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1.
Health Sci Rep ; 3(4): e196, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145442

RESUMO

Background: An estimated 2.8 million neonatal deaths occur each year globally, which accounts for at least 45% of deaths in children aged less than 5 years. Birthweight and gestational age-specific mortality estimates are limited in low-resource countries like Uganda. A deeper analysis of mortality by birthweight and gestational age is critical in identifying the cause and potential solutions to decrease neonatal mortality. Objectives: We studied mortality before discharge in relation to birthweight and gestational age using a large sample size from selected tertiary care facilities in Uganda. Methods: We used secondary data from the East Africa Preterm Birth Initiative study conducted in six tertiary care facilities. Birth records of infants born between October 2016 and March 2019 with a gestational age greater than or equal to 24 weeks and/or birthweight greater than or equal to 500 g were reviewed for inclusion in the analysis. Newborn death before discharge was the outcome variable of interest. Multivariable Poisson regression modeling was used to explore birthweight and gestational age-specific mortality rate. Results: We analysed 50 278 birth records. Among these 95.3% (47 913) were live births and 4.8% (2365) were stillbirths. Of the 47 913 live births, 50% (24 147) were males. Overall, pre-discharge mortality was 13.0 per 1000 live births. For each 1 kg increase in birthweight, mortality before discharge decreased by -0.016. As birthweight increases, the mortality before discharge decreased from 336 per 1000 live births among infants born between 500 and 999 g, to 4.7 per 1000 live births among infants born weighing 3500 to 3999 g, and increased again to 11.2 per 1000 live births among infants weighing more than 4500 g. Conclusions: Our study highlights the need for further research to understand newborn survival across different birthweight and gestational categories.

2.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1820714, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complications due to prematurity are a threat to child survival and full developmental potential particularly in low-income settings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the neurodevelopmental outcomes among preterm infants and identify any modifiable factors associated with neurodevelopmental disability (NDD). METHODS: We recruited 454 babies (242 preterms with birth weight <2.5 kg, and 212 term babies) in a cohort study at birth from Iganga hospital between May and July 2018. We followed up the babies at an average age of 7 months (adjusted for prematurity) and assessed 211 preterm and 187 term infants for neurodevelopmental outcomes using the Malawi Developmental Assessment tool. Mothers were interviewed on care practices for the infants. Data were analyzed using STATA version 14. RESULTS: The study revealed a high incidence of NDD of 20.4% (43/211) among preterm infants compared to 7.5% (14/187) among the term babies, p < 0.001, of the same age. The most affected domain was fine motor (11.8%), followed by language (9.0%). At multivariate analysis, malnutrition and Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) at home after discharge were the key factors that were significantly associated with NDD among preterm babies. The prevalence of malnutrition among preterm infants was 20% and this significantly increased the odds of developing NDD, OR = 2.92 (95% CI: 1.27-6.71). KMC practice at home reduced the odds of developing NDD, OR = 0.46, (95% CI: 0.21-1.00). Re-admission of preterm infants after discharge (a sign of severe illness) increased the odds of developing NDD but this was not statistically significant, OR = 2.33 (95% CI: 0.91-5.94). CONCLUSION: Our study has shown that preterm infants are at a high risk of developing NDD, especially those with malnutrition. Health system readiness should be improved to provide follow-up care with emphasis on improving nutrition and continuity of KMC at home.

3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 497, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delivery in a facility with a skilled health provider is considered the most important intervention to reduce maternal and early newborn deaths. Providing care close to people's homes is an important strategy to facilitate equitable access, but many women are known to bypass the closest delivery facility for a higher level one. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent mothers in rural Uganda bypassed their nearest facility for childbirth care and the determinants for their choice. METHODS: The study used data collected as part of the Expanded Quality Management Using Information power (EQUIP) study in the Mayuge District of Eastern Uganda between 2011 and 2014. In this study, bypassing was defined as delivering in a health facility that was not the nearest childbirth facility to the mother's home. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the relationship between bypassing the nearest health facility for childbirth and the different independent factors. RESULTS: Of all women delivering in a health facility, 45% (499/1115) did not deliver in the nearest facility regardless of the level of care. Further, after excluding women who delivered in health centre II (which is not formally equipped to provide childbirth care) and excluding those who were referred or had a caesarean section (because their reasons for bypassing may be different), 29% (204/717) of women bypassed their nearest facility to give birth in another facility, 50% going to the only hospital of the district. The odds of bypassing increased if a mother belonged to highest wealth quintile compared to the lowest quintile (AOR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.12-4.46) and decreased with increase of readiness of score of the nearest facility for childbirth (AOR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.69-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The extent of bypassing the nearest childbirth facility in this rural Ugandan setting was 29%, and was associated primarily with the readiness of the nearest facility to provide care as well as the wealth of the household. These results suggest inequalities in bypassing for better quality care that have important implications for improving Uganda's maternal and newborn health outcomes.

4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(8): e1061-e1070, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although gains in newborn survival have been achieved in many low-income and middle-income countries, reductions in stillbirth and neonatal mortality have been slow. Prematurity complications are a major driver of stillbirth and neonatal mortality. We aimed to assess the effect of a quality improvement package for intrapartum and immediate newborn care on stillbirth and preterm neonatal survival in Kenya and Uganda, where evidence-based practices are often underutilised. METHODS: This unblinded cluster-randomised controlled trial was done in western Kenya and eastern Uganda at facilities that provide 24-h maternity care with at least 200 births per year. The study assessed outcomes of low-birthweight and preterm babies. Eligible facilities were pair-matched and randomly assigned (1:1) into either the intervention group or the control group. All facilities received maternity register data strengthening and a modified WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist; facilities in the intervention group additionally received provider mentoring using PRONTO simulation and team training as well as quality improvement collaboratives. Liveborn or fresh stillborn babies who weighed between 1000 g and 2500 g, or less than 3000 g with a recorded gestational age of less than 37 weeks, were included in the analysis. We abstracted data from maternity registers for maternal and birth outcomes. Follow-up was done by phone or in person to identify the status of the infant at 28 days. The primary outcome was fresh stillbirth and 28-day neonatal mortality. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03112018. FINDINGS: Between Oct 1, 2016, and April 30, 2019, 20 facilities were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n=10) or the control group (n=10). Among 5343 eligible babies in these facilities, we assessed outcomes of 2938 newborn and fresh stillborn babies (1447 in the intervention and 1491 in the control group). 347 (23%) of 1491 infants in the control group were stillborn or died in the neonatal period compared with 221 (15%) of 1447 infants in the intervention group at 28 days (odds ratio 0·66, 95% CI 0·54-0·81). No harm or adverse effects were found. INTERPRETATION: Fresh stillbirth and neonatal mortality among low-birthweight and preterm babies can be decreased using a package of interventions that reinforces evidence-based practices and invests in health system strengthening. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Uganda/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233845, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479522

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As facility-based deliveries increase globally, maternity registers offer a promising way of documenting pregnancy outcomes and understanding opportunities for perinatal mortality prevention. This study aims to contribute to global quality improvement efforts by characterizing facility-based pregnancy outcomes in Kenya and Uganda including maternal, neonatal, and fetal outcomes at the time of delivery and neonatal discharge outcomes using strengthened maternity registers. METHODS: Cross sectional data were collected from strengthened maternity registers at 23 facilities over 18 months. Data strengthening efforts included provision of supplies, training on standard indicator definitions, and monthly feedback on completeness. Pregnancy outcomes were classified as live births, early stillbirths, late stillbirths, or spontaneous abortions according to birth weight or gestational age. Discharge outcomes were assessed for all live births. Outcomes were assessed by country and by infant, maternal, and facility characteristics. Maternal mortality was also examined. RESULTS: Among 50,981 deliveries, 91.3% were live born and, of those, 1.6% died before discharge. An additional 0.5% of deliveries were early stillbirths, 3.6% late stillbirths, and 4.7% spontaneous abortions. There were 64 documented maternal deaths (0.1%). Preterm and low birthweight infants represented a disproportionate number of stillbirths and pre-discharge deaths, yet very few were born at ≤1500g or <28w. More pre-discharge deaths and stillbirths occurred after maternal referral and with cesarean section. Half of maternal deaths occurred in women who had undergone cesarean section. CONCLUSION: Maternity registers are a valuable data source for understanding pregnancy outcomes including those mothers and infants at highest risk of perinatal mortality. Strengthened register data in Kenya and Uganda highlight the need for renewed focus on improving care of preterm and low birthweight infants and expanding access to emergency obstetric care. Registers also permit enumeration of pregnancy loss <28 weeks. Documenting these earlier losses is an important step towards further mortality reduction for the most vulnerable infants.


Assuntos
Maternidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Maternidades/normas , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia , Masculino , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez , Melhoria de Qualidade , Uganda
6.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260519888526, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789094

RESUMO

Research assessing familial violence against adolescents, using caregiver-adolescent dyads, is limited in post-conflict settings. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with adolescent-reported familial abuse in post-conflict northern Uganda. It also assessed the relationship between abuse subtypes and (a) beliefs supporting aggression and (b) adolescent well-being and life satisfaction. A randomly selected community-based sample of 10- to 17-year-old adolescents (54% girls) and their caregivers (N = 427 dyads) in two northern Uganda districts was used. Abuse outcomes were adolescent reported. All measures used standardized tools that have been adapted for research in resource-limited settings. Analyses used multivariable linear regressions in Stata 14/IC. Overall, physical, emotional, and sexual abuse rates were 70% (confidence interval [CI] = [65.7, 74.4]), 72% (CI = [67.4, 76.0]), and 18.0% (CI = [14.0, 21.2]), respectively. Polyvictimization was 61% (CI = [55.4, 64.7]). There were no gender differences regarding adolescent reports of physical and emotional abuse, but adolescent girls were more likely to report sexual abuse and polyvictimization than adolescent boys. All forms of adolescent-reported abuse (except sexual abuse) were associated with caregiver reports of harsh disciplinary practices. In addition, emotional abuse was associated with physical and sexual abuse. Physical abuse was associated with being an orphan and emotional abuse. Sexual abuse was associated with being a girl, older adolescent age, living in a larger household, and emotional abuse. Polyvictimization was positively associated with being an orphan, younger caregiver age, caregiver-reported poor monitoring and supervision, and higher household socioeconomic status, but negatively associated with lower parental role satisfaction. Physical and emotional (but not sexual) abuse and polyvictimization were associated with beliefs supporting aggression among adolescents. All abuse subtypes were associated with lower levels of perceived well-being and life satisfaction among adolescents in this study. Child abuse prevention programs have the potential to improve adolescent-caregiver interaction and interrupt the violence transmission cycle in this setting.

7.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 2091-2099, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656493

RESUMO

Objective: To explore simple inexpensive non-culture based predictors of recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Setting and study population: HIV-infected and uninfected adults with the first episode of smear positive, culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis in a high tuberculosis burden country. Design: A nested prospective cohort study of participants with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) presenting to a hospital out-patient clinic. Results: A total of 630 TB culture confirmed participants were followed up for eighteen months of which 57 (9%) developed recurrent recurrent TB. On univariate analysis,4.7% low grade(1+) pre-treatment sputum smear participants developed recurrent tuberculosis Vs 8.8% with high grade(3+) smears (OR=0.31,95%CI: 0.10-0.93, p=0.037).On multivariate analysis: participants with extensive fibro-cavitation had a high risk of recurrent TB Vs minimal end of treatment fibro-cavitation (18%Vs12%, OR=2.3,95%CI:1.09-4.68, p=0.03). Weight gain with HIV infection was assosciated with a high risk of recurrent TB Vs weight gain with no HIV infection(18%Vs 6%, OR=6.8,95%CI:165-27.83, p=0.008) where as weight gain with a low pre-treatment high bacillary burden was assosciated with a low risk of recurrent TB Vs weight gain with a high pre-treatmentbacillary burden(6.5%Vs7.9%, OR=0.2,95%CI:0.05-0.79, p=0.02). Conclusion: Extensive end of treatment pulmonary fibro-cavitation, high pre-treatment bacillary burden with no weight gain and HIV infection could be reliable predictors of recurrent tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 379, 2019 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) is increasingly acknowledged as one of the important causes of disease burden in low income countries. None the less, there is a dearth of data on the burden of NDD and its determinants in these settings. We aimed to establish the prevalence and factors associated with NDD among infants in Eastern Uganda. METHODS: We assessed 487 infants aged 9-12 months within Iganga-Mayuge Health Demographic Surveillance Site in Eastern Uganda using the Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool. The tool has four domains: gross motor, fine motor, language and social domains. An infant failed a domain if she/he failed more than two parameters of the expected at his/her age. We interviewed mothers on factors that could influence the infants' neurodevelopmental outcomes. Data were analysed using STATA version 14. We used odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to assess statistical significance of associations. RESULTS: Of the 487 infants, 62(12.7%) had an NDD in at least one of the domains. The most affected was social behaviour where 52(10.7%) infants had an NDD. Severe impairment was seen among 9(1.8%) infants with NDD in either three or four domains. Factors associated with NDD at multivariate logistic regression included: parity of more than three children (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.02-3.18); failure to cry at birth (aOR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.46-9.17) and post-neonatal complications (aOR = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.22-14.10). Low birth weight, immediate and exclusive breast feeding were not significantly associated with NDD. CONCLUSION: We found a high NDD burden among infants particularly in the social behaviour domain. To optimise the socio-neural development of infants, programs are needed to educate and work with families on how to engage and stimulate infants. Existing immunisation clinics and community health worker strategies provide an excellent opportunity for stemming this burden.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236281

RESUMO

Background: The successful promotion of facility births in low and middle-income countries has not always resulted in improved neonatal outcome. We evaluated key signal functions pertinent to Level II neonatal care to determine facility readiness to care for high risk/ small and sick newborns. Method: Facility readiness for care of high risk/ small and sick babies was determined through self-evaluation using a pre-designed checklist to determine key signal functions pertinent to Level II neonatal care in selected referral hospitals in Uganda (10), Indonesia (4) and India (2) with focus on the Sub-Saharan country with greater challenges. Results: Most facilities reported having continuous water supply, resources for hand hygiene and waste disposal. Delivery rooms had newborn corners for basic neonatal resuscitation, but few practiced proper reprocessing of resuscitation equipment. Birth weight records were not consistently maintained in the Ugandan hospitals. In facilities with records of birth weights, more than half (51.7%) of newborns admitted to the neonatal units weighed 2500 g or more. Neonatal mortality rates ranged from 1.5 to 22.5%. Evaluation of stillbirths and numbers of babies discharged against medical advice gave a more comprehensive idea of outcome. Kangaroo Mother Care was practiced to varying extents. Incubators were more common in Africa while radiant warmers were preferred in Indian hospitals. Tube feeding was practiced in all and cup feeding in most, with use of human milk at all sites. There were proportionately more certified pediatricians and nurses in Indonesia and India. There was considerable shortage of nursing staff, (worst nurse -bed ratio ranging from 1 to 15 in the day shift, and 1 to 30 at night). There was significant variability in facility readiness, as in data maintenance, availability of commodities such as linen, air -oxygen blenders and infusion pumps and of infection prevention practices. Conclusions: Referral neonatal units in LMIC have challenges in meeting even the basic level II requirements, with significant variability in equipment, staffing and selected care practices. Facility readiness has to improve in concert with increased facility births of high risk newborns in order to have an impact on neonatal outcome, and on achieving Sustainable Development Goals 3.2.2.

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 600, 2017 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the search for fast, simple and better ways for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), there is need to discover and evaluate new biomarkers that are found in samples other than sputum to determine their effectiveness. This study examined the utility of saliva vis-a-vis serum by evaluating levels of biomarkers found in saliva and serum from TB suspects. METHODS: Study enrolled tuberculosis suspects. Sputum MGIT was used as the gold standard for active TB. Quantiferon gold-In tube assay was done to identify exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Multiplex assay was run for 10 markers using a 10 plex customized kit from Bio-Rad Laboratories. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between saliva and serum marker levels. Saliva had significantly higher levels of GM-CSF and VEGF. Serum had higher levels of MIP-1a, b, TNF-a, G-CSF and IFN-g. Serum levels of IL-6, VEGF and TNF-a were significantly different between participants with active TB disease and those with other respiratory diseases. CONCLUSION: Salivary TB biomarkers are worth the search to evaluate their ability to differentiate between TB disease states for generation of a non invasive point of care test for TB diagnosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Saliva/metabolismo , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/análise , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/sangue , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/análise , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-6/análise , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Saliva/microbiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
11.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 83(2): 162-4, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26239846

RESUMO

We retrospectively analyzed time to detection of 3747 positive MGIT sputum cultures at a laboratory in a country with heavy burden of tuberculosis. Ninety-nine percent of diagnostic cultures turned positive within 28days, suggesting that physicians may consider alternative diagnoses if sputum cultures remain negative after 4weeks of incubation.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose/microbiologia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 15: 181, 2015 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25884439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of M. tuberculosis (MTB) and non tuberculous Mycobacterium species (NTMs) like M. avium and M. kansasii has increased due to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic. Therefore accurate, rapid and cost effective methods for the identification of these NTMs and MTB are greatly needed for appropriate TB management. Thus in this study we evaluated the performance of Lightcycler(®) Mycobacterium detection assay to detect MTB, M. avium and M. kansasii in sputum specimens. METHODS: A total of 241 baseline minimally processed sputum specimens from individual adult TB suspected patients were analyzed by Mycobacterium detection assay (Real-time-PCR) on a LightCycler 480(®) while using liquid culture as a reference standard. RESULTS: Real time PCR had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 96-100) and 100% (CI 19-100) for detection of MTB and M. avium respectively. Additionally the assay had a specificity of 99% (95% CI 96-99) and 95% (95% CI 91-97) for identification of MTB and M. avium respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) for Real time PCR to identify MTB and M. avium among the specimens was 98% (95% CI 94-99) and 15% (95% CI 2-45) respectively. The kappa statistics for Real time PCR to identify MTB and M. avium was 0.9 (95% CI 0.9-1.0) and 0.3 (95% CI-0.03-0.5) respectively. The median time to detection for Real time PCR assay was 2 hours while overall median time to detection for MGIT-positive cultures was 8 days. The sample unit cost for Real time PCR was $ 12 compared to $ 20 for the reference liquid culture. CONCLUSION: The Light cycler(®) Mycobacterium detection assay rapidly and correctly identified MTB and M avium thus has the potential to be adopted in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Humanos , Mycobacterium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Uganda
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