation, sugar absorption, brain energy supply and chitin biosynthesis in L. decemlineata larvae.


Assuntos
Besouros/genética , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Interferência de RNA , Trealase/genética , Trealose/genética , Animais , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Besouros/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/metabolismo , Trealase/metabolismo , Trealose/metabolismo
18.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 92(4): 242-58, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27030662

RESUMO

Chitin synthase (ChS) plays a critical role in chitin synthesis and excretion. In this study, two ChS genes (LdChSA and LdChSB) were identified in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. LdChSA contains two splicing variants, LdChSAa and LdChSAb. Within the first, second, and third larval instars, the mRNA levels of LdChSAa, LdChSAb, and LdChSB coincide with the peaks of circulating 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). In vitro culture of midguts and an in vivo bioassay revealed that 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide stimulated the expression of the three LdChSs. Conversely, a reduction of 20E by RNA interference (RNAi) of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD repressed the expression of these LdChSs, and ingestion of halofenozide by LdSHD RNAi larvae rescued the repression. Moreover, disruption of 20E signaling by RNAi of LdEcR, LdE75, LdHR3, and LdFTZ-F1 reduced the expression levels of these genes. Similarly, in vitro culture and an in vivo bioassay showed that exogenous JH and a JH analog methoprene activated the expression of the three LdChSs, whereas a decrease in JH by RNAi of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT downregulated these LdChSs. It seems that JH upregulates LdChSs at the early stage of each instar, whereas a 20E pulse triggers the transcription of LdChSs during molting in L. decemlineata.


Assuntos
Quitina Sintase/genética , Besouros/enzimologia , Besouros/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Quitina Sintase/química , Quitina Sintase/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Besouros/classificação , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Ecdisterona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/genética , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Alinhamento de Sequência
19.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 68: 1-12, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26592348

RESUMO

Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine-pyrophosphorylase (UAP) is involved in the biosynthesis of chitin, an essential component of the epidermal cuticle and midgut peritrophic matrix (PM) in insects. In the present paper, two putative LdUAP genes were cloned in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. In vivo bioassay revealed that 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide activated the expression of the two LdUAPs, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNA interference (RNAi) of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and a 20E signaling gene LdFTZ-F1 repressed the expression. Juvenile hormone (JH), a JH analog pyriproxyfen and an increase in JH by RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C downregulated LdUAP1 but upregulated LdUAP2, whereas a decrease in JH by silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT had converse effects. Thus, expression of LdUAPs responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdUAP1 reduced chitin contents in whole larvae and integument samples, thinned tracheal taenidia, impaired larval-larval molt, larval-pupal ecdysis and adult emergence. In contrast, silencing of LdUAP2 significantly reduced foliage consumption, decreased chitin content in midgut samples, damaged PM, and retarded larval growth. The resulting larvae had lighter fresh weights, smaller body sizes and depleted fat body. As a result, the development was arrested. Combined knockdown of LdUAP1 and LdUAP2 caused an additive negative effect. Our data suggest that LdUAP1 and LdUAP2 have specialized functions in biosynthesizing chitin in the epidermal cuticle and PM respectively in L. decemlineata.


Assuntos
Quitina/biossíntese , Besouros/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Uridina Difosfato N-Acetilglicosamina/metabolismo , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Besouros/genética , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Ecdisterona/metabolismo , Genes de Insetos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Muda/genética , Uridina Difosfato N-Acetilglicosamina/genética
20.
Insect Sci ; 22(2): 191-202, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24282064

RESUMO

Post-embryonic development of insects is highly dependent on ecdysteroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Halloween gene spookier (spok, cyp307a2) has been documented to be involved in ecdysteroidogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori. We describe here the cloning and characterization of Halloween gene spookier (Lsspok, Lscyp307a2) in the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus, a hemipteran insect species. LsSPOK has three insect-conserved P450 motifs, that is, Helix-K, PERF motif and heme-binding domain. Temporal and spatial expression patterns of Lsspok were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Through the fouth-instar and the early fifth-instar stages, Lsspok showed two expression peaks in the second- and fifth-day fourth-instar nymphs, and two troughs in the first-day fourth and fifth instars. On day 5 of the fourth-instar nymphs, Lsspok clearly had a high transcript level in the thorax where prothoracic glands were located. Dietary introduction of double-stranded RNA of Lsspok in the nymph stage successfully knocked down the target gene, decreased expression level of ecdysone receptor (LsEcR) gene, caused nymphal lethality and delayed development. Ingestion of 20-hydroxyecdysone in Lsspok-dsRNA-exposed nymphs did not increase Lsspok expression level, but almost completely rescued the LsEcR mRNA level and relieved the negative effects on survival and development. Thus, our data suggest that the ecdysteroidogenic pathway is conserved in insects and LsSPOK is responsible for specific steps in ecdysteroidogenesis in L. striatellus.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Interferência de RNA , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Ecdisterona/biossíntese , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Genes de Insetos , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ninfa/genética , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
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