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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1236, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623038

RESUMO

Genetic models for cancer have been evaluated using almost exclusively European data, which could exacerbate health disparities. A polygenic hazard score (PHS1) is associated with age at prostate cancer diagnosis and improves screening accuracy in Europeans. Here, we evaluate performance of PHS2 (PHS1, adapted for OncoArray) in a multi-ethnic dataset of 80,491 men (49,916 cases, 30,575 controls). PHS2 is associated with age at diagnosis of any and aggressive (Gleason score ≥ 7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥ 10 ng/mL, or nodal/distant metastasis) cancer and prostate-cancer-specific death. Associations with cancer are significant within European (n = 71,856), Asian (n = 2,382), and African (n = 6,253) genetic ancestries (p < 10-180). Comparing the 80th/20th PHS2 percentiles, hazard ratios for prostate cancer, aggressive cancer, and prostate-cancer-specific death are 5.32, 5.88, and 5.68, respectively. Within European, Asian, and African ancestries, hazard ratios for prostate cancer are: 5.54, 4.49, and 2.54, respectively. PHS2 risk-stratifies men for any, aggressive, and fatal prostate cancer in a multi-ethnic dataset.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men engaged in high physical activity have lower risks of advanced and fatal prostate cancer. Mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood but may include systemic and tumor-specific effects. We investigated potential mechanisms linking physical activity and gene expression in prostate tissue from men with prostate cancer. METHODS: We included a subset of 118 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1986-2005 with whole transcriptome gene expression profiling on tumor and adjacent normal prostate tissue and physical activity data. Long-term vigorous physical activity was self-reported as the average time spent engaged in various forms of recreational physical activity at baseline and biennially until prostate cancer diagnosis. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed among KEGG and Hallmark gene sets to identify pathways with differential expression based on vigorous physical activity. RESULTS: In adjacent normal tissue, we identified 25 KEGG gene sets enriched (down-regulated) in the highest compared to lowest quintile of vigorous physical activity at a false-discovery rate <0.10, including a number of cancer- and immune-related pathways. While no gene sets reached statistical significance in tumor tissue, top gene sets differentially expressed included TGF beta, apoptosis, and p53 signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that physical activity may influence the tumor microenvironment. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and further investigate potential mechanisms linking physical activity to lethal prostate cancer. IMPACT: Identification of gene expression alterations in the prostate associated with physical activity can improve our understanding of prostate cancer etiology.

3.
Eur Urol ; 79(3): 405-412, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperinsulinemia and inflammation are inter-related pathways that link diet with the risk of several chronic diseases. Evidence suggests that these pathways may also increase prostate cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hyperinsulinemic diet and inflammatory diet are associated with prostate cancer incidence and mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We prospectively followed 41 209 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2014). Scores for two validated dietary patterns were calculated from food frequency questionnaires at baseline and updated every 4 yr. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Total, advanced, and lethal prostate cancer outcomes were assessed. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined for associations between two empirical hypothesis-oriented dietary patterns-empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern-and prostate cancer risk estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: During 28 yr of follow-up, 5929 incident cases of total prostate cancer, including 1019 advanced and 667 fatal, were documented. In multivariable-adjusted models, there was a 7% higher risk of advanced prostate cancer (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.15) and a 9% higher risk of fatal prostate cancer (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00-1.18) per standard deviation (SD) increase in the hyperinsulinemic diet. When stratified by age, the hyperinsulinemic diet was associated with only earlier-onset aggressive prostate cancer (men under 65 yr), with per SD HRs of 1.20 (95% CI: 1.06-1.35) for advanced, 1.22 (1.04-1.42) for fatal, and 1.20 (1.04-1.38) for lethal. The inflammatory diet was not associated with prostate cancer risk in the overall study population, but was associated with earlier-onset lethal prostate cancer (per SD increase HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00-1.35). CONCLUSIONS: Hyperinsulinemia and inflammation may be potential mechanisms linking dietary patterns with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, particularly earlier-onset disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: Avoiding inflammatory and hyperinsulinemic dietary patterns may be beneficial for the prevention of clinically relevant prostate cancer, especially among younger men.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic hazard scores (PHS) can identify individuals with increased risk of prostate cancer. We estimated the benefit of additional SNPs on performance of a previously validated PHS (PHS46). MATERIALS AND METHOD: 180 SNPs, shown to be previously associated with prostate cancer, were used to develop a PHS model in men with European ancestry. A machine-learning approach, LASSO-regularized Cox regression, was used to select SNPs and to estimate their coefficients in the training set (75,596 men). Performance of the resulting model was evaluated in the testing/validation set (6,411 men) with two metrics: (1) hazard ratios (HRs) and (2) positive predictive value (PPV) of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. HRs were estimated between individuals with PHS in the top 5% to those in the middle 40% (HR95/50), top 20% to bottom 20% (HR80/20), and bottom 20% to middle 40% (HR20/50). PPV was calculated for the top 20% (PPV80) and top 5% (PPV95) of PHS as the fraction of individuals with elevated PSA that were diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer on biopsy. RESULTS: 166 SNPs had non-zero coefficients in the Cox model (PHS166). All HR metrics showed significant improvements for PHS166 compared to PHS46: HR95/50 increased from 3.72 to 5.09, HR80/20 increased from 6.12 to 9.45, and HR20/50 decreased from 0.41 to 0.34. By contrast, no significant differences were observed in PPV of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating 120 additional SNPs (PHS166 vs PHS46) significantly improved HRs for prostate cancer, while PPV of PSA testing remained the same.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243928, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) represent a morphologically distinct subset of cancer cells, which aid the metastatic spread. The ExPeCT trial aimed to examine the effectiveness of a structured exercise programme in modulating levels of CTCs and platelet cloaking in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. METHODS: Participants (n = 61) were randomised into either standard care (control) or exercise arms. Whole blood was collected for all participants at baseline (T0), three months (T3) and six months (T6), and analysed for the presence of CTCs, CTC clusters and platelet cloaking. CTC data was correlated with clinico-pathological information. RESULTS: Changes in CTC number were observed within group over time, however no significant difference in CTC number was observed between groups over time. Platelet cloaking was identified in 29.5% of participants. A positive correlation between CTC number and white cell count (WCC) was observed (p = 0.0001), in addition to a positive relationship between CTC clusters and PSA levels (p = 0.0393). CONCLUSION: The presence of platelet cloaking has been observed in this patient population for the first time, in addition to a significant correlation between CTC number and WCC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClincalTrials.gov identifier NCT02453139.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Idoso , Plaquetas/patologia , Contagem de Células , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2030072, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315115

RESUMO

Importance: Resource limitations because of pandemic or other stresses on infrastructure necessitate the triage of time-sensitive care, including cancer treatments. Optimal time to treatment is underexplored, so recommendations for which cancer treatments can be deferred are often based on expert opinion. Objective: To evaluate the association between increased time to definitive therapy and mortality as a function of cancer type and stage for the 4 most prevalent cancers in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study assessed treatment and outcome information from patients with nonmetastatic breast, prostate, non-small cell lung (NSCLC), and colon cancers from 2004 to 2015, with data analyzed January to March 2020. Data on outcomes associated with appropriate curative-intent surgical, radiation, or medical therapy were gathered from the National Cancer Database. Exposures: Time-to-treatment initiation (TTI), the interval between diagnosis and therapy, using intervals of 8 to 60, 61 to 120, 121 to 180, and greater than 180 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: 5-year and 10-year predicted all-cause mortality. Results: This study included 2 241 706 patients (mean [SD] age 63 [11.9] years, 1 268 794 [56.6%] women, 1 880 317 [83.9%] White): 1 165 585 (52.0%) with breast cancer, 853 030 (38.1%) with prostate cancer, 130 597 (5.8%) with NSCLC, and 92 494 (4.1%) with colon cancer. Median (interquartile range) TTI by cancer was 32 (21-48) days for breast, 79 (55-117) days for prostate, 41 (27-62) days for NSCLC, and 26 (16-40) days for colon. Across all cancers, a general increase in the 5-year and 10-year predicted mortality was associated with increasing TTI. The most pronounced mortality association was for colon cancer (eg, 5 y predicted mortality, stage III: TTI 61-120 d, 38.9% vs. 181-365 d, 47.8%), followed by stage I NSCLC (5 y predicted mortality: TTI 61-120 d, 47.4% vs 181-365 d, 47.6%), while survival for prostate cancer was least associated (eg, 5 y predicted mortality, high risk: TTI 61-120 d, 12.8% vs 181-365 d, 14.1%), followed by breast cancer (eg, 5 y predicted mortality, stage I: TTI 61-120 d, 11.0% vs. 181-365 d, 15.2%). A nonsignificant difference in treatment delays and worsened survival was observed for stage II lung cancer patients-who had the highest all-cause mortality for any TTI regardless of treatment timing. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, for all studied cancers there was evidence that shorter TTI was associated with lower mortality, suggesting an indirect association between treatment deferral and mortality that may not become evident for years. In contrast to current pandemic-related guidelines, these findings support more timely definitive treatment for intermediate-risk and high-risk prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias da Próstata , Tempo para o Tratamento , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , /prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento/normas , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334906

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Alterations in DNA damage repair (DDR) pathway genes occur in 20%-25% of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Although PARP inhibitors (PARPis) have been shown to benefit men with mCRPC harboring DDR defects due to mutations in BRCA1/2 and ATM, additional treatments are necessary because the effects are not durable. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed transcriptomic analysis of publicly available mCRPC cases, comparing BRCA2 null with BRCA2 wild-type. We generated BRCA2-null prostate cancer cells using CRISPR/Cas9 and treated these cells with PARPis and SRC inhibitors. We also assessed the antiproliferative effects of combination treatment in 3D prostate cancer organoids. RESULTS: We observed significant enrichment of the SRC signaling pathway in BRCA2-altered mCRPC. BRCA2-null prostate cancer cell lines had increased SRC phosphorylation and higher sensitivity to SRC inhibitors (e.g., dasatinib, bosutinib, and saracatinib) relative to wild-type cells. Combination treatment with PARPis and SRC inhibitors was antiproliferative and had a synergistic effect in BRCA2-null prostate cancer cells, mCRPC organoids, and Trp53/Rb1-null prostate cancer cells. Inhibition of SRC signaling by dasatinib augmented DNA damage in BRCA2-null prostate cancer cells. Moreover, SRC knockdown increased PARPi sensitivity in BRCA2-null prostate cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: This work suggests that SRC activation may be a potential mechanism of PARPi resistance and that treatment with SRC inhibitors may overcome this resistance. Our preclinical study demonstrates that combining PARPis and SRC inhibitors may be a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with BRCA2-null mCRPC.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158149

RESUMO

The identification of recurrent founder variants in cancer predisposing genes may have important implications for implementing cost-effective targeted genetic screening strategies. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and relative risk of the CHEK2 recurrent variant c.349A>G in a series of 462 Portuguese patients with early-onset and/or familial/hereditary prostate cancer (PrCa), as well as in the large multicentre PRACTICAL case-control study comprising 55,162 prostate cancer cases and 36,147 controls. Additionally, we investigated the potential shared ancestry of the carriers by performing identity-by-descent, haplotype and age estimation analyses using high-density SNP data from 70 variant carriers belonging to 11 different populations included in the PRACTICAL consortium. The CHEK2 missense variant c.349A>G was found significantly associated with an increased risk for PrCa (OR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.2). A shared haplotype flanking the variant in all carriers was identified, strongly suggesting a common founder of European origin. Additionally, using two independent statistical algorithms, implemented by DMLE+2.3 and ESTIAGE, we were able to estimate the age of the variant between 2300 and 3125 years. By extending the haplotype analysis to 14 additional carrier families, a shared core haplotype was revealed among all carriers matching the conserved region previously identified in the high-density SNP analysis. These findings are consistent with CHEK2 c.349A>G being a founder variant associated with increased PrCa risk, suggesting its potential usefulness for cost-effective targeted genetic screening in PrCa families.

9.
J Pathol ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166087

RESUMO

Loss of the tumor suppressor gene Pten in murine prostate recapitulates human carcinogenesis and causes stromal proliferation surrounding murine prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN), which is reactive to microinvasion. In turn, invasion has been shown to be regulated in part by de novo fatty acid synthesis in prostate cancer. We therefore investigated the effects of genetic ablation of Fasn on invasive potential in prostate-specific Pten knockout mice. Combined genetic ablation of Fasn and Pten reduced the weight and volume of all the prostate lobes when compared to single knockouts. The stromal reaction to microinvasion and the cell proliferation that typically occurs in Pten knockout were largely abolished by Fasn knockout. To verify that Fasn knockout indeed results in decreased invasive potential, we show that genetic ablation and pharmacologic inhibition of FASN in prostate cancer cells significantly inhibit cellular motility and invasion. Finally, combined loss of PTEN with FASN overexpression was associated with lethality as assessed in 660 prostate cancer patients with 14.2 years of median follow-up. Taken together, these findings show that de novo lipogenesis contributes to the aggressive phenotype induced by Pten loss in murine prostate and targeting Fasn may reduce the invasive potential of prostate cancer driven by Pten loss. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

10.
Psychooncology ; 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a pre-existing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis on suicide and non-suicide mortality among men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer, and examine potential mediating factors for the relationship between PTSD and suicide. METHODS: We used patient-level data from Veterans Health Administration electronic medical records to identify men (age ≥40 years) diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2004-2014. We used Fine and Gray regression to estimate risk for competing mortality outcomes (suicide, non-suicide, alive). We used structural equation models to evaluate mediating factors. RESULTS: Our cohort comprised 214,649 men with prostate cancer, of whom 12,208 (5.7%) had a pre-existing PTSD diagnosis. Patients with PTSD compared to those without utilized more health care services and had lower risk cancer at diagnosis. Additionally, they experienced more suicide deaths (N=26, 0.21% vs. N=269, 0.13%) and fewer non-suicide deaths (N=1,399, 11.5% vs. N=45,625, 22.5%). On multivariable analysis, PTSD was an independent suicide risk factor (HR=2.35; 95% CI: 1.16, 4.78). Depression, substance use disorder, and any definitive prostate cancer treatment were partial mediators. However, PTSD was associated with lower non-suicide mortality risk (HR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96). CONCLUSION: Patients with PTSD experienced greater suicide risk even after adjusting for important mediators. They may have experienced lower non-suicide mortality risk due to favorable physical health resulting from greater health care service use and early diagnosis of lower risk cancer. Our findings highlight the importance of considering psychiatric illnesses when treating patients with prostate cancer and the need for interventions to ameliorate suicide risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of widespread prostate-specific antigen testing, it is important to focus etiologic research on the outcome of aggressive prostate cancer, but studies have defined this outcome differently. We aimed to develop an evidence-based consensus definition of aggressive prostate cancer using clinical features at diagnosis for etiologic epidemiologic research. METHODS: Among prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2007 in the U.S. SEER-18 database with follow-up through 2017, we compared the performance of categorizations of aggressive prostate cancer in discriminating fatal prostate cancer within 10 years of diagnosis, placing the most emphasis on sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). RESULTS: In our case population (n = 55,900), 3,073 men died of prostate cancer within 10 years. Among 12 definitions that included TNM stage and Gleason score, sensitivities ranged from 0.64 to 0.89 and PPVs ranged from 0.09 to 0.23. We propose defining aggressive prostate cancer as diagnosis of stage T4 or N1 or M1 or Gleason score ≥8 prostate cancer, as this definition had one of the higher PPVs (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.24) and reasonable sensitivity (0.66, 95% CI 0.64-0.67) for prostate cancer death within 10 years. Results were similar across sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that etiologic epidemiologic studies of prostate cancer report results for this definition of aggressive prostate cancer. We also recommend that studies separately report results for advanced stage (T4 or N1 or M1), high grade (Gleason score ≥8), and fatal prostate cancer. Use of this comprehensive set of endpoints will facilitate comparison of results from different studies and help elucidate prostate cancer etiology.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(22): 5903-5913, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913135

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Identifying cancers with high PI3K pathway activity is critical for treatment selection and eligibility into clinical trials of PI3K inhibitors. Assessments of tumor signaling pathway activity need to consider intratumoral heterogeneity and multiple regulatory nodes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We established a novel, mechanistically informed approach to assessing tumor signaling pathways by quantifying single-cell-level multiplex immunofluorescence using custom algorithms. In a proof-of-concept study, we stained archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue from patients with primary prostate cancer in two prospective cohort studies, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Physicians' Health Study. PTEN, stathmin, and phospho-S6 were quantified on 14 tissue microarrays as indicators of PI3K activation to derive cell-level PI3K scores. RESULTS: In 1,001 men, 988,254 tumor cells were assessed (median, 743 per tumor; interquartile range, 290-1,377). PI3K scores were higher in tumors with PTEN loss scored by a pathologist, higher Gleason grade, and a new, validated bulk PI3K transcriptional signature. Unsupervised machine-learning approaches resulted in similar clustering. Within-tumor heterogeneity in cell-level PI3K scores was high. During long-term follow-up (median, 15.3 years), rates of progression to metastases and death from prostate cancer were twice as high in the highest quartile of PI3K activation compared with the lowest quartile (hazard ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.68). CONCLUSIONS: Our novel pathway-focused approach to quantifying single-cell-level immunofluorescence in FFPE tissue identifies prostate tumors with PI3K pathway activation that are more aggressive and may respond to pathway inhibitors.

14.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(9): e475-e483, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data for front-line health-care workers and risk of COVID-19 are limited. We sought to assess risk of COVID-19 among front-line health-care workers compared with the general community and the effect of personal protective equipment (PPE) on risk. METHODS: We did a prospective, observational cohort study in the UK and the USA of the general community, including front-line health-care workers, using self-reported data from the COVID Symptom Study smartphone application (app) from March 24 (UK) and March 29 (USA) to April 23, 2020. Participants were voluntary users of the app and at first use provided information on demographic factors (including age, sex, race or ethnic background, height and weight, and occupation) and medical history, and subsequently reported any COVID-19 symptoms. We used Cox proportional hazards modelling to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of our primary outcome, which was a positive COVID-19 test. The COVID Symptom Study app is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04331509. FINDINGS: Among 2 035 395 community individuals and 99 795 front-line health-care workers, we recorded 5545 incident reports of a positive COVID-19 test over 34 435 272 person-days. Compared with the general community, front-line health-care workers were at increased risk for reporting a positive COVID-19 test (adjusted HR 11·61, 95% CI 10·93-12·33). To account for differences in testing frequency between front-line health-care workers and the general community and possible selection bias, an inverse probability-weighted model was used to adjust for the likelihood of receiving a COVID-19 test (adjusted HR 3·40, 95% CI 3·37-3·43). Secondary and post-hoc analyses suggested adequacy of PPE, clinical setting, and ethnic background were also important factors. INTERPRETATION: In the UK and the USA, risk of reporting a positive test for COVID-19 was increased among front-line health-care workers. Health-care systems should ensure adequate availability of PPE and develop additional strategies to protect health-care workers from COVID-19, particularly those from Black, Asian, and minority ethnic backgrounds. Additional follow-up of these observational findings is needed. FUNDING: Zoe Global, Wellcome Trust, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Institutes of Health Research, UK Research and Innovation, Alzheimer's Society, National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and Massachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Autorrelato , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Prostate ; 80(15): 1304-1313, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disrupted sleep has been associated with increased risk of certain cancers. Little data exist in prostate cancer. We tested the association between sleep quality and prostate cancer diagnosis overall and by tumor grade in the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events chemoprevention trial. We hypothesized that worse sleep quality would be associated with increased tumor aggressiveness. METHODS: At baseline, 5614 men completed a validated six-item questionnaire on sleep quality. We generated a composite score categorized into tertiles to measure overall sleep quality and assessed each sleep quality question individually. Logistic regression was used to test associations between baseline sleep quality and overall, low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer diagnosis at 2-year study-mandated biopsy. Models were stratified by nocturia. RESULTS: Overall sleep quality was unrelated to overall or low-grade prostate cancer. Worse overall sleep quality was associated with elevated odds of high-grade prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR]T3vsT1 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.60 and ORT2vsT1 1.39; 95% CI: 1.01-1.92). Men reporting trouble falling asleep at night sometimes vs never had elevated odds of high-grade prostate cancer (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.08-2.09) while trouble staying awake during the day was associated with decreased odds of low-grade prostate cancer (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.86). Results were similar within strata of nocturia severity. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, associations between sleep quality and prostate cancer were inconsistent. However, there was some evidence for a positive association between insomnia and high-grade prostate cancer, and an inverse relationship between daytime sleepiness and low-grade prostate cancer; findings that should be validated by future studies.

16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to identify factors specifically associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We investigated whether rare pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or deleterious (P/LP/D) germline variants in DNA repair genes are associated with aggressive PCa risk in a case-case study of aggressive versus non-aggressive disease. METHODS: Participants were 5,545 European-ancestry men, including 2,775 non-aggressive and 2,770 aggressive PCa cases, which included 467 metastatic cases (16.9%). Samples were assembled from 12 international studies and germline sequenced together. Rare (minor allele frequency<0.01) P/LP/D variants were analyzed for 155 DNA repair genes. We compared single variant, gene-based, and DNA repair pathway-based burdens by disease aggressiveness. All statistical tests are two-sided. RESULTS: BRCA2 and PALB2 had the most statistically significant gene-based associations, with 2.5% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D BRCA2 alleles (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.94 to 5.25, P = 8.58x10-7) and 0.65% of aggressive and 0.11% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D PALB2 alleles (OR = 6.31, 95% CI = 1.83 to 21.68, P = 4.79x10-4). ATM had a nominal association, with 1.6% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D ATM alleles (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.10 to 3.22, P=.02). In aggregate, P/LP/D alleles within 24 literature-curated candidate PCa DNA repair genes were more common in aggressive than non-aggressive cases (carrier frequencies=14.2% versus 10.6%, respectively; P = 5.56x10-5). However, this difference was statistically non-significant (P=.18) upon excluding BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. Among these 24 genes, P/LP/D carriers had a 1.06-year younger diagnosis age (95% CI=-1,65 to 0.48, P = 3.71x10-4). CONCLUSIONS: Risk conveyed by DNA repair genes is largely driven by rare P/LP/D alleles within BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. These findings support the importance of these genes in both screening and disease management considerations.

17.
Diabetes Care ; 43(10): 2588-2596, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coffee may protect against multiple chronic diseases, particularly type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms remain unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Leveraging dietary and metabolomic data in two large cohorts of women (the Nurses' Health Study [NHS] and NHSII), we identified and validated plasma metabolites associated with coffee intake in 1,595 women. We then evaluated the prospective association of coffee-related metabolites with diabetes risk and the added predictivity of these metabolites for diabetes in two nested case-control studies (n = 457 case and 1,371 control subjects). RESULTS: Of 461 metabolites, 34 were identified and validated to be associated with total coffee intake, including 13 positive associations (primarily trigonelline, polyphenol metabolites, and caffeine metabolites) and 21 inverse associations (primarily triacylglycerols [TAGs] and diacylglycerols [DAGs]). These associations were generally consistent for caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, except for caffeine and its metabolites that were only associated with caffeinated coffee intake. The three cholesteryl esters positively associated with coffee intake showed inverse associations with diabetes risk, whereas the 12 metabolites negatively associated with coffee (5 DAGs and 7 TAGs) showed positive associations with diabetes. Adding the 15 diabetes-associated metabolites to a classical risk factor-based prediction model increased the C-statistic from 0.79 (95% CI 0.76, 0.83) to 0.83 (95% CI 0.80, 0.86) (P < 0.001). Similar improvement was observed in the validation set. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee consumption is associated with widespread metabolic changes, among which lipid metabolites may be critical for the antidiabetes benefit of coffee. Coffee-related metabolites might help improve prediction of diabetes, but further validation studies are needed.

18.
Environ Res ; 190: 109781, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791343

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reasons why pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) continues to have poor survival are only partly known. No previous studies have analyzed the combined influence of KRAS mutations, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and trace elements upon survival in PDAC or in any other human cancer. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the individual and combined influence of KRAS mutations, POPs, and trace elements upon survival from PDAC. METHODS: Incident cases of PDAC (n = 185) were prospectively identified in five hospitals in Eastern Spain in 1992-1995 and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission. KRAS mutational status was determined from tumour tissue through polymerase chain reaction and artificial restriction fragment length polymorphism. Blood and toenail samples were obtained before treatment. Serum concentrations of POPs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Concentrations of 12 trace elements were determined in toenail samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess prognostic associations. RESULTS: Patients with a KRAS mutated tumor had a 70% higher risk of early death than patients with a KRAS wild-type PDAC (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7, p = 0.026), adjusting for age, sex, and tumor stage. KRAS mutational status was only modestly and not statistically significantly associated with survival when further adjusting by treatment or by treatment intention. The beneficial effects of treatment remained unaltered when KRAS mutational status was taken into account, and treatment did not appear to be less effective in the subgroup of patients with a KRAS mutated tumor. POPs did not materially influence survival: the adjusted HR of the highest POP tertiles was near unity for all POPs. When considering the joint effect on survival of POPs and KRAS, patients with KRAS mutated tumors had modest and nonsignificant HRs (most HRs around 1.3 to 1.4). Higher concentrations of lead, cadmium, arsenic, vanadium, and aluminium were associated with better survival. When KRAS status, POPs, and trace elements were simultaneously considered along with treatment, only the latter was statistically significantly related to survival. CONCLUSIONS: In this study based on molecular, clinical, and environmental epidemiology, KRAS mutational status, POPs, and trace elements were not adversely related to PDAC survival when treatment was simultaneously considered; only treatment was independently related to survival. The lack of adverse prognostic effects of POPs and metals measured at the time of diagnosis provide scientific and clinical reassurance on the effects of such exposures upon survival of patients with PDAC. The weak association with KRAS mutations contributes to the scant knowledge on the clinical implications of a genetic alteration highly frequent in PDAC.

19.
Environ Epidemiol ; 4(2): e091, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656487

RESUMO

Background: Growing evidence suggests that neighborhood contextual environment could influence risk factors and, therefore, incidence of lethal prostate cancer. We studied the association between neighborhood greenness and lethal prostate cancer incidence and assessed mediation by vigorous physical activity. Methods: A total of 47,958 participants were followed in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1986 to 2014. Neighborhood greenness exposure was estimated using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with 1 km resolution, assigned to home or work addresses at start of follow-up. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using sequentially adjusted Cox models with individual and contextual prostate cancer risk factors as covariates. Analyses were compared among those whose addresses were constant over follow-up and stratified by population density and address type. Results: We observed 898 cases over 1,054,743 person-years. An interquartile range increase in NDVI was associated with 5% lower rate of lethal prostate cancer (aHR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.88, 1.03), with stronger associations in nonmovers (aHR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85, 1.01). Inverse associations were observed among men in high (aHR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.82, 0.99) but not low (aHR = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.95, 1.29, P het = 0.086) population density areas, and those reporting from work (aHR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.75, 1.01) but not home (aHR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.91, 1.17, P het = 0.10) addresses. There was no evidence of mediation by vigorous physical activity. Conclusion: We report inverse associations between neighborhood greenness and lethal prostate cancer when restricting to nonmovers and in high population density areas. Replication could confirm findings and clarify mechanisms.

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