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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 757810, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35185975

RESUMO

The rapid analysis of biopolymers including lignin and sugars in lignocellulosic biomass cell walls is essential for the analysis of the large sample populations needed for identifying heritable genetic variation in biomass feedstocks for biofuels and bioproducts. In this study, we reported the analysis of cell wall lignin content, syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio, as well as glucose and xylose content by high-throughput pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS) for >3,600 samples derived from hundreds of accessions of Populus trichocarpa from natural populations, as well as pedigrees constructed from 14 parents (7 × 7). Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression models were built from the samples of known sugar composition previously determined by hydrolysis followed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Key spectral features positively correlated with glucose content consisted of m/z 126, 98, and 69, among others, deriving from pyrolyzates such as hydroxymethylfurfural, maltol, and other sugar-derived species. Xylose content positively correlated primarily with many lignin-derived ions and to a lesser degree with m/z 114, deriving from a lactone produced from xylose pyrolysis. Models were capable of predicting glucose and xylose contents with an average error of less than 4%, and accuracy was significantly improved over previously used methods. The differences in the models constructed from the two sample sets varied in training sample number, but the genetic and compositional uniformity of the pedigree set could be a potential driver in the slightly better performance of that model in comparison with the natural variants. Broad-sense heritability of glucose and xylose composition using these data was 0.32 and 0.34, respectively. In summary, we have demonstrated the use of a single high-throughput method to predict sugar and lignin composition in thousands of poplar samples to estimate the heritability and phenotypic plasticity of traits necessary to develop optimized feedstocks for bioenergy applications.

2.
New Phytol ; 234(6): 1914-1918, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35098533

RESUMO

The rapidly growing industry of crop biostimulants leverages the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to promote plant growth and health. However, introducing nonnative rhizobacteria may impact other aspects of ecosystem functioning and have legacy effects; these potential consequences are largely unexplored. Nontarget consequences of PGPR may include changes in resident microbiomes, nutrient cycling, pollinator services, functioning of other herbivores, disease suppression, and organic matter persistence. Importantly, we lack knowledge of whether these ecosystem effects may manifest in adjacent ecosystems. The introduced PGPR can leave a functional legacy whether they persist in the community or not. Legacy effects include shifts in resident microbiomes and their temporal dynamics, horizontal transfer of genes from the PGPR to resident taxa, and changes in resident functional groups and interaction networks. Ecosystem functions may be affected by legacies PGPR leave following niche construction, such as when PGPR alter soil pH that in turn alters biogeochemical cycling rates. Here, we highlight new research directions to elucidate how introduced PGPR impact resident microbiomes and ecosystem functions and their capacity for legacy effects.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Rizosfera , Solo
3.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(12): 3600-3603, 2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878784

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas has recently emerged as the most reliable system for genome engineering in various species. However, concerns about risks associated with the CRISPR/Cas technology are increasing on potential unintended DNA changes that might accidentally arise from CRISPR gene editing. Developing a system that can detect and report the presence of active CRISPR/Cas tools in biological systems is therefore very necessary. Here, we developed four real-time detection systems that can spontaneously indicate the presence of active CRISPR-Cas tools for genome editing and gene regulation including CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease, base editing, prime editing, and CRISPRa in plants. Using the fluorescence-based molecular biosensors, we demonstrated that the activities of CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease, base editing, prime editing, and CRISPRa can be effectively detected in transient expression via protoplast transformation and leaf infiltration (in Arabidopsis, poplar, and tobacco) and stable transformation in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Edição de Genes , Genoma de Planta/genética , Plantas/genética
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 704697, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484267

RESUMO

The phenylpropanoid pathway serves as a rich source of metabolites in plants and provides precursors for lignin biosynthesis. Lignin first appeared in tracheophytes and has been hypothesized to have played pivotal roles in land plant colonization. In this review, we summarize recent progress in defining the lignin biosynthetic pathway in lycophytes, monilophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. In particular, we review the key structural genes involved in p-hydroxyphenyl-, guaiacyl-, and syringyl-lignin biosynthesis across plant taxa and consider and integrate new insights on major transcription factors, such as NACs and MYBs. We also review insight regarding a new transcriptional regulator, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase, canonically identified as a key enzyme in the shikimate pathway. We use several case studies, including EPSP synthase, to illustrate the evolution processes of gene duplication and neo-functionalization in lignin biosynthesis. This review provides new insights into the genetic engineering of the lignin biosynthetic pathway to overcome biomass recalcitrance in bioenergy crops.

5.
Genome Biol Evol ; 13(9)2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469536

RESUMO

Orphan genes are characteristic genomic features that have no detectable homology to genes in any other species and represent an important attribute of genome evolution as sources of novel genetic functions. Here, we identified 445 genes specific to Populus trichocarpa. Of these, we performed deeper reconstruction of 13 orphan genes to provide evidence of de novo gene evolution. Populus and its sister genera Salix are particularly well suited for the study of orphan gene evolution because of the Salicoid whole-genome duplication event which resulted in highly syntenic sister chromosomal segments across the Salicaceae. We leveraged this genomic feature to reconstruct de novo gene evolution from intergenera, interspecies, and intragenomic perspectives by comparing the syntenic regions within the P. trichocarpa reference, then P. deltoides, and finally Salix purpurea. Furthermore, we demonstrated that 86.5% of the putative orphan genes had evidence of transcription. Additionally, we also utilized the Populus genome-wide association mapping panel, a collection of 1,084 undomesticated P. trichocarpa genotypes to further determine putative regulatory networks of orphan genes using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping. Functional enrichment of these eQTL subnetworks identified common biological themes associated with orphan genes such as response to stress and defense response. We also identify a putative cis-element for a de novo gene and leverage conserved synteny to describe evolution of a putative transcription factor binding site. Overall, 45% of orphan genes were captured in trans-eQTL networks.


Assuntos
Populus , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Filogenia , Populus/genética
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445546

RESUMO

Temperature stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that adversely affect agricultural productivity worldwide. Temperatures beyond a plant's physiological optimum can trigger significant physiological and biochemical perturbations, reducing plant growth and tolerance to stress. Improving a plant's tolerance to these temperature fluctuations requires a deep understanding of its responses to environmental change. To adapt to temperature fluctuations, plants tailor their acclimatory signal transduction events, and specifically, cellular redox state, that are governed by plant hormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulatory systems, and other molecular components. The role of ROS in plants as important signaling molecules during stress acclimation has recently been established. Here, hormone-triggered ROS produced by NADPH oxidases, feedback regulation, and integrated signaling events during temperature stress activate stress-response pathways and induce acclimation or defense mechanisms. At the other extreme, excess ROS accumulation, following temperature-induced oxidative stress, can have negative consequences on plant growth and stress acclimation. The excessive ROS is regulated by the ROS scavenging system, which subsequently promotes plant tolerance. All these signaling events, including crosstalk between hormones and ROS, modify the plant's transcriptomic, metabolomic, and biochemical states and promote plant acclimation, tolerance, and survival. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the ROS, hormones, and their joint role in shaping a plant's responses to high and low temperatures, and we conclude by outlining hormone/ROS-regulated plant responsive strategies for developing stress-tolerant crops to combat temperature changes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura
7.
Trends Plant Sci ; 26(11): 1133-1152, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340931

RESUMO

CRISPR construct design is a key step in the practice of genome editing, which includes identification of appropriate Cas proteins, design and selection of guide RNAs (gRNAs), and selection of regulatory elements to express gRNAs and Cas proteins. Here, we review the choices of CRISPR-based genome editors suited for different needs in plant genome editing applications. We consider the technical aspects of gRNA design and the associated computational tools. We also discuss strategies for the design of multiplex CRISPR constructs for high-throughput manipulation of complex biological processes or polygenic traits. We provide recommendations for different elements of CRISPR constructs and discuss the remaining challenges of CRISPR construct optimization in plant genome editing.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Plantas/genética
8.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 19(12): 2454-2468, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272801

RESUMO

Soil-borne microbes can establish compatible relationships with host plants, providing a large variety of nutritive and protective compounds in exchange for photosynthesized sugars. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the establishment of these beneficial relationships remain unclear. Our previous genetic mapping and whole-genome resequencing studies identified a gene deletion event of a Populus trichocarpa lectin receptor-like kinase gene PtLecRLK1 in Populus deltoides that was associated with poor-root colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor. By introducing PtLecRLK1 into a perennial grass known to be a non-host of L. bicolor, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), we found that L. bicolor colonizes ZmUbipro-PtLecRLK1 transgenic switchgrass roots, which illustrates that the introduction of PtLecRLK1 has the potential to convert a non-host to a host of L. bicolor. Furthermore, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses on inoculated-transgenic switchgrass roots revealed genes/proteins overrepresented in the compatible interaction and underrepresented in the pathogenic defence pathway, consistent with the view that pathogenic defence response is down-regulated during compatible interaction. Metabolomic profiling revealed that root colonization in the transgenic switchgrass was associated with an increase in N-containing metabolites and a decrease in organic acids, sugars, and aromatic hydroxycinnamate conjugates, which are often seen in the early steps of establishing compatible interactions. These studies illustrate that PtLecRLK1 is able to render a plant susceptible to colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus L. bicolor and shed light on engineering mycorrhizal symbiosis into a non-host to enhance plant productivity and fitness on marginal lands.


Assuntos
Panicum , Lectinas , Panicum/genética , Panicum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica
9.
mSphere ; 6(3): e0131620, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106767

RESUMO

Recent work shows that the plant microbiome, particularly the initial assembly of this microbiome, influences plant health, survival, and fitness. Here, we characterize the initial assembly of the Populus microbiome across ten genotypes belonging to two poplar species in a common garden using 16S rRNA gene and ITS2 region amplicon sequencing of the leaf endosphere, leaf surface, root endosphere, and rhizosphere. We sampled these microbiomes three times throughout the first growing season and found that the composition of the microbiome changed dramatically over time across all plant-associated habitats and host genotypes. For archaea and bacteria, these changes were dominated by strong homogenizing selection (accounting for 29 to 62% of pairwise comparisons). However, fungal assembly was generally characterized by multiple ecological assembly processes (i.e., a mix of weak selective and dispersal processes). Interestingly, genotype, while a significant moderator of microbiome composition, generally explained less variation than sample date across plant-associated habitats. We defined a set of core genera that accounted for, on average, 36% of the microbiome. The relative abundance of this core community was consistent over time. Additionally, using source tracking modeling, we determined that new microbial taxa colonize from both aboveground and belowground sources, and combined with our ecological assembly null models, we found that both selective and dispersal processes explained the differences between exo- (i.e., leaf surface and rhizosphere) and endospheric microbiomes. Taken together, our results suggest that the initial assembly of the Populus microbiome is time-, genotype-, and habitat-dependent and is moderated by both selective and stochastic factors. IMPORTANCE The initial assembly of the plant microbiome may establish the trajectory of forthcoming microbiome states, which could determine the overall future health of the plant. However, while much is known about the initial microbiome assembly of grasses and agricultural crops, less is known about the initial microbiome of long-lived trees, such as poplar (Populus spp.). Thus, a greater understanding of initial plant microbiome assembly in an ecologically and economically important plant such as Populus is highly desirable. Here, we show that the initial microbiome community composition and assembly in the first growing season of Populus is temporally dynamic and is determined by a combination of both selective and stochastic factors. Our findings could be used to prescribe ecologically informed microbial inoculations and better predict the composition of the Populus microbiome into the future and to better understand its influence on plant health.


Assuntos
Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , Fungos/genética , Genótipo , Microbiota/genética , Populus/microbiologia , Archaea/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Fungos/classificação , Microbiota/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
Phytopathology ; 111(11): 2052-2066, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881913

RESUMO

Sphaerulina musiva is an economically and ecologically important fungal pathogen that causes Septoria stem canker and leaf spot disease of Populus species. To bridge the gap between genetic markers and structural barriers previously found to be linked to Septoria canker disease resistance in poplar, we used hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry to identify and quantify metabolites involved with signaling and cell wall remodeling. Fluctuations in signaling molecules, organic acids, amino acids, sterols, phenolics, and saccharides in resistant and susceptible P. trichocarpa inoculated with S. musiva were observed. The patterns of 222 metabolites in the resistant host implicate systemic acquired resistance (SAR), cell wall apposition, and lignin deposition as modes of resistance to this hemibiotrophic pathogen. This pattern is consistent with the expected response to the biotrophic phase of S. musiva colonization during the first 24 h postinoculation. The fungal pathogen metabolized key regulatory signals of SAR, other phenolics, and precursors of lignin biosynthesis that were depleted in the susceptible host. This is the first study to characterize metabolites associated with the response to initial colonization by S. musiva between resistant and susceptible hosts.


Assuntos
Populus , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas , Populus/genética
11.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800849

RESUMO

It has been challenging to simultaneously improve photosynthesis and stress tolerance in plants. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a CO2-concentrating mechanism that facilitates plant adaptation to water-limited environments. We hypothesized that the ectopic expression of a CAM-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), an enzyme that catalyzes primary CO2 fixation in CAM plants, would enhance both photosynthesis and abiotic stress tolerance. To test this hypothesis, we engineered a CAM-specific PEPC gene (named AaPEPC1) from Agave americana into tobacco. In comparison with wild-type and empty vector controls, transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing AaPEPC1 showed a higher photosynthetic rate and biomass production under normal conditions, along with significant carbon metabolism changes in malate accumulation, the carbon isotope ratio δ13C, and the expression of multiple orthologs of CAM-related genes. Furthermore, AaPEPC1 overexpression enhanced proline biosynthesis, and improved salt and drought tolerance in the transgenic plants. Under salt and drought stress conditions, the dry weight of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing AaPEPC1 was increased by up to 81.8% and 37.2%, respectively, in comparison with wild-type plants. Our findings open a new door to the simultaneous improvement of photosynthesis and stress tolerance in plants.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Agave/genética , Metabolismo Ácido das Crassuláceas/genética , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tabaco/genética , Agave/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Malatos/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Prolina/biossíntese , Salinidade , Estresse Fisiológico , Tabaco/metabolismo , Transgenes
12.
J Hum Genet ; 66(4): 359-369, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009504

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) estimate the genetic risk of an individual for a complex disease based on many genetic variants across the whole genome. In this study, we compared a series of computational models for estimation of breast cancer PRS. A deep neural network (DNN) was found to outperform alternative machine learning techniques and established statistical algorithms, including BLUP, BayesA, and LDpred. In the test cohort with 50% prevalence, the Area Under the receiver operating characteristic Curve (AUC) were 67.4% for DNN, 64.2% for BLUP, 64.5% for BayesA, and 62.4% for LDpred. BLUP, BayesA, and LPpred all generated PRS that followed a normal distribution in the case population. However, the PRS generated by DNN in the case population followed a bimodal distribution composed of two normal distributions with distinctly different means. This suggests that DNN was able to separate the case population into a high-genetic-risk case subpopulation with an average PRS significantly higher than the control population and a normal-genetic-risk case subpopulation with an average PRS similar to the control population. This allowed DNN to achieve 18.8% recall at 90% precision in the test cohort with 50% prevalence, which can be extrapolated to 65.4% recall at 20% precision in a general population with 12% prevalence. Interpretation of the DNN model identified salient variants that were assigned insignificant p values by association studies, but were important for DNN prediction. These variants may be associated with the phenotype through nonlinear relationships.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial , Redes Neurais de Computação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Algoritmos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco
13.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 596301, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362827

RESUMO

Lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs), a plant-specific receptor-like kinase (RLK) sub-family, have been recently found to play crucial roles in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this review, we first describe the classification and structures of Lectin RLKs. Then we focus on the analysis of functions of LecRLKs in various biological processes and discuss the status of LecRLKs from the ligands they recognize, substrate they target, signaling pathways they are involved in, to the overall regulation of growth-defense tradeoffs. LecRLKs and the signaling components they interact with constitute recognition and protection systems at the plant cell surface contributing to the detection of environmental changes monitoring plant fitness.

14.
STAR Protoc ; 1(2): 100061, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111101

RESUMO

We describe how to predict population-level allele frequency change at loci associated with locally adapted traits under future climate conditions. Our method can identify populations that are at higher risk of local extinction and those that might be prime targets for conservation intervention. We draw on previously developed community ecology statistical methods and apply them in novel ways to plant genomes. While a powerful diagnostic tool, our method requires a wealth of genomic data for use. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Blumstein et al. (2020).


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Mudança Climática , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Loci Gênicos/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Modelos Genéticos
15.
New Phytol ; 228(5): 1627-1639, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706429

RESUMO

The apparent antagonism between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) signalling resulting in trade-offs between defence against (hemi)biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens has been widely described across multiple plant species. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be fully established. The molecular and cellular functions of ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN) were characterised, and its role in regulating the pathogenic response was studied in Arabidopsis. We demonstrated that AN, a plant homologue of mammalian C-TERMINAL BINDING PROTEIN (CtBP), antagonistically regulates plant resistance to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Consistent with phenotypic observations, transcription of genes involved in SA and JA/ET pathways was antagonistically regulated by AN. By interacting with another nuclear protein TYROSYL-DNA PHOSPHODIESTERASE1 (TDP1), AN imposes transcriptional repression on MYB46, encoding a transcriptional activator of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE (PAL) genes which are required for SA biosynthesis, while releasing TDP1-imposed transcriptional repression on WRKY33, a master regulator of the JA/ET signalling pathway. These findings demonstrate that transcriptional co-regulation of MYB46 and WRKY33 by AN mediates the coordination of SA and JA/ET pathways to optimise defences against (hemi)biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas Repressoras , Fatores de Transcrição , Oxirredutases do Álcool , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Botrytis , Ciclopentanos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Ácido Salicílico
16.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 652, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528504

RESUMO

Lignin is a heterogeneous polymer of aromatic subunits derived from phenylalanine. It is polymerized in intimate proximity to the polysaccharide components in plant cell walls and provides additional rigidity and compressive strength for plants. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of lignin biosynthesis is important for genetic modification of the plant cell wall for agricultural and industrial applications. Over the past 10 years the transcriptional regulatory model of lignin biosynthesis has been established in plants. However, the role of post-transcriptional regulation is still largely unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that lignin biosynthesis pathway genes are also regulated by alternative splicing, microRNA, and long non-coding RNA. In this review, we briefly summarize recent progress on the transcriptional regulation, then we focus on reviewing progress on the post-transcriptional regulation of lignin biosynthesis pathway genes in the woody model plant Populus.

17.
Trends Plant Sci ; 25(9): 881-896, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482346

RESUMO

Members of the genus Populus (i.e., cottonwood, hybrid poplar) represent a promising source of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels. However, one of the major factors negatively affecting poplar's efficient conversion to biofuel is the inherent recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification due to cell wall components such as lignin. To this effect, there have been efforts to modify gene expression to reduce biomass recalcitrance by changing cell wall properties. Here, we review recent genetic modifications of poplar that led to change cell wall properties and the resulting effects on subsequent pretreatment efficacy and saccharification. Although genetic engineering's impacts on cell wall properties are not fully predictable, recent studies have shown promising improvement in the biological conversion of transgenic poplar to biofuels.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Populus , Biomassa , Parede Celular/genética , Lignina , Populus/genética
18.
Ecol Evol ; 10(11): 5119-5134, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551087

RESUMO

Plants employ a diverse set of defense mechanisms to mediate interactions with insects and fungi. These relationships can leave lasting impacts on host plant genome structure such as rapid expansion of gene families through tandem duplication. These genomic signatures provide important clues about the complexities of plant/biotic stress interactions and evolution. We used a pseudo-backcross hybrid family to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling associations between Populus trees and several common Populus diseases and insects. Using whole-genome sequences from each parent, we identified candidate genes that may mediate these interactions. Candidates were partially validated using mass spectrometry to identify corresponding QTL for defensive compounds. We detected significant QTL for two interacting fungal pathogens and three insects. The QTL intervals contained candidate genes potentially involved in physical and chemical mechanisms of host-plant resistance and susceptibility. In particular, we identified adjoining QTLs for a phenolic glycoside and Phyllocolpa sawfly abundance. There was also significant enrichment of recent tandem duplications in the genomic intervals of the native parent, but not the exotic parent. Tandem gene duplication may be an important mechanism for rapid response to biotic stressors, enabling trees with long juvenile periods to reach maturity despite many coevolving biotic stressors.

19.
Curr Biol ; 30(8): 1447-1453.e4, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220321

RESUMO

Forests absorb a large fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emission, but their ability to continue to act as a sink under climate change depends in part on plant species undergoing rapid adaptation. Yet models of forest response to climate change currently ignore local adaptation as a response mechanism. Thus, considering the evolution of intraspecific trait variation is necessary for reliable, long-term species and climate projections. Here, we combine ecophysiology and predictive climate modeling with analyses of genomic variation to determine whether sugar and starch storage, energy reserves for trees under extreme conditions, have the heritable variation and genetic diversity necessary to evolve in response to climate change within populations of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Despite current patterns of local adaptation and extensive range-wide heritable variation in storage, we demonstrate that adaptive evolution in response to climate change will be limited by a lack of heritable variation within northern populations and by a need for extreme genetic changes in southern populations. Our method can help design more targeted species management interventions and highlights the power of using genomic tools in ecological prediction to scale from molecular to regional processes to determine the ability of a species to respond to future climates.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Mudança Climática , Populus/fisiologia , Colúmbia Britânica , Florestas , Oregon , Washington
20.
Gigascience ; 9(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a specialized mode of photosynthesis, enables plant adaptation to water-limited environments and improves photosynthetic efficiency via an inorganic carbon-concentrating mechanism. Kalanchoë fedtschenkoi is an obligate CAM model featuring a relatively small genome and easy stable transformation. However, the molecular responses to light quality and intensity in CAM plants remain understudied. RESULTS: Here we present a genome-wide expression atlas of K. fedtschenkoi plants grown under 12 h/12 h photoperiod with different light quality (blue, red, far-red, white light) and intensity (0, 150, 440, and 1,000 µmol m-2 s-1) based on RNA sequencing performed for mature leaf samples collected at dawn (2 h before the light period) and dusk (2 h before the dark period). An eFP web browser was created for easy access of the gene expression data. Based on the expression atlas, we constructed a light-responsive co-expression network to reveal the potential regulatory relationships in K. fedtschenkoi. Measurements of leaf titratable acidity, soluble sugar, and starch turnover provided metabolic indicators of the magnitude of CAM under the different light treatments and were used to provide biological context for the expression dataset. Furthermore, CAM-related subnetworks were highlighted to showcase genes relevant to CAM pathway, circadian clock, and stomatal movement. In comparison with white light, monochrome blue/red/far-red light treatments repressed the expression of several CAM-related genes at dusk, along with a major reduction in acid accumulation. Increasing light intensity from an intermediate level (440 µmol m-2 s-1) of white light to a high light treatment (1,000 µmol m-2 s-1) increased expression of several genes involved in dark CO2 fixation and malate transport at dawn, along with an increase in organic acid accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a useful genomics resource for investigating the molecular mechanism underlying the light regulation of physiology and metabolism in CAM plants. Our results support the hypothesis that both light intensity and light quality can modulate the CAM pathway through regulation of CAM-related genes in K. fedtschenkoi.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Ácido das Crassuláceas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Kalanchoe/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Luz Solar , Transcriptoma , Kalanchoe/metabolismo , Kalanchoe/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
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