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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807952

RESUMO

The global COVID-19 pandemic has led to drastic changes in the management of patients with rheumatic diseases. Due to the imminent risk of infection, monitoring intervals of rheumatic patients have prolonged. The aim of this study is to present insights from patients, rheumatologists, and digital product developers on the ongoing digital health transition in rheumatology. A qualitative and participatory semi-structured fishbowl approach was conducted to gain detailed insights from a total of 476 participants. The main findings show that digital health and remote care are generally welcomed by the participants. Five key themes emerged from the qualitative content analysis: (1) digital rheumatology use cases, (2) user descriptions, (3) adaptation to different environments of rheumatology care, and (4) potentials of and (5) barriers to digital rheumatology implementation. Codes were scaled by positive and negative ratings as well as on micro, meso, and macro levels. A main recommendation resulting from the insights is that both patients and rheumatologists need more information and education to successfully implement digital health tools into clinical routine.

2.
RMD Open ; 7(1)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on rheumatic patients' and rheumatologists' usage, preferences and perception of digital health applications (DHAs). METHODS: A web-based national survey was developed by the Working Group Young Rheumatology of the German Society for Rheumatology and the German League against Rheumatism. The prospective survey was distributed via social media (Twitter, Instagram and Facebook), QR code and email. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and regression analyses were performed to show correlations. RESULTS: We analysed the responses of 299 patients and 129 rheumatologists. Most patients (74%) and rheumatologists (76%) believed that DHAs are useful in the management of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) and felt confident in their own usage thereof (90%; 86%). 38% of patients and 71% of rheumatologists reported that their attitude had changed positively towards DHAs and that their usage had increased due to COVID-19 (29%; 48%). The majority in both groups agreed on implementing virtual visits for follow-up appointments in stable disease conditions. The most reported advantages of DHAs were usage independent of time and place (76.6%; 77.5%). The main barriers were a lack of information on suitable, available DHAs (58.5%; 41.9%), poor usability (42.1% of patients) and a lack of evidence supporting the effectiveness of DHAs (23.2% of rheumatologists). Only a minority (<10% in both groups) believed that digitalisation has a negative impact on the patient-doctor relationship. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic instigated an increase in patients' and rheumatologists' acceptance and usage of DHAs, possibly introducing a permanent paradigm shift in the management of RMDs.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reumatologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether disease remission or low disease activity state at the beginning of pregnancy in SLE patients is associated with better pregnancy outcome. METHODS: pregnancies in SLE patients prospectively monitored by pregnancy clinics at four rheumatology centres were enrolled. Patient demographics and clinical information were collected at baseline (pregnancy visit before 8 weeks of gestation) including whether patients were in remission according to DORIS criteria and and/or Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS). Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to determine predictors of disease flare and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including preeclampsia, preterm delivery, small for gestational age infant, intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine fetal death. RESULTS: 347 pregnancies were observed in 281 SLE patients. Excluding early pregnancy losses, 212 pregnancies (69.7%) occurred in patients who were in remission at baseline, 33 (10.9%) in patients in LLDAS, and the remainder in active patients. 73 flares (24%) were observed during pregnancy or puerperium, and 105 (34.5%) APOs occurred. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients in disease remission or taking hydroxychloroquine were less likely to have disease flare, while a history of lupus nephritis increased the risk. The risk of APOs was increased in patients with shorter disease duration, while being on hydroxychloroquine resulted a protective variable. An almost significant association between complete remission and a decreased risk of APOs was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal planning with a firm treat-to-target goal of disease remission is an important strategy to reduce the risk of disease flares and severe obstetrical complications in SLE pregnancies.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The definition of an accurate target for a treat to target (T2T) approach in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been challenging over the past years and recently the DORIS definitions of remission were presented by the international DORIS task force. It was our aim to assess the frequency of DORIS remission and LLDAS in our SLE-cohort and their agreement with the treating physician's (DORIS-) independent remission judgment. Patient characteristics leading to lack of agreement and incoherence ought to be identified. METHODS: In this monocentric cross-sectional study patients with SLE were enrolled and assessed between September 2016 and December 2017. DORIS remission definitions were applied and after the clinical consultation, the treating physicians gave his opinion if his/her patient was in remission. Regression analyses were performed to identify parameters influencing physician remission. RESULTS: A total of 233 patients were included (87.6% female). 99 (42.5%) patients fulfilled any of the four DORIS remission definitions, while 126 patients were in remission according to their physician's judgement. We observed discordance in the assessment of remission in 53 patients (22.7%). Physician remission was influenced by both disease activity (OR 0.76 CI 0.63-9.90), disease and/or treatment related damage (OR 0.78, 0.62-0.98 and the presence of ds-DNA-antibodies 2.47 (1.06-6.04). CONCLUSIONS: DORIS remission proved an achievable target in our outpatient clinic. Still we found discordance regarding DORIS remission and the treating physician's judgement with a greater number of patients considered in remission by their physicians.

7.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 219, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of lumbar intervertebral disks (IVDs) of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and healthy volunteers and to investigate the association of GAG depletion and disease-related clinical and imaging features. METHODS: Lumbar spines of 50 AS patients (mean age 50 ± 10.5 years) and 30 age-matched volunteers were studied with 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and conventional radiographs (CR). The MRI protocol included high-resolution morphological sequences and the compositional GAG chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging technique (gagCEST). Morphological images were analyzed by three raters for inflammatory activity, fat deposition, disk degeneration, and structural changes on CR. Clinical and serological measures included the Bath AS Disease Activity (BASDAI) and Bath AS Function (BASFI) Indices and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. GagCEST values of both groups were compared using a linear mixed model. Kendall-Tau correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: GagCEST values were significantly lower in AS patients (2.0 ± 1.7%) vs. healthy volunteers (2.4 ± 1.8%), p = 0.001. Small, yet significant correlations were found between gagCEST values and CRP levels (τ = - 0.14, p = 0.007), BASFI (τ = - 0.18, p < 0.001) and presence of syndesmophytes (τ = - 0.17, p = 0.001). No significant correlations were found with BASDAI, inflammation, and fat deposition MRI scores. CONCLUSIONS: Lumbar spines of r-AS patients undergo significant GAG depletion, independently associated with syndesmophyte formation, functional disability, and increased serological inflammation markers. Beyond establishing a pathophysiological role of the cartilage in AS, these findings suggest that gagCEST imaging may have an adjunct confirmatory role in the assessment of disease-related pathological MRI findings in axial spondyloarthritis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: 3980 ( https://studienregister.med.uni-duesseldorf.de ).

8.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(16): 1179-1183, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634844

RESUMO

The publication of the new ACR/EULAR classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the revision of the EULAR recommendations for the management of SLE last year include many important novelties that will change the classification and care of lupus patients. This refers to both general basic treatment principles and specific therapy recommendations. For example, SLE can only be classified as such if antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are present, independently of titer height and fluorescence pattern. If ANAs are detected, lupus-specific symptoms and serological abnormalities are assessed and separately scored. A score of 10 and more classifies an SLE patient as such. With regard to the care of SLE patients, every therapeutic decision should follow a treat-to-target approach with the aim of achieving remission. Aim is to ensure long-term survival, reduce damage and improve quality of life. These goals are achieved by early diagnosis, consistent therapy and regular evaluation of disease activity. All patients should receive antimalarials in the absence of contraindications. If the response is inadequate or in case of moderate to severe organ manifestations, steroid pulses over a few days and the early use of immunosuppressive drugs (IM) are recommended. With the inclusion of biologicals, especially belimumab and rituximab, new substance classes made their way into the recommendations.

9.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(7): e18117, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) allows for patient-centered, measurable, and transparent care. Electronic PROs (ePROs) have many benefits and hold great potential to improve current usage of PROs, yet limited evidence exists regarding their acceptance, usage, and barriers among rheumatologists. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the current level of acceptance, usage, and barriers among German rheumatologists regarding the use of ePROs. The importance of different ePRO features for rheumatologists was investigated. Additionally, the most frequently used PROs for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were identified. METHODS: Data were collected via an online survey consisting of 18 questions. The survey was completed by members of the Working Group Young Rheumatology of the German Society for Rheumatology (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Junge Rheumatologie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Rheumatologie [DGRh]) at the 2019 annual DGRh conference. Only members currently working in clinical adult rheumatology were eligible to complete the survey. RESULTS: A total of 119 rheumatologists completed the survey, of which 107 (89.9%) reported collecting PROs in routine practice and 28 (25.5%) already used ePROs. Additionally, 44% (43/97) were planning to switch to ePROs in the near future. The most commonly cited reason for not switching was the unawareness of suitable software solutions. Respondents were asked to rate the features of ePROs on a scale of 0 to 100 (0=unimportant, 100=important). The most important features were automatic score calculation and display (mean 77.50) and simple data transfer to medical reports (mean 76.90). When asked about PROs in RA, the respondents listed pain, morning stiffness, and patient global assessment as the most frequently used PROs. CONCLUSIONS: The potential of ePROs is widely seen and there is great interest in them. Despite this, only a minority of physicians use ePROs, and the main reason for not implementing them was cited as the unawareness of suitable software solutions. Developers, patients, and rheumatologists should work closely together to help realize the full potential of ePROs and ensure a seamless integration into clinical practice.

10.
12.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 13: 1889-1894, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806937

RESUMO

Purpose: Since the launch of belimumab in 2011, the BLyS antibody has been increasingly used in the therapy of systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE). Comparative studies showed that the intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration forms do not differ in their efficacy. Since the approval of the s.c. therapy, many patients have been switched from i.v. to s.c. administration. The clinical course of these patients and their satisfaction regarding the drug have not yet been investigated. Methods: A total of 9 patients with SLE were switched from i.v. to s.c. belimumab between 12/2017 and 03/2018. We assessed a self-developed questionnaire on drug satisfaction, disease activity (SLEDAI-2k), serological activity (leukocytes, DNA antibodies, complement), disease damage (SLICC/ACR damage index) and functional status (health-assessment questionnaire) at switching (T0) and after 6 months (T1). Association of the questionnaires with the form of administration (i.v. vs s.c.) was analyzed for each variable separately by linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, gender and disease duration. Results: At switching, disease activity of all patients was well controlled (median SLEDAI-2k = 2 [Interquartile range 0-4]) and the patients were mainly satisfied with their therapy. No evidence for any difference in disease activity, disease damage or patient satisfaction 6 months after switching was found. In tendency, patients were more satisfied with the s.c. administration. Conclusion: The switch from i.v. to s.c. belimumab was successful in all cases and had no effect on disease activity or patient satisfaction. Despite the small sample size, s.c. belimumab seems to offer a good alternative to i.v. application.

13.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(8): e14991, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic rheumatic diseases need long-term treatment and professional supervision. Mobile apps promise to improve the lives of patients and physicians. In routine practice, however, rheumatology apps are largely unknown and little is known about their quality and safety. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide an overview of mobile rheumatology apps currently available in German app stores, evaluate app quality using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS), and compile brief, ready-to-use descriptions for patients and rheumatologists. METHODS: The German App Store and Google Play store were systematically searched to identify German rheumatology mobile apps for patient and physician use. MARS was used to independently assess app quality by 8 physicians, 4 using Android and 4 using iOS smartphones. Apps were randomly assigned so that 4 apps were rated by all raters and the remaining apps were rated by two Android and two iOS users. Furthermore, brief app descriptions including app developers, app categories, and features were compiled to inform potential users and developers. RESULTS: In total, 128 and 63 apps were identified in the German Google Play and App Store, respectively. After removing duplicates and only including apps that were available in both stores, 28 apps remained. Sixteen apps met the inclusion criteria, which were (1) German language, (2) availability in both app stores, (3) targeting patients or physicians as users, and (4) clearly including rheumatology or rheumatic diseases as subject matter. Exclusion criteria were (1) congress apps and (2) company apps with advertisements. Nine apps addressed patients and 7 apps addressed physicians. No clinical studies to support the effectiveness and safety of apps could be found. Pharmaceutical companies were the main developers of two apps. Rheuma Auszeit was the only app mainly developed by a patient organization. This app had the highest overall MARS score (4.19/5). Three out of 9 patient apps featured validated questionnaires. The median overall MARS score was 3.85/5, ranging from 2.81/5 to 4.19/5. One patient-targeted and one physician-targeted app had MARS scores >4/5. No significant rater gender or platform (iOS/Android) differences could be observed. The overall correlation between app store ratings and MARS scores was low and inconsistent between platforms. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study that systematically identified and evaluated mobile apps in rheumatology for patients and physicians available in German app stores. We found a lack of supporting clinical studies, use of validated questionnaires, and involvement of academic developers. Overall app quality was heterogeneous. To create high-quality apps, closer cooperation led by patients and physicians is vital.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Reumatologia/instrumentação , Alemanha , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Reumatologia/métodos , Reumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos
15.
Lancet ; 392(10143): 190-192, 2018 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043741
16.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 18: 170, 2016 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27424032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhomogeneity of immune cell distribution in the synovial sublining layer was analyzed in order to improve our mechanistic understanding of synovial inflammation and explore potential refinements for histological biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Synovial tissue of 20 patients (11 RA, 9 OA) was immunohistochemically stained for macrophages (CD68), synovial fibroblasts (CD55), T cells (CD3), plasma cells (CD38), endothelial cells (vWF) and mast cells (MCT). The synovial sublining layer was divided into predefined adjacent zones and fractions of the stained area (SA) were determined by digital image analysis for each cell marker. RESULTS: Distribution of CD68, CD55, CD38 and MCT staining of the sublining area was heterogeneous (Friedman ANOVA p < 0.05). The highest expression for all markers was observed in the upper layer close to the lining layer with a decrease in the middle and lower sublining. The SA of CD68, CD55 and CD38 was significantly higher in all layers of RA tissue compared to OA (p < 0.05), except the CD38 fraction of the lower sublining. Based on receiver operating characteristics analysis, CD68 SA of the total sublining resulted in the highest area under the curve (AUC 0.944, CI 95 % 0.844-1.0, p = 0.001) followed by CD68 in the upper and middle layer respectively (both AUC 0.933, CI 95 % 0.816-1.0, p = 0.001) in both RA and OA. Linear mixed modelling confirmed significant differences in the SA of sublining CD68 between OA and RA (p = 0.0042) with a higher concentration of CD68+ towards the lining layer and more rapid decline towards the periphery of the sublining in RA compared to OA (p = 0.0022). CONCLUSIONS: Immune cells are inhomogeneously distributed within the sublining layer. RA and OA tissue display differences in the number of CD68 macrophages and differences in CD68 decline within the synovial sublining.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Osteoartrite/imunologia , Membrana Sinovial/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imuno-Histoquímica , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/patologia , Membrana Sinovial/patologia
17.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0120801, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25849958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Due to its sensitivity to deoxyhemoglobin, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) enables the visualization of deep medullary veins (DMV) in patients with acute stroke, which are difficult to depict under physiological circumstances. This study assesses the asymmetric appearance of prominent DMV as an independent predictor for stroke severity and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SWI of 86 patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke were included. A scoring system from 0 (no visible DMV) to 3 (very prominent DMV) was applied for both hemispheres separately. A difference of scores between ipsi- and contralateral side was defined as asymmetric (AMV+). Occurrence of AMV+ was correlated with the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) Score on admission and discharge, as well as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge. Ordinal regression analysis was used to evaluate NIHSS and mRS as predictors of stroke severity, clinical course of disease and outcome. RESULTS: 55 patients displayed AMV+ while 31 did not show an asymmetry (AMV-). Median NIHSS on admission was 17 (11-21) in the AMV+ group and 9 (5-15) in the AMV- group (p = 0.001). On discharge median NIHSS was 11 (5-20) for AMV+ and 5 (2-14) for AMV- (p = 0.005). The median mRS at discharge was 4 (3-5) in the AMV+ group and 3 (1-4) in AMV- (p = 0.001). Odds ratio was 3.19 (95% CI: 1.24-8.21) for AMV+ to achieve a higher mRS than AMV- (p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: The asymmetric appearance of DMV on SWI is a fast and easily evaluable parameter for the prediction of stroke severity and can be used as an additional imaging parameter in patients with acute MCA stroke.


Assuntos
Veias Cerebrais/patologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/mortalidade , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Veias Cerebrais/anormalidades , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 24(2): 295-302, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24401983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Precise detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) seems to be a crucial factor for optimized treatment of cervical cancer. We assess the use of single photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography (SPECT/CT) as an alternative to lymphoscintigraphy (LSG) for preoperative identification of SLN. METHODS: This study was performed in a prospective, unicentric setting. Patients with cervical carcinoma were scheduled for surgery and additional SLN labeling by peritumoral injection of 10 MBq technetium-99m-nanocolloid and patent blue. Thirty minutes after injection, LSG and SPECT/CT were carried out. We evaluated the number of SLNs detected intraoperatively in LSG and SPECT/CT and the histologic findings of SLN and non-SLN. Subsequently, we determined the impact of these results on the therapeutic approach. RESULTS: This represents the largest study about SPECT/CT for SLN detection in cervical cancer so far. Between August 2008 and March 2013, 59 cervical cancer patients underwent intraoperative SLN detection. In addition, 51 of these patients underwent preoperative LSG and SPECT/CT. Imaging with SPECT/CT detected singular SLN at significantly higher rate (47/51, 92.2%) than that with planar LSG (43/51, 84.3%, P = 0.044). Furthermore, SPECT/CT performed better than LSG regarding the total number of detected SLN (SPECT/CT median, 3 [0-18]; LSG median, 2 [0-15]) and detection rates per pelvic side (SPECT/CT 76.9%, LSG 69.2%, P < 0.01). Whenever SLN detection succeeded, histologic evaluation of SLN correctly predicted the lymph node status per patient's side. Using this type of diagnostic approach for lymph node staging, we reached sensitivity of 100% and negative predictive value of 100% at a rate of false-negative results of 0% even in tumors larger than 4 cm. CONCLUSIONS: Single photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography imaging leads to improved rates of SLN detection and better anatomic correlation compared with planar LSG. Thus, intraoperative detection of SLN can be improved by preoperative SPECT/CT imaging. This enhances the clinical value of SLN technique and improves the oncologic safety of SLN concept.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
19.
PLoS One ; 8(5): e63459, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23717426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Time-of-flight (TOF) angiography detects embolic occlusion of arteries in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to the absence of blood flow in the occluded vessel. In contrast, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) directly enables intravascular clot visualization due to hypointense susceptibility vessel signs (SVS) in the occluded vessel. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of both methods to determine vessel occlusion in patients with acute stroke. METHODS: 94 patients were included who presented with clinical symptoms for acute stroke and displayed a delay on the time-to-peak perfusion map in the territory of the anterior (ACA), middle (M1, M1/M2, M2/M3) or posterior (PCA) cerebral artery. The frequency of SVS on SWI and vessel occlusion or stenosis on TOF-angiography was compared using the McNemar-Test. RESULTS: 87 of 94 patients displayed a clearly definable SVS on SWI. In 72 patients the SVS was associated with occlusion or stenosis on TOF-angiography. Fifteen patients exclusively displayed SVS on SWI (14 M2/M3, 1 M1), whereas no patient revealed exclusively occlusion or stenosis on TOF-angiography. Sensitivity for detection of embolic occlusion within major vessel segments (M1, M1/M2, ACA, and PCA) did not show any significant difference between both techniques (97% for SWI versus 96% for TOF-angiography) while the sensitivity for detection of embolic occlusion within M2/M3 was significantly different (84% for SWI versus 39% for TOF-angiography, p<0.00012). CONCLUSIONS: SWI and TOF-angiography provide similar sensitivity for central thrombi while SWI is superior for the detection of peripheral thrombi in small arterial vessel segments.


Assuntos
Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Posterior/diagnóstico , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Artéria Cerebral Posterior/patologia , Artéria Cerebral Posterior/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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