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1.
Int J Hypertens ; 2021: 9993328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513088

RESUMO

At present, the effect of substitute salt in reducing sodium intake and blood pressure is relatively clear. The present study is a phase I clinical trial involving 43 hypertensives in which the effect of 18% sodium substitute salt on the home blood pressure variability (BPV) was observed for 8 weeks with weekly follow-up. Finally, 4 patients were lost, and 39 patients completed the intervention and were included in the analysis. Daily home blood pressure and weekly adverse events were collected. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the morning (-10.0 mmHg, 95% CI: -16.5 to -3.5, P = 0.003), SBP at night (-10.2 mmHg, 95% CI: -16.1 to -4.3, P = 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at night (-4.0 mmHg, 95% CI: -7.1 to -0.8, P = 0.014) decreased significantly. Also, there was no statistically significant change in morning (F = 1.137, P = 0.352) and night diastolic (F = 0.344, P = 0.481) BPV and morning systolic BPV (F = 0.663, P = 0.930) over time during the intervention period, except for that night systolic BPV had a downward trend (F = 2.778, P = 0.016) and had decreased 2.04 mmHg (95% CI: 0.84 to 3.23, P = 0.001) after intervention. The use of 18% of the substitute salt did not increase BPV during the intervention and even may decrease it, which indicates its control effects on blood pressure. This study is the first one to observe the effect of 18% sodium substitute salt on the home blood pressure variability, providing a basis for further experiments.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 907, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441669

RESUMO

Aim to compare the home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) and visit blood pressure monitoring in a clinical phase I single-arm pilot trial. The 18% sodium substitute salt was used in 43 hypertensives for 8 weeks, and visited once a week, while weekly visit blood (VBP) pressure, daily home blood pressure (HBP) and urine test results before and after intervention were collected. 43 hypertensive patients were recruited, 4 were lost. And enrolled 39 patients for analysis. The VBP were lower than morning HBP and night HBP (P < 0.05). And VBP was good correlated with morning BP (SBP: r = 0.692, P < 0.001, DBP: r = 0.789, P < 0.001) and night BP (SBP: r = 0.571, P < 0.001, DBP: r = 0.738, P < 0.001). The results of mixed linear model analysis showed that patients' visit SBP (- 11.4 mmHg, 95% CI: - 17.0 to - 5.7, P < 0.001), morning home SBP (- 10.0 mmHg, 95% CI: - 16.4 to - 3.6, P = 0.003) and night home SBP (- 10.2 mmHg, 95% CI: - 15.8 to - 4.6, P = 0.001) decreased significantly, after intervention. Both HBP and VBP showed that 18% substitute salt intervention could decrease the blood pressure of hypertensives. Medication led to VBP lower than HBP, but the two still had a good correlation.Trial registration: NCT03226327. Registered 21 July 2017-Retrospectively registered, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov .


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Sódio/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
3.
Health Soc Care Community ; 29(2): 445-452, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667104

RESUMO

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk of contracting the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Previous studies have documented low uptake of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention and health services among Chinese MSM. We carried out qualitative research among MSM in Southwest China. By taking the Health Brief Model (HBM) as a framework, we aimed to determine the underlying factors related to use of HCV health intervention services among MSM. From May to July 2018, we conducted in-depth interviews in Southwest China with 20 participants. Our research revealed that a lack of knowledge about HCV prevention was the main reason why MSM failed to perceive their susceptibility to HCV and had low motivation to seek preventive services. Poor service accessibility and unpleasant experiences seeing doctors also exerted negative influences on health care-seeking behaviour in MSM. More trust and understanding needs to be built between health providers and MSM. Protection of privacy for MSM should be guaranteed in the delivery of health interventions. In addition, the interviewees showed refusal to engage with health interventions being specifically targeted at MSM, which would create a sense of being 'labelled'. Tailored health interventions may overemphasise their sexuality, segregate them from heterosexuals, and make them feel alienated. Therefore, we speculate that differential treatment may be an obstacle for MSM to become involved in health interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , China , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19263, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand the possible effect of a novel salt substitute with very low sodium in reducing blood pressure, salt intake and use of anti-hypertensive medications among patients on regular medications, to inform the future randomized trials. DESIGN: Single-arm pilot trial. SETTING: A community health service center in Chongqing, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 43 patients with hypertension taking anti-hypertensive medications regularly. INTERVENTION: Patients received the salt substitute with 18% sodium chloride for 8 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were followed up weekly for the use of antihypertensive medications and measurements of blood pressure. We collected 24-h urine before and after the trial to measure sodium and potassium intake. RESULTS: Among 39 patients who completed the 8 weeks' intervention, 30.8% patients stopped or reduced anti-hypertensive medications during the trial. For patients that stopped or reduced medication, the mean SBP and DBP before intervention were 122.1 ±â€Š9.6 and 68.9 ±â€Š9.4 mm Hg and both did not increase after intervention (SBP change: 2.8 mm Hg (-5.1, 10.8), P = .48; DBP change: 1.8 mm Hg (-2.2, 5.7), P = .38). For the rest patients, the mean SBP and DBP before intervention were 141.6 ±â€Š16.9 and 74.6 ±â€Š6.6 mm Hg but reduced significantly after the intervention (SBP change: -16.0 mm Hg (-21.3, -10.6), P < .001; DBP change: -5.5 mm Hg (-8.1, -2.9), P < .001). The 24-h urine sodium decreased (P < .001) and potassium increased (P < .001) among all patients. No severe adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The novel salt substitute showed potential in reducing blood pressure and use of antihypertensive medications. Further randomized double-blind controlled trial is warranted to validate these findings.Clinical Trial Registration-URL:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03226327.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica , Hipertensão/terapia , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem
5.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2020: 8121659, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047575

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a challenging public health problem in China and worldwide. Mother-to-child transmission is one of the main transmission routes of HBV in highly endemic regions. However, the mechanisms of HBV perinatal transmission in children have not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IFN-γ signaling pathway and HBV infection or breakthrough infection in children. Two hundred and seventy-four HBV-infected children defined as test positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 353 controls defined as negative for HBsAg in China were recruited from October 2013 to May 2015. SNPs in IFN-γ signaling pathway including IFNG, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, and IL12B were genotyped. Rs2234711 in IFNGR1 was significantly associated with HBV infection in children (OR = 0.641, 95% CI: 0.450-0.913). In addition, rs2234711 was also significantly associated with HBV breakthrough infection in children born to HBsAg-positive mothers (OR = 0.452, 95% CI: 0.205-0.998). Our study confirmed that genetic variants in IFN-γ signaling pathway have significant associations with HBV infection, especially with HBV breakthrough in children. This study provides insight into HBV infection in children and could be used to help design effective strategies for reducing immunoprophylaxis failure.

6.
Med Princ Pract ; 28(3): 256-263, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of evidence from randomized controlled trails (RCTs) of different doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in children with severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) to provide the scientific basis for clinical practice. METHODS: A search of PubMed-Medline, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP database (until June 30, 2017) was performed and Software RevMan5.3 was used to evaluate the effect of different doses of IVIG on HFMD in RCTs. We used random-effects models (or fixed-effects models) and generic inverse variance methods to process quantitative data, followed by a leave-one-out method for sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: From a total of 420 entries identified via searches, 8 RCTs involving 1,450 patients were included in the final analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that compared with conventional therapy alone, conventional therapy combined with IVIG had shorter fever clearance time, shorter rash regression time, and shorter clinical cure time. Subgroup analyses showed that the high-dose group (1 g/kg/day) had shorter fever clearance time (p < 0.05), shorter rash regression (p< 0.05), shorter remission time of neurological symptoms (p < 0.05), but longer clinical cure time (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The high-dose group has a better prognosis; however, the advantages and disadvantages should be carefully considered when deciding the doses in the treatment of severe HFMD.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/terapia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exantema/terapia , Feminino , Febre/terapia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Lactente , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 55: 45-50, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28027994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Host genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the role of Interleukin1Receptor, Type I (IL-1R1) gene in HBV infection and breakthrough infection in children remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SNPs in IL-1 family and HBV infection and breakthrough infection in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 627 Chinese children (274 HBV infected children and 353 controls) ages 6 months to 12 years were recruited from October 2013 to May 2015.Six SNPs were genotyped in IL-1R1, Interleukin-1beta (IL-1B) and Interleukin-18 (IL-18) genes. RESULTS: A statistically significant association was found between genotype AA in rs3917267 (IL-1R1) and HBV infection in children (OR, 1.740; 95%CI, 1.091-2.774; p=0.020), which was also found at allele A (OR, 1.316;95%CI, 1.050-1.648; p=0.017). Furthermore, rs3917267 was also significantly associated with breakthrough infection of HBV in children born of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers (OR,3.675; 95%CI, 1.160-11.646; P=0.027). CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed that genetic variant in IL-1R1(rs3917267) has significant association with HBV infection and HBV breakthrough infection in children, which provides new clues for the study of pathogenesis of chronic HBV infection in children.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/genética , Receptores Tipo I de Interleucina-1/genética , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepatite B/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Vigilância da População
8.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 18(12): 1277-1281, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27974122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of interleukin (IL)-19 and susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in children. METHODS: A case-control study was performed, and 136 children with positive HBsAg(case group) and 297 healthy children with negative HBsAg(control group) were enrolled. PCR and DNA sequencing were used for genotyping. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the frequencies of genotypes of IL-19 rs1798 between the case and control groups. The case group also had a significantly higher proportion of children with CG genotype than the control group (p<0.05). There were significant differences in the frequencies of genotypes and alleles of IL-19 rs2243191 between the HBV infection and non-infection groups among children who born to HBV-positive mothers. The infection group had significantly higher proportions of children with TC and CC genotypes and C allele than the non-infection group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The SNP of IL-19 rs1798 may be associated with susceptibility to hepatitis B in children, and the SNP of IL-19 rs2243191 may be associated with susceptibility to breakthrough HBV infection in children at a high risk of HBV infection.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hepatite B/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepatite B/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
9.
Hepat Mon ; 16(8): e37786, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27795724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem in China and worldwide. Mother-to-child transmission is one of HBV's main transmission routes in highly endemic regions. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at HLA loci as associated with HBV infection. However, the mechanisms of HBV perinatal transmission and breakthrough in children have not yet been clearly defined. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the association between SNPs at HLA loci and HBV infection and breakthrough in children. METHODS: A total of 274 HBV-infected children and 353 controls were selected among children aged between 6 months and 12 years in China. Seven SNPs at HLA-DP and HLA-DQ loci were genotyped to analyze their association with HBV infection in children. RESULTS: Alleles G in both HLA-DPA1 rs3077 and HLA-DPB1 rs9277535 were found to be significantly associated with HBV infection in children with odds ratios (OR) of 1.309 (95% CI 1.046 to 1.639) and 1.411 (95% CI 1.125 to 1.771), respectively. In addition, overdominant analysis found that the rs2281388 (HLA-DPB1) GA genotype and the rs9366816 (HLA-DPB2) TC genotype were related to HBV infection (rs2281388, OR = 1.422, 95% CI: 1.032-1.961; rs9366816, OR = 1.444, 95% CI: 1.045-1.994). Furthermore, this study highlighted that rs9277535 was also significantly associated with HBV breakthrough infection in children whose mothers were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed that genetic variants in HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 loci have significant associations with HBV infection, especially with HBV breakthrough in children. This study provides insight into HBV infection in children and is valuable for the targeted management of, and control strategies for, this disease.

10.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 18(5): 410-4, 2016 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27165589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the efficacy of hepatitis B immunoprophylaxis in children at high risk of hepatitis B. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was performed on 539 HBsAg-positive mothers and their 551 children (aged from 6 months to 5 years) at high risk of hepatitis B. Serum markers of hepatitis B in the children at high risk of hepatitis B were measured. Univariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of HBV. RESULTS: The rate of hepatitis B vaccination in the children at high risk of hepatitis B was 100%, and 96.6% received injections of hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG). The HBsAg positive rate showed no significant differences between different age groups. The HBsAb positive rate gradually decreased with the increasing age (P<0.01). The children born to HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive mothers had a significantly higher hepatitis B infection rate than those born to HBsAg-positive mothers (15.1% vs 0.2%; P<0.01). The high-risk children who received hepatitis B vaccination alone had a significantly higher hepatitis B infection rate than those who received both hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG injections (28.6% vs 2.8%; P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The HBsAb positive rate gradually decreases with the increasing age in children at high risk of hepatitis B. Maternal HBsAg and HBeAg positivity and the absence of HBIG combined with hepatitis B vaccine injections for children at high risk of hepatitis B are the risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of HBV.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hepatite B/etiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/análise , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 68(2): 228-33, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25190154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our study examined the effect of a ChinaYuan (CNY) 10 cash incentive on the participation rate in a face-to-face health survey among the general Chinese population. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Subjects older than 15 years of age and had been living in the two selected districts for more than 6 months were selected using multistage random sampling. Participants from only one district received a cash incentive (CNY 10) for completing the survey. RESULTS: The participation rates in the nonincentive and incentive groups were 39.9% and 61.2%, respectively, P < 0.01. In the nonincentive group, the 65-74 years age group had the highest participation rate (54.4%); no significant difference was found between men (39.4%) and women (40.5%), P = 0.59. In the incentive group, the highest participation rate was observed in the ≥75 years (78.1%) age group. The cost for a completed interview was CNY 34.5 in the incentive group and CNY 35.8 in the nonincentive group. CONCLUSION: Cash incentives might increase participation rates in face-to-face surveys in China. The absolute cost was higher for the incentive group, whereas cost for a completed interview was actually the lowest. Furthermore, participation rate did not differ between men and women, but elders were more likely to participate in health surveys.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/economia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/economia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Motivação , Participação do Paciente , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Med Princ Pract ; 24(1): 80-3, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25402775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the association between an Alu I polymorphism at position 1,377 of the calcitonin receptor (CTR) gene and endemic fluorosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A case-control study of 321 participants was conducted in regions with high fluorosis rates (Wushan and Fengjie counties) and those without high fluorosis rates (Yubei Qu county; termed nonfluorosis areas) in Chongqing, China. The participants were divided into three groups: the fluorosis group (FG) from areas with high fluoride exposure (121), the nonfluorosis group (NFG) from areas with high fluoride exposure (130), and a control group (CG) from areas with no excessive fluoride exposure (70). An Alu I polymorphism in the CTR gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: The genotype distributions within each group were as follows: CC 60.33% (73/121), CT 30.58% (37/121) and TT 9.09% (11/121) for the FG; CC 74.62% (97/130), CT 21.54% (28/130) and TT 3.85% (5/130) for the NFG, and CC 68.57% (48/70), CT 31.43% (22/70) and TT 0% (0/70) for the CG. Significant differences in Alu I genotypes were observed among the groups (χ(2) = 12.317, υ = 4, p = 0.015). Allele frequencies of CTR genotypes differed significantly among the groups (χ(2) = 8.859, υ = 2, p = 0.012): C 75.62% (183/242) and T 24.38% (59/242) for the FG, C 85.38% (222/260) and T 14.62% (38/260) for the NFG, and C 84.29% (118/140) and T 15.71% (22/140) for the CG. CONCLUSION: An association between fluorosis and the Alu I polymorphism in the CTR gene was observed in fluoride-exposed populations.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu/genética , Fluorose Dentária/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores da Calcitonina/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , China , Feminino , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Fluorose Dentária/diagnóstico , Fluorose Dentária/etiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 186(4): 2081-8, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24221959

RESUMO

To study the relationship between chemical elements in soil and whole blood, and fluorosis induced by coal-fired pollution, ecological and case-control studies were carried out. We determined the concentrations of 11 chemical elements and pH values in soil in two fluorosis-affected counties in Chongqing, China, and analyzed the correlation between these values and prevalence of dental fluorosis. Ni, I, F, Hg, and pH values positively correlated with fluorosis prevalence (P < 0.05); these soil parameters may be related to coal-fired pollution fluorosis. Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, and Fe concentrations in whole blood, and fluoride levels in urine of residents in epidemic and non-epidemic areas were determined. Cu, Zn, Mg, and Fe levels of the children in the case group were lower than those of the children in the external control group; urine fluoride level in the children in the case group was higher than that of the children in the internal and external control groups (P < 0.05). The levels of Mg, Fe, and urine fluoride were higher in the case adult group than in the internal adult control group (P < 0.05). Anti-fluoride elements were deficient in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Carvão Mineral , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Fluorose Dentária/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Centrais Elétricas , Prevalência , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/sangue
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 34(1): 28-32, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23648245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution of ameloblastin (AMBN) gene polymorphism in coal-fire caused fluorosis (CFCF) in Chongqing municipality and the relationship between AMBN gene polymorphism and the susceptibility to dental fluorosis. METHODS: Under a case-control study, 100 children aged 8 - 12 and 30 adults with dental fluorosis were enrolled in Wushan and Fengjie counties of Chongqing from December 2010 to February 2011. Another 100 children aged 8 - 12 and 30 adults with non-dental fluorosis were chosen as internal control groups together with 50 children and 30 adults without dental fluorosis were selected as external control groups in the non-epidemic area of Yubei district. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood sample of these people. Genotype of AMBN gene 7 extron 538_540delGGA, 10 extron 657A > G and 13 extron 986C > T loci were detected using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. RESULTS: The rates of 7 extron 538_540delGGA loci among case, internal and external control groups were as follows: GGA/GGA-/- 61.2% (74/121), 78.5% (102/130), 74.3% (52/70) ; GGA/-: 24.0% (29/121), 15.4% (20/130), 22.9% (16/70) ; -/-: 14.8% (18/121), 6.1% (8/130), 2.8% (2/70), the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 14.353 P < 0.05). The AA appeared to be 86.8% (105/121), 93.1% (121/130), 91.4% (64/70) and AG were 13.2% (16/121), 6.9% (9/130), 8.6% (6/70), with difference not statistically significant (χ(2) = 2.972, P > 0.05). CC appeared as 81.0% (98/121), 90.0% (117/130), 87.1% (61/70) while CT as 19.0% (23/121), 10.0% (13/130), 12.9% (9/70), with difference not statistically significant (χ(2) = 4.319, P > 0.05). In comparing with the two control groups, the frequency of GGA/GGA was decreasing (χ(2) values were 8.957, 3.405, respectively, P < 0.05) while the frequency of -/- was increasing (χ(2) values were 5.134, 6.833, respectively, P < 0.05). RESULTS: from the univariate analysis showed that the individuals who were carrying -/- genotype had an increased risk of suffering from fluorosis (OR values were 2.7, 5.9, respectively, P < 0.05). When compared with the internal control group, the CT genotype of case group showed an increase (χ(2) = 4.139, P < 0.05) while individuals that carrying CT genotype had an increased risk of suffering from fluorosis (OR = 2.1, P < 0.05), in epidemic-area. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that the 7 extron 538_540delGGA and the 13 extron 986C > T loci polymorphism in AMBN gene might serve as the susceptibility factors causing the coal-fired fluorosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Esmalte Dentário/genética , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Fluorose Dentária/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 33(5): 492-5, 2012 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22883176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Through a two-year follow up program, this study was to analyze the urinary iodine frequency of a cohort in the intervention trial, concerning different doses of salt ionization, so as to explore the selection of appropriate concentration of salt ionization. METHODS: A multistage cluster sampling method was used to select three townships in two countries for community intervention with different doses [(15±5) mg/kg, (25±5) mg/kg, (35±5) mg/kg] of salt ionization. RESULTS: After intervention, the median of urinary iodine was reduced among the population. The urinary iodine frequencies of (15±5) mg/kg and (25±5) mg/kg among groups of children were mainly concentrated in 100-200 µg/L and 200-300 µg/L paragraphs in A county. While the 300 µg/L paragraph had an overall decline in B county, the 100 µg/L and 200 µg/L paragraph ratio increased but the trend seemed to be slow. The 100-300 µg/L paragraph of the four treatment groups took a larger proportion and kept smooth in a more ideal state. However, the control group still maintained at above 250 µg/L level. CONCLUSION: The iodine supplementation should be gradually implemented in Chongqing. The doses of salt ionization should be reduced from the current (35±15) mg/kg to (25±5) mg/kg in the economically developed areas. At the same time, we need to continuously follow the changes of the condition.


Assuntos
Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/urina , Criança , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 33(12): 1243-7, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23336193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the distribution of chemical elements in soil. To investigate the differences between patients under different state of fluorosis and normal population after preventive measurement was implemented to get rid of some chemical elements and to lower the urine fluoride levels so as to illustrate the pathogenesis of the disease. METHODS: Both ecological and comparative studies had been used to analyze the rates and levels of chemical elements. Teeth and skeletal from the patients with fluorosis and controls were taken and florin ion-selective-electrode method was used to determine urine the content of fluorine. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to determine the copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium and iron contents in the whole blood. Differences of contents were analyzed. RESULTS: In Wushan county, the soil contents of nickel (r = 0.553, P = 0.050), iodine (r = 0.571, P = 0.041), fluorine (r = 0.303, P = 0.005), pH value (r = 0.304, P = 0.005) and the rates of fluorosis showed weaker positive relationship. In Fengjie county, the soil contents of mercury (r = 0.285, P = 0.001), nickel (r = 0.212, P = 0.00) and the rates of fluorosis also showed weaker positive relationship. In Wushan county, the urine fluoride level in the patients group [(0.64 ± 0.34) mg/L] was higher than that in the control group [(0.44 ± 0.59) mg/L], (P < 0.05). In Fengjie county, copper [(29.63 ± 3.32) µmol/L] and urine fluoride [(0.83 ± 0.37) mg/L] levels in the patients group showed higher than that in the control group [(26.76 ± 3.63) µmol/L, (0.53 ± 0.23) mg/L], (P < 0.05). zinc (Zn) [(76.13 ± 11.24) µmol/L], calcium (Ca) [(1.87 ± 0.25) mmol/L], magnesium (Mg) [(1.41 ± 0.18) mmol/L] and fluoride[(0.83 ± 0.37) mg/L]levels in urine of the patients in children were higher in Fengjie than that in Wushan [(71.95 ± 7.53) µmol/L, (1.43 ± 1.34) mmol/L, (1.34 ± 0.15) mmol/L, (0.64 ± 0.34) mg/L], (P < 0.05). Mg [(1.56 ± 1.96) mmol/L], ferrum [(8.15 ± 1.00) mmol/L] and fluoride [(2.17 ± 0.99) mg/L] levels among adult patients were significantly higher than in the control group [(1.46 ± 0.16) mmol/L, (7.64 ± 1.00) mmol/L, (1.44 ± 1.22) mg/L] (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Soil, rich in alkaline and fluorosis could increase the intake of fluorine while nickel, cadmium, iodine content in soil might relate to the occurrence of fluorosis. Residents living in endemic areas where anti-fluorine elements as Zn, Ca and Mg were in shortage, might be affected by these chemical elements that related with fluorosis.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , Cobre/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fluoretos/sangue , Flúor/urina , Fluorose Dentária/sangue , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Magnésio/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Zinco/sangue
17.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 17(5): 401-5, 2011 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21837947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To gain an insight into the demographic characteristics and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) in a Chinese city, and to offer a base for preventive measures against AIDS. METHODS: We carried out a prevalence survey, using "snowball" methods to set up survey sites in the "comrade" community, the "comrades" looking for the respondents by various means. RESULTS: Among 309 respondents, 265 (85.8%) were younger than 30 years, 187 (60.5%) received college education or above, 187 (60.5%) were government officials or employees, and 91 (29.4%) were students; 299 (96.8%) were willing or very willing to get knowledge about HIV prevention and treatment, 201 (65.1%) considered themselves as MSM, 76 (24.6%) admitted bisexuality, 117 (37.9%) had insertion sex with at least three men in the past six months, 61 (19.7%) had two or more regular male sexual partners, 140 (45.3%) used condoms on >80% occasions and 34 (11.0%) occasionally or never used them during vaginal sex in the past six months. CONCLUSION: MSM in the city showed the characteristics of younger age, higher education, stable employment and income, more than one sexual partner, high frequency of high-risk behavior, and negligence of condom-use, and most (96.8%) of them are willing or very willing to obtain AIDS prevention knowledge, which deserves particular attention from relevant institutions.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 32(6): 576-8, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21781475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the change of urinary iodine in a cohort of intervention trial and to observe the role of different doses on salt iodization and related impact factors on nutritional condition of iodine. METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling was used to sample three townships in two counties for community intervention with different doses (15 ± 5, 25 ± 5, 35 ± 5) mg/kg. RESULTS: Compared to the (35 ± 5) mg/kg group, the urine iodine levels of three experimental townships were gradually declining in county B when time went on, and the (15 ± 5) mg/kg group showed an obvious results, at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, with the urine iodine level as 180.00, 186.10, 150.04, 191.28 µg/L respectively, which were in accordance with the WHO standard and reached to appropriate range (187.96 µg/L) at the 18 month. The townships at county Y under intervention had declined slightly, but the urine iodine levels did not reach the WHO standard. The thyroid volume declined from 3.65 ml to 3.40 ml in two counties and the difference between them was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: To some extent, reducing the iodine concentration in salt, had a role of lowering the urine iodine level and reducing the strumous rate.


Assuntos
Iodo/urina , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Criança , China , Feminino , Bócio/prevenção & controle , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Masculino
19.
Hypertens Res ; 25(4): 559-64, 2002 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12358141

RESUMO

As part of the Japan-China Cooperative Research Project of the WHO-Cardiovascular Disease and Alimentary Comparison Study, a cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate risk factors for high blood pressure (BP) in male adults in Chongqing, China. Subjects with hypertension (HT) were defined as those if they had systolic BP (SBP) > or = 140 mmHg or diastolic BP (DBP) > or = 90 mmHg or if they were receiving anti-hypertensive drug therapy. Subjects were also categorized into three groups according to their level of education, i.e., low- (< or = 6 years), intermediate- (7-9 years), or high- (> or = 10 years) level education. The results were as follows. (a) 20.3% of subjects had HT, 16.7% had hypercholesterolemia (serum total cholesterol > or = 220 mg/dl), and 23.4% were overweight (body mass index > or = 25 kg/m2). (b) After adjustment for age, SBP and DBP showed a significant positive association with body mass index, urinary sodium (Na) excretion, and total cholesterol (TC) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL). SBP and DBP tended to be negatively associated with 24 h urinary potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) excretion. (c) Subjects with the highest educational level had the lowest prevalence of HT (11.6%), followed by those with the low (22.6%) and the intermediate (25.0%) educational levels (p<0.05). (d) Logistic regression analysis indicated that the relative risks (95%CI) of being overweight, high TC/HDL ratio, high Na excretion and lower educational level (<10 years) for risk of HT were 5.39 (2.42-11.98), 1.73 (1.13-2.63), 1.30 (1.06-1.58), and 2.56 (1.41-6.71) respectively. (e) Subjects with the highest educational level had significantly lower Na, significantly lower Na/K ratio excretion, and significantly higher K and Mg excretion values than those with intermediate or low educational levels. In conclusion, BP was strongly associated with BMI, salt intake and other diet-related factors in the study sample. The results emphasize that education plays an important role in public health for the control of high BP in the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Educação , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Hipossódica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
20.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 1(2): 131-137, 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12718680

RESUMO

A case-control study of breast cancer (BC) was conducted from 1994 to 1996 in Chongqing, People's Republic of China, in order to explore the etiological role of passive smoking (PS, so-called second hand smoking) as well as other early life factors (weight, height, socioeconomic status and history of suffering from a disease resulting in hospitalization). These factors were reviewed both in childhood (age less than 10 years) and in the teenage years (youth: 10 to 16 years). One hundred and eighty six cases of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed BC, aged 24 to 55 years, were individually matched by day (within six months) and age (within 2 years) at diagnosis as well as marital status to 186 controls selected from outpatients not suffering from cancer. All subjects, cases and controls were never-smokers. A standardized questionnaire was used for interview in a face-to-face situation. After adjustment for a wide range of covariates using multiple logistic regression analysis, PS was found to be a statistically significant risk factor for BC. This was found for exposure to PS in childhood [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.24 (1.07-1.43)], in youth [1.15 (0.90-1.47)] and in adulthood for either exposure at home [4.07 (2.21-7.50)] or at work [1.27 (1.04-1.55)]. For exposure to PS in childhood, a significant dose-response effect was evident (test for trend, p<0.05) with the number of smokers in the home, as well as the perceived level of exposure to PS, and in adulthood with the number of smokers at work. Our study also found an increased risk of BC in those with a past history of suffering from a disease requiring hospitalization [2.41 (1.21-4.81)]. Subjects with a low body weight in childhood and with a poor economic status in youth were associated with increased risk of BC in their adulthood [1.54 (1.09-2.18) and 1.03 (1.00-1.06)]. Being overweight as an adult, however, was associated with a high risk of BC [1.76 (1.02-3.04)]. Age at menarche [0.83 (0.72-0.95)] was associated negatively with risk of BC. A history of benign breast disease [2.05 (1.01-4.16)] or a history of life stress [2.32 (1.54-3.48)] were both associated with increased risk of BC. Our results therefore indicate a small but definite effect associated with PS, the credibility of which is enhanced by a dose-response relationship to BC risk. The other early life factors, such as age at menarche, history of suffering from a disease requiring hospitalization, history of benign breast disease, being overweight as an adult and life stress are similar to those consistently found in other countries. The associations involving low body weight, low socioeconomic status in early life and subsequent high risk of BC require further study.

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