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1.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-7, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512575

RESUMO

Nordic twin studies have played a critical role in understanding cancer etiology and elucidating the nature of familial effects on site-specific cancers. The NorTwinCan consortium is a collaborative effort that capitalizes on unique research advantages made possible through the Nordic system of registries. It was constructed by linking the population-based twin registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden to their country-specific national cancer and cause-of-death registries. These linkages enable the twins to be followed many decades for cancer incidence and mortality. To date, two major linkages have been conducted: NorTwinCan I in 2011-2012 and NorTwinCan II in 2018. Overall, there are 315,413 eligible twins, 57,236 incident cancer cases and 58 years of follow-up, on average. In the initial phases of our work, NorTwinCan established the world's most comprehensive twin database for studying cancer, developed novel analytical approaches tailored to address specific research considerations within the context of the Nordic data and leveraged these models and data in research publications that provide the most accurate estimates of heritability and familial risk of cancers reported in the literature to date. Our findings indicate an excess familial risk for nearly all cancers and demonstrate that the incidence of cancer among twins mirrors the rate in the general population. They also revealed that twin concordance for cancer most often manifests across, rather than within, cancer sites, and we are currently focusing on the analysis of these cross-cancer associations.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318977

RESUMO

Family history is among the strongest known risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa). Emerging data suggest molecular subtypes of PCa, including two somatic genetic aberrations: fusions of androgen-regulated promoters with ERG and, separately, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss. We examined associations between family history and incidence of these subtypes in 44,126 men from the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study. ERG and PTEN status were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Multivariable competing risks models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between self-reported family history of PCa and molecular subtypes of disease. Thirteen percent of men had a positive family history of PCa at baseline. During a median follow-up of 18.5 years, 5,511 PCa cases were diagnosed. Among them, 888 were assayed for ERG status (47% ERG-positive) and 715 were assayed for PTEN loss (14% PTEN null). Family history was more strongly associated with risk of ERG-negative (HR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.71-2.70) than ERG-positive (HR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13-1.95) disease (pheterogeneity : 0.04). The strongest difference was among men with an affected father (HRERG-negative : 2.09; 95% CI: 1.64-2.66; HRERG-positive : 1.30; 95% CI: 0.96-1.76; pheterogeneity : 0.01). Family history of PCa was positively associated with both PTEN null (HR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.26-3.49) and PTEN intact (HR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.39-2.13) PCa (pheterogeneity : 0.47). Our results indicate that PCa family history may be positively associated with PCa in all ERG and PTEN subtypes, suggesting a role of genetic susceptibility in their development. It is possible that ERG-negative disease could be especially associated with positive family history.

3.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 991-1012, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155658

RESUMO

The Consortium of Metabolomics Studies (COMETS) was established in 2014 to facilitate large-scale collaborative research on the human metabolome and its relationship with disease etiology, diagnosis, and prognosis. COMETS comprises 47 cohorts from Asia, Europe, North America, and South America that together include more than 136,000 participants with blood metabolomics data on samples collected from 1985 to 2017. Metabolomics data were provided by 17 different platforms, with the most frequently used labs being Metabolon, Inc. (14 cohorts), the Broad Institute (15 cohorts), and Nightingale Health (11 cohorts). Participants have been followed for a median of 23 years for health outcomes including death, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and others; many of the studies are ongoing. Available exposure-related data include common clinical measurements and behavioral factors, as well as genome-wide genotype data. Two feasibility studies were conducted to evaluate the comparability of metabolomics platforms used by COMETS cohorts. The first study showed that the overlap between any 2 different laboratories ranged from 6 to 121 metabolites at 5 leading laboratories. The second study showed that the median Spearman correlation comparing 111 overlapping metabolites captured by Metabolon and the Broad Institute was 0.79 (interquartile range, 0.56-0.89).

4.
Prostate ; 79(11): 1338-1346, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is thought to influence the risk of prostate cancer. The purpose of this population-based case-control study was to evaluate the association of 48 circulating inflammation markers with prostate cancer, to identify candidate markers for further investigation. METHODS: Serum samples collected from 235 prostate cancer patients and 198 population-based controls recruited in Örebro County, Sweden, in 1989-1991, were assessed using a multiplex bead-based immunoassay to determine concentrations of 48 circulating inflammation markers. Logistic regression was first used to evaluate the association between individual markers (highest vs lowest concentration quartile) and prostate cancer in unadjusted and mutually adjusted models. Second, patients with inflammatory conditions, metastatic or advanced prostate cancer, were excluded to address the possible influence of systemic disease on inflammation markers. RESULTS: Individual analyses first identified 21 markers associated with prostate cancer (P < .05), which after mutual adjustment were reduced to seven markers. After the exclusion of men with conditions linked with systemic inflammation, associations between prostate cancer and deviant levels of C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1, platelet-derived growth factor subunit B homodimer, interleukin 10, C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL) 21, and CCL11 remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In this explorative study, we identified candidate inflammation markers of possible importance for prostate cancer pathophysiology, for further evaluation in prospective studies.

5.
Cancer ; 125(16): 2877-2885, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Cancer Research Fund classifies as "strong evidence" the link between obesity and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. In light of the different hormonal profiles associated with where adipose is stored, this study investigated the role of objectively measured body fat distribution and the risk of clinically relevant prostate cancer. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 1832 men in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik study. From 2002 to 2006, participants underwent baseline computed tomography imaging of fat deposition, bioelectric impedance analysis, and measurement of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Men were followed through linkage with nationwide cancer registries for the incidence of total (n = 172), high-grade (Gleason grade ≥8; n = 43), advanced (≥cT3b/N1/M1 at diagnosis or fatal prostate cancer over follow-up; n = 41), and fatal prostate cancer (n = 31) through 2015. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between adiposity measures and prostate cancer outcomes. RESULTS: Among all men, visceral fat (hazard ratio [HR], 1.31 per 1-standard deviation [SD] increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.72) and thigh subcutaneous fat (HR, 1.37 per 1-SD increase; 95% CI, 1.00-1.88) were associated with risk of advanced and fatal disease, respectively. Among men who were leaner based on BMI, visceral fat was associated with both advanced and fatal disease. BMI and waist circumference were associated with a higher risk of advanced and fatal disease. No adiposity measures were associated with total or high-grade disease. CONCLUSIONS: Specific fat depots as well as BMI and waist circumference were associated with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, which may help to elucidate underlying mechanisms and target intervention strategies.

7.
J Nutr ; 149(7): 1215-1221, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intake of nuts has been inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, partly through inducing a healthy lipid profile. How nut intake may affect lipid metabolites remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the plasma lipid metabolites associated with habitual nut consumption in US men and women. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 1099 participants in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), NHS II, and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Metabolic profiling was conducted on plasma by LC-mass spectrometry. Nut intake was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires. We included 144 known lipid metabolites that had CVs ≤25%. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the associations of nut consumption with individual plasma lipid metabolites. RESULTS: We identified 17 lipid metabolites that were significantly associated with nut intake, based on a 1 serving (28 g)/d increment in multivariate models [false discovery rate (FDR) P value <0.05]. Among these species, 8 were positively associated with nut intake [C24:0 sphingomyelin (SM), C36:3 phosphatidylcholine (PC) plasmalogen-A, C36:2 PC plasmalogen, C24:0 ceramide, C36:1 PC plasmalogen, C22:0 SM, C34:1 PC plasmalogen, and C36:2 phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen], with changes in relative metabolite level (expressed in number of SDs on the log scale) ranging from 0.36 to 0.46 for 1 serving/d of nuts. The other 9 metabolites were inversely associated with nut intake with changes in relative metabolite level ranging from -0.34 to -0.44. In stratified analysis, 3 metabolites were positively associated with both peanuts and peanut butter (C24:0 SM, C24:0 ceramide, and C22:0 SM), whereas 6 metabolites were inversely associated with other nuts (FDR P value <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A panel of lipid metabolites was associated with intake of nuts, which may provide insight into biological mechanisms underlying associations between nuts and cardiometabolic health. Metabolites that were positively associated with intake of nuts may be helpful in identifying potential biomarkers of nut intake.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(23): 11390-11395, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085648

RESUMO

Aneuploidy, defined as chromosome gains and losses, is a hallmark of cancer. However, compared with other tumor types, extensive aneuploidy is relatively rare in prostate cancer. Thus, whether numerical chromosome aberrations dictate disease progression in prostate cancer patients is not known. Here, we report the development of a method based on whole-transcriptome profiling that allowed us to identify chromosome-arm gains and losses in 333 primary prostate tumors. In two independent cohorts (n = 404) followed prospectively for metastases and prostate cancer-specific death for a median of 15 years, increasing extent of tumor aneuploidy as predicted from the tumor transcriptome was strongly associated with higher risk of lethal disease. The 23% of patients whose tumors had five or more predicted chromosome-arm alterations had 5.3 times higher odds of lethal cancer (95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 13.1) than those with the same Gleason score and no predicted aneuploidy. Aneuploidy was associated with lethality even among men with high-risk Gleason score 8-to-10 tumors. These results point to a key role of aneuploidy in driving aggressive disease in primary prostate cancer.

10.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 799-811, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069578

RESUMO

An important premise of epidemiology is that individuals with the same disease share similar underlying etiologies and clinical outcomes. In the past few decades, our knowledge of disease pathogenesis has improved, and disease classification systems have evolved to the point where no complex disease processes are considered homogenous. As a result, pathology and epidemiology have been integrated into the single, unified field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE). Advancing integrative molecular and population-level health sciences and addressing the unique research challenges specific to the field of MPE necessitates assembling experts in diverse fields, including epidemiology, pathology, biostatistics, computational biology, bioinformatics, genomics, immunology, and nutritional and environmental sciences. Integrating these seemingly divergent fields can lead to a greater understanding of pathogenic processes. The International MPE Meeting Series fosters discussion that addresses the specific research questions and challenges in this emerging field. The purpose of the meeting series is to: discuss novel methods to integrate pathology and epidemiology; discuss studies that provide pathogenic insights into population impact; and educate next-generation scientists. Herein, we share the proceedings of the Fourth International MPE Meeting, held in Boston, MA, USA, on 30 May-1 June, 2018. Major themes of this meeting included 'integrated genetic and molecular pathologic epidemiology', 'immunology-MPE', and 'novel disease phenotyping'. The key priority areas for future research identified by meeting attendees included integration of tumor immunology and cancer disparities into epidemiologic studies, further collaboration between computational and population-level scientists to gain new insight on exposure-disease associations, and future pooling projects of studies with comparable data.

11.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2(2): 126-134, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspirin use probably protects against some malignancies but its effects on lethal prostate cancer (PC) are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between regular aspirin use and lethal PC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were aged 40-75 yr at baseline in 1986 and have been followed with biennial questionnaires. The risk analysis includes 49 409 men. The survival analysis includes 5980 PC patients without metastatic disease at diagnosis. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine the association between current, past, or never regular aspirin use (≥2 d/wk) in relation to lethal (metastatic or fatal) PC. We also examined years of use among current users and years since stopping among past users. In the risk analysis, aspirin was updated throughout follow-up. In the survival analysis, aspirin use after diagnosis was assessed. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Some 29% of participants used aspirin regularly at baseline, which increased to 60% by 2010. In the risk analysis, 804 men were diagnosed with lethal PC. Current regular aspirin was associated with a lower risk of lethal prostate cancer (hazard ratio [HR] 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.96) compared to never users. In the survival analysis, 451 of the men diagnosed with nonmetastatic PC later developed lethal disease. Current postdiagnostic aspirin was associated with a lower risk of lethal PC (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.64-1.00) and overall mortality (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.69-0.90). When restricted to highly screened men, the risk analysis associations were stronger and survival analysis associations remained statistically significant. Reverse causation and residual confounding remain concerns, as demonstrated by the attenuated results in sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Regular aspirin use was associated with a lower risk of lethal PC. Postdiagnostic use was associated with better survival after diagnosis. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that it may be advisable for prostate cancer patients to take aspirin to improve their survival for both prostate cancer mortality and other mortality outcomes.

12.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(2): 99-107, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020942

RESUMO

The Nordic countries have comprehensive, population-based health and medical registries linkable on individually unique personal identity codes, enabling complete long-term follow-up. The aims of this study were to describe the NorTwinCan cohort established in 2010 and assess whether the cancer mortality and incidence rates among Nordic twins are similar to those in the general population. We analyzed approximately 260,000 same-sexed twins in the nationwide twin registers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Cancer incidence was determined using follow-up through the national cancer registries. We estimated standardized incidence (SIR) and mortality (SMR) ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) across country, age, period, follow-up time, sex and zygosity. More than 30,000 malignant neoplasms have occurred among the twins through 2010. Mortality rates among twins were slightly lower than in the general population (SMR 0.96; CI 95% [0.95, 0.97]), but this depends on information about zygosity. Twins have slightly lower cancer incidence rates than the general population, with SIRs of 0.97 (95% CI [0.96, 0.99]) in men and 0.96 (95% CI [0.94, 0.97]) in women. Testicular cancer occurs more often among male twins than singletons (SIR 1.15; 95% CI [1.02, 1.30]), while cancers of the kidney (SIR 0.82; 95% CI [0.76, 0.89]), lung (SIR 0.89; 95% CI [0.85, 0.92]) and colon (SIR 0.90; 95% CI [0.87, 0.94]) occur less often in twins than in the background population. Our findings indicate that the risk of cancer among twins is so similar to the general population that cancer risk factors and estimates of heritability derived from the Nordic twin registers are generalizable to the background populations.

13.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(17): 1499-1511, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026211

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is unknown whether alcohol intake is associated with the risk of lethal (metastatic or fatal) prostate cancer. We examine (1) whether alcohol intake among men at risk of prostate cancer is associated with diagnosis of lethal prostate cancer and (2) whether intake among men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer is associated with metastasis or death. METHODS: This prospective cohort study uses the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986 to 2012). Our analysis of alcohol intake among men at risk of prostate cancer included 47,568 cancer-free men. Our analysis of alcohol intake among men with prostate cancer was restricted to 5,182 men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer during follow-up. We examine the association of total alcohol, red and white wine, beer, and liquor with lethal prostate cancer and death. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Alcohol drinkers had a lower risk of lethal prostate cancer (any v none: HR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.71 to 0.99]) without a dose-response relationship. Total alcohol intake among patients with prostate cancer was not associated with progression to lethal prostate cancer (any v none: HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.57 to 1.72]), whereas moderate red wine intake was associated with a lower risk (any v none: HR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.29 to 0.86]; P trend = .05). Compared with none, 15 to 30 g/d of total alcohol after prostate cancer diagnosis was associated with a lower risk of death (HR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.50 to 1.00]), as was red wine (any v none: HR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.57 to 0.97]; P trend = .007). CONCLUSION: Cancer-free men who consumed alcohol had a slightly lower risk of lethal prostate cancer compared with abstainers. Among men with prostate cancer, red wine was associated with a lower risk of progression to lethal disease. These observed associations merit additional study but provide assurance that moderate alcohol consumption is safe for patients with prostate cancer.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(6): 1052-1058, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher intratumoral cholesterol synthesis is associated with a worse prognosis in prostate cancer. The vitamin D-regulated enzyme sterol-27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) converts cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, potentially lowering intracellular cholesterol levels. We hypothesized that low CYP27A1 expression is associated with high cholesterol synthesis, low vitamin D signaling, and higher risk of lethal prostate cancer. METHODS: In 404 patients from the prospective prostate cancer cohorts within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) and the Physicians' Health Study (PHS), we assessed intratumoral CYP27A1 expression and proxies of cholesterol synthesis using transcriptome profiling, prediagnostic plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D; n = 132], and intratumoral vitamin D receptor protein expression (VDR; n = 300). Patients were followed for metastases and prostate cancer mortality (lethal cancer; median follow-up, 15.3 years). RESULTS: CYP27A1 expression was lower in tumors with higher Gleason grade and higher expression of cholesterol synthesis enzymes, including the second rate-limiting enzyme, SQLE. We did not detect consistent associations between CYP27A1 and 25(OH)D, VDR, or CYP24A1 mRNA expression. Lower CYP27A1 was associated with higher risk of lethal cancer in both cohorts, independent of SQLE [adjusted OR for lowest vs. highest quartile of CYP27A1, 2.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-5.62]. This association was attenuated when additionally adjusting for Gleason grade (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 0.75-4.17). CONCLUSIONS: Low CYP27A1 expression was associated with higher cholesterol synthesis and a higher risk of lethal disease. IMPACT: These observations further support the hypothesis that intratumoral cholesterol accumulation through higher synthesis and decreased catabolism is a feature of lethal prostate cancer.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873591

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been implicated in the aetiology of several cancers. To better understand whether anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors may play a role in cancer risk via IGF signalling, we examined the cross-sectional associations of these exposures with circulating concentrations of IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) and IGFBPs (IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3). The Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group dataset includes individual participant data from 16,024 male controls (i.e. without prostate cancer) aged 22-89 years from 22 prospective studies. Geometric means of protein concentrations were estimated using analysis of variance, adjusted for relevant covariates. Older age was associated with higher concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and lower concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3. Higher body mass index was associated with lower concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. Taller height was associated with higher concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and lower concentrations of IGFBP-1. Smokers had higher concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and lower concentrations of IGFBP-3 than nonsmokers. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of IGF-II and lower concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-2. African Americans had lower concentrations of IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 and Hispanics had lower IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 than non-Hispanic whites. These findings indicate that a range of anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors are associated with circulating concentrations of IGFs and IGFBPs in men, which will lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms through which these factors influence cancer risk.

16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(3): 635-647, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee consumption has been linked to lower risk of various health outcomes. However, the biological pathways mediating the associations remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between coffee consumption and concentrations of plasma biomarkers in key metabolic and inflammatory pathways underlying common chronic diseases. METHODS: We investigated the associations of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee consumption with 14 plasma biomarkers, including C-peptide, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein (IGFBP) 1, IGFBP-3, estrone, total and free estradiol, total and free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR-2). Data were derived from 2 cohorts of 15,551 women (Nurses' Health Study) and 7397 men (Health Professionals Follow-Up Study), who provided detailed dietary data before blood draw and were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at the time of blood draw. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate the percentage difference of biomarker concentrations comparing coffee drinkers with nondrinkers, after adjusting for a variety of demographic, clinical, and lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Compared with nondrinkers, participants who drank ≥4 cups of total coffee/d had lower concentrations of C-peptide (-8.7%), IGFBP-3 (-2.2%), estrone (-6.4%), total estradiol (-5.7%), free estradiol (-8.1%), leptin (-6.4%), CRP (-16.6%), IL-6 (-8.1%), and sTNFR-2 (-5.8%) and higher concentrations of SHBG (5.0%), total testosterone (7.3% in women and 5.3% in men), total adiponectin (9.3%), and HMW adiponectin (17.2%). The results were largely similar for caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that coffee consumption is associated with favorable profiles of numerous biomarkers in key metabolic and inflammatory pathways. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03419455.

17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(4): 333-342, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805814

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our main aim was to explore whether pre-diagnostic circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) among older individuals with cancer were associated with overall and cancer-specific survival after diagnosis. DESIGN: We used data from the Reykjavik-AGES Study on participants (n = 4,619) without cancer at entry, when blood samples were taken for 25(OH)D standardized measurements. The association with cancer risk, all-cause- and cancer-specific mortality was assessed among those later diagnosed with cancer, comparing four 25(OH)D categories, using 50-69.9 nmol/L as the reference category. RESULTS: Cancer was diagnosed in 919 participants on average 8.3 years after blood draw. No association was observed between the reference group and other 25(OH)D groups and total cancer incidence. Mean age at diagnosis was 80.9 (± 5.7) years. Of those diagnosed, 552 died during follow-up, 67% from cancer. Low pre-diagnostic levels of 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L were significantly associated with increased total mortality (HR: 1.39, 95% CI 1.03, 1.88) and non-significantly with cancer-specific mortality (HR: 1.33, 95% CI 0.93, 1.90). Among patients surviving more than 2 years after diagnosis, higher pre-diagnostic 25(OH)D levels (≥ 70 nmol/L) were associated with lower risk of overall (HR: 0.68, 95% CI 0.46, 0.99) and cancer-specific mortality (HR: 0.47, 95% CI 0.26, 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Among elderly cancer patients, low pre-diagnostic serum 25(OH)D levels (< 30 nmol/L) were associated with increased overall mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/patologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/sangue , Risco , Sobrevida , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(4): 707-714, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 4%-9% of prostate cancers harbor homozygous deletions of the androgen-induced tumor suppressor gene, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF, ZBTB16). PLZF loss induces an in vitro phenotype of castration resistance and enzalutamide resistance. The association of low expression of PLZF and clinical outcomes is unclear. METHODS: We assessed PLZF mRNA expression in patients diagnosed with primary prostate cancer during prospective follow-up of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; n = 254) and the Physicians' Health Study (PHS; n = 150), as well as in The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 333). We measured PTEN status (using copy numbers and IHC) and transcriptional activation of the MAPK pathway. Patients from HPFS and PHS were followed for metastases and prostate cancer-specific mortality (median, 15.3 years; 113 lethal events). RESULTS: PLZF mRNA expression was lower in tumors with PLZF deletions. There was a strong, positive association between intratumoral androgen receptor (AR) signaling and PLZF expression. PLZF expression was also lower in tumors with PTEN loss. Low PLZF expression was associated with higher MAPK signaling. Patients in the lowest quartile of PLZF expression compared with those in the highest quartile were more likely to develop lethal prostate cancer, independent of clinicopathologic features, Gleason score, and AR signaling (odds ratio, 3.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-7.60). CONCLUSIONS: Low expression of the tumor suppressor gene PLZF is associated with a worse prognosis in primary prostate cancer. IMPACT: Suppression of PLZF as a consequence of androgen deprivation may be undesirable. PLZF should be tested as a predictive marker for resistance to androgen deprivation therapy.

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