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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11326, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383898

RESUMO

Iron-loaded tumor-associated macrophages (iTAMs) show a pro-inflammatory phenotype, hallmarked by anti-tumorigenic activity and an ability to attenuate tumor growth. Here we explored the relevance of these findings in lung cancer patients by investigating the impact of the iTAM content in the tumor microenvironment (TME) on patient survival. We analyzed 102 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) paraffin-embedded archival tissue samples for iron levels and macrophage numbers. Interestingly, patients with lung adenocarcinoma accumulating iron in the TME show higher numbers of M1-like pro-inflammatory TAMs and a survival advantage compared to iron-negative patients. By contrast, in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma iron in the TME does not affect survival, suggesting a unique influence of iron on different histological subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conclude that in lung adenocarcinoma iron may serve as a prognostic marker for patient survival and as a potential therapeutic target for anti-cancer therapy.

2.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1450(1): 204-220, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257609

RESUMO

Decreased oxygen availability at high altitude requires physiological adjustments allowing for adequate tissue oxygenation. One such mechanism is a slow increase in the hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) resulting in elevated [Hb] in high-altitude residents. Diagnosis of anemia at different altitudes requires reference values for [Hb]. Our aim was to establish such values based on published data of residents living at different altitudes by applying meta-analysis and multiple regressions. Results show that [Hb] is increased in all high-altitude residents. However, the magnitude of increase varies among the regions analyzed and among ethnic groups within a region. The highest increase was found in residents of the Andes (1 g/dL/1000 m), but this increment was smaller in all other regions of the world (0.6 g/dL/1000 m). While sufficient data exist for adult males and females showing that sex differences in [Hb] persist with altitude, data for infants, children, and pregnant women are incomplete preventing such analyses. Because WHO reference values were originally based on [Hb] of South American people, we conclude that individual reference values have to be defined for ethnic groups to reliably diagnose anemia and erythrocytosis in high-altitude residents. Future studies need to test their applicability for children of different ages and pregnant women.

3.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248967

RESUMO

Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) is unique as it is the only enzyme that can prevent detrimental lipid peroxidation in vivo by reducing lipid peroxides to the respective alcohols thereby stabilizing oxidation products of unsaturated fatty acids. During reticulocyte maturation, 15-lipoxygenase-mediated lipid peroxidation in humans and rabbits and by 12/15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15) in mice had been considered as the initiating event for the elimination of mitochondria which is now known to occur through mitophagy. Yet, genetic ablation of the Alox15 gene in mice failed to provide evidence for this hypothesis. We designed a different genetic approach to tackle this open conundrum. Since either other lipoxygenases or non-enzymatic autooxidative mechanisms may compensate for the loss of Alox15, we asked whether ablation of GPX4 in the hematopoietic system would result in perturbation of reticulocyte maturation. Quantitative assessment of erythropoiesis indices in the blood, bone marrow and spleen of chimeric mice with GPX4 ablated in hematopoietic cells revealed anemia with an increase in the fraction of erythroid precursor cells and reticulocytes. Additional dietary vitamin E depletion strongly aggravated the anemic phenotype. Despite strong extramedullary erythropoiesis reticulocytes failed to mature and accumulated large autophagosomes with engulfed mitochondria. GPX4-deficiency in hematopoietic cells led to systemic hepatic iron overload and simultaneous severe iron demand in the erythroid system. Despite extremely high erythropoietin and erythroferrone levels in the plasma, hepcidin expression remained unchanged. Conclusively, perturbed reticulocyte maturation in response to GPX4 loss in hematopoietic cells thus causes ineffective erythropoiesis, a phenotype partially masked by dietary vitamin E supplementation.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903157

RESUMO

AIMS: Whether and how iron affects the progression of atherosclerosis remains highly debated. Here, we investigate susceptibility to atherosclerosis in a mouse model (ApoE-/- FPNwt/C326S), which develops the disease in the context of elevated non-transferrin bound serum iron (NTBI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Compared with normo-ferremic ApoE-/- mice, atherosclerosis is profoundly aggravated in iron-loaded ApoE-/- FPNwt/C326S mice, suggesting a pro-atherogenic role for iron. Iron heavily deposits in the arterial media layer, which correlates with plaque formation, vascular oxidative stress and dysfunction. Atherosclerosis is exacerbated by iron-triggered lipid profile alterations, vascular permeabilization, sustained endothelial activation, elevated pro-atherogenic inflammatory mediators, and reduced nitric oxide availability. NTBI causes iron overload, induces reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis in cultured vascular cells, and stimulates massive MCP-1-mediated monocyte recruitment, well-established mechanisms contributing to atherosclerosis. NTBI-mediated toxicity is prevented by transferrin- or chelator-mediated iron scavenging. Consistently, a low-iron diet and iron chelation therapy strongly improved the course of the disease in ApoE-/- FPNwt/C326S mice. Our results are corroborated by analyses of serum samples of haemochromatosis patients, which show an inverse correlation between the degree of iron depletion and hallmarks of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that NTBI-triggered iron overload aggravates atherosclerosis and unravel a causal link between NTBI and the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings support clinical applications of iron restriction in iron-loaded individuals to counteract iron-aggravated vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1518, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728365

RESUMO

Transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that allows for transferrin-bound iron uptake in mammalian cells. It is overexpressed in various cancers to satisfy the high iron demand of fast proliferating cells. Here we show that in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) TFR1 expression is regulated by miR-148a. Within the TFR1 3'UTR we identified and experimentally validated two evolutionarily conserved miRNA response elements (MREs) for miR-148/152 family members, including miR-148a. Interestingly, analyses of RNA sequencing data from patients with liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) revealed a significant inverse correlation of TFR1 mRNA levels and miR-148a. In addition, TFR1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in the tumor compared to matched normal healthy tissue, while miR-148a levels are decreased. Functional analysis demonstrated post-transcriptional regulation of TFR1 by miR-148a in HCC cells as well as decreased HCC cell proliferation upon either miR-148a overexpression or TFR1 knockdown. We hypothesize that decreased expression of miR-148a in HCC may elevate transferrin-bound iron uptake, increasing cellular iron levels and cell proliferation.

6.
EMBO Mol Med ; 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389682

RESUMO

We compared 24 primary pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL) collected at the time of initial diagnosis and relapse from 12 patients and 24 matched patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). DNA methylation profile was preserved in PDX mice in 97.5% of the promoters (ρ = 0.99). Similarly, the genome-wide chromatin accessibility (ATAC-Seq) was preserved remarkably well (ρ = 0.96). Interestingly, both the ATAC regions, which showed a significant decrease in accessibility in PDXs and the regions hypermethylated in PDXs, were associated with immune response, which might reflect the immune deficiency of the mice and potentially the incomplete interaction between murine cytokines and human receptors. The longitudinal approach of this study allowed an observation that samples collected from patients who developed a type 1 relapse (clonal mutations maintained at relapse) preserved their genomic composition; whereas in patients who developed a type 2 relapse (subset of clonal mutations lost at relapse), the preservation of the leukemia's composition was more variable. In sum, this study underlines the remarkable genomic stability, and for the first time documents the preservation of the epigenomic landscape in T-ALL-derived PDX models.

7.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280242

RESUMO

Iron accumulates in the lungs of patients with common respiratory diseases or transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia. Based on our previous work, we hypothesized that systemic iron overload affects the alveolar region of the lung and in particular the surfactant producing alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells. Mice with a point mutation in the iron exporter ferroportin, a model for human hemochromatosis type 4 were compared to wildtype mice (n = 5 each). Lungs were fixed and prepared for light and electron microscopy (EM) according to state-of-the-art protocols to detect subcellular iron localization by scanning EM/EDX and to perform design-based stereology. Iron was detected as electron dense particles in membrane-bound organelles, likely lysosomes, in AE1 cells. AE2 cells were higher in number but had a lower mean volume in mutated mice. Lamellar body volume per AE2 cell was lower but total volume of lamellar bodies in the lung was comparable to wildtype mice. While the volume of alveoli was lower in mutated mice, the volume of alveolar ducts as well as the surface area, volume and the mean thickness and composition of the septa was similar in both genotypes. The thickness of the air-blood barrier was greater in the mutated than in the WT mice. In conclusion, disruption of systemic iron homeostasis affects the ultrastructure of interalveolar septa which is characterized by membrane-bound iron storage in AE1 cells, thickening of the air-blood barrier and hyperplasia and hypotrophy of AE2 cells despite normal total intracellular surfactant pools. The functional relevance of these findings requires further analysis to better understand the impact of iron on intra-alveolar surfactant function.

8.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 129: 127-137, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227271

RESUMO

The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptors ALK2 and ALK3 are essential for expression of hepcidin, a key iron regulatory hormone. In mice, hepatocyte-specific Alk2 deficiency leads to moderate iron overload with periportal liver iron accumulation, while hepatocyte-specific Alk3 deficiency leads to severe iron overload with centrilobular liver iron accumulation and a more marked reduction of basal hepcidin levels. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the two receptors have additive roles in hepcidin regulation. Iron overload in mice with hepatocyte-specific Alk2 and Alk3 (Alk2/3) deficiency was characterized and compared to hepatocyte-specific Alk3 deficient mice. Co-immunoprecipitation studies were performed to detect the formation of ALK2 and ALK3 homodimer and heterodimer complexes in vitro in the presence and absence of ligands. The iron overload phenotype of hepatocyte-specific Alk2/3-deficient mice was more severe than that of hepatocyte-specific Alk3-deficient mice. In vitro co-immunoprecipitation studies in Huh7 cells showed that ALK3 can homodimerize in absence of BMP2 or BMP6. In contrast, ALK2 did not homodimerize in either the presence or absence of BMP ligands. However, ALK2 did form heterodimers with ALK3 in the presence of BMP2 or BMP6. ALK3-ALK3 and ALK2-ALK3 receptor complexes induced hepcidin expression in Huh7 cells. Our data indicate that: (I) ALK2 and ALK3 have additive functions in vivo, as Alk2/3 deficiency leads to a greater degree of iron overload than Alk3 deficiency; (II) ALK3, but not ALK2, undergoes ligand-independent homodimerization; (III) the formation of ALK2-ALK3 heterodimers is ligand-dependent and (IV) both receptor complexes functionally induce hepcidin expression in vitro.

9.
Blood ; 132(21): 2286-2297, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209118

RESUMO

ß-thalassemias are genetic disorders characterized by anemia, ineffective erythropoiesis, and iron overload. Current treatment of severe cases is based on blood transfusion and iron chelation or allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation. Novel approaches are explored for nontransfusion-dependent patients (thalassemia intermedia) who develop anemia and iron overload. Here, we investigated the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor partner, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2), as a novel potential therapeutic target. We generated a murine model of thalassemia intermedia specifically lacking BM Tfr2: because their erythroid cells are more susceptible to EPO stimulation, mice show improved erythropoiesis and red blood cell morphology as well as partial correction of anemia and iron overload. The beneficial effects become attenuated over time, possibly due to insufficient iron availability to sustain the enhanced erythropoiesis. Germ line deletion of Tfr2, including haploinsufficiency, had a similar effect in the thalassemic model. Because targeting TFR2 enhances EPO-mediated effects exclusively in cells expressing both receptors, this approach may have advantages over erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in the treatment of other anemias.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3129, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087348

RESUMO

Since modern foods are unnaturally enriched in single metabolites, it is important to understand which metabolites are sensed by the human body and which are not. We previously showed that the fatty acid stearic acid (C18:0) signals via a dedicated pathway to regulate mitofusin activity and thereby mitochondrial morphology and function in cell culture. Whether this pathway is poised to sense changes in dietary intake of C18:0 in humans is not known. We show here that C18:0 ingestion rapidly and robustly causes mitochondrial fusion in people within 3 h after ingestion. C18:0 intake also causes a drop in circulating long-chain acylcarnitines, suggesting increased fatty acid beta-oxidation in vivo. This work thereby identifies C18:0 as a dietary metabolite that is sensed by our bodies to control our mitochondria. This could explain part of the epidemiological differences between C16:0 and C18:0, whereby C16:0 increases cardiovascular and cancer risk whereas C18:0 decreases both.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 663, 2018 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deletions of 6q15-16.1 are recurrently found in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). This chromosomal region includes the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (MAP3K7) gene which has a crucial role in innate immune signaling and was observed to be functionally and prognostically relevant in different cancer entities. Therefore, we correlated the presence of MAP3K7 deletions with clinical parameters in a cohort of 327 pediatric T-ALL patients and investigated the function of MAP3K7 in the T-ALL cell lines CCRF-CEM, Jurkat and MOLT-4. METHODS: MAP3K7 deletions were detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). T-ALL cell lines were transduced with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing anti-MAP3K7 shRNA or a non-silencing shRNA together with a GFP reporter. Transduction efficiency was measured by flow cytometry and depletion efficiency by RT-PCR and Western blots. Induction of apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry after staining with PE-conjugated Annexin V. In order to assess the contribution of NF-κB signaling to the effects of MAP3K7 depletion, cells were treated with TNF-α and cell lysates analyzed for components of the NF-κB pathway by Western blotting and for expression of the NF-κB target genes BCL2, CMYC, FAS, PTEN and TNF-α by RT-PCR. RESULTS: MAP3K7 is deleted in approximately 10% and point-mutated in approximately 1% of children with T-ALL. In 32 of 33 leukemias the deletion of MAP3K7 also included the adjacent CASP8AP2 gene. MAP3K7 deletions were associated with the occurrence of SIL-TAL1 fusions and a mature immunophenotype, but not with response to treatment and outcome. Depletion of MAP3K7 expression in T-ALL cell lines by shRNAs slowed down proliferation and induced apoptosis, but neither changed protein levels of components of NF-κB signaling nor NF-κB target gene expression after stimulation with TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the recurrent deletion of MAP3K7/CASP8AP2 is associated with SIL-TAL1 fusions and a mature immunophenotype, but not with response to treatment and risk of relapse. Homozygous deletions of MAP3K7 were not observed, and efficient depletion of MAP3K7 interfered with viability of T-ALL cells, indicating that a residual expression of MAP3K7 is indispensable for T-lymphoblasts.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2091, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844422

RESUMO

Macrophages release iron into the bloodstream via a membrane-bound iron export protein, ferroportin (FPN). The hepatic iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin controls FPN internalization and degradation in response to bacterial infection. Salmonella typhimurium can invade macrophages and proliferate in the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). Hepcidin is reported to increase the mortality of Salmonella-infected animals by increasing the bacterial load in macrophages. Here we assess the iron levels and find that hepcidin increases iron content in the cytosol but decreases it in the SCV through FPN on the SCV membrane. Loss-of-FPN from the SCV via the action of hepcidin impairs the generation of bactericidal reactive oxygen species (ROS) as the iron content decreases. We conclude that FPN is required to provide sufficient iron to the SCV, where iron serves as a cofactor for the generation of antimicrobial ROS rather than as a nutrient for Salmonella.

13.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(12): 1240-1249, 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498923

RESUMO

Purpose Somatic deletions that affect the lymphoid transcription factor-coding gene IKZF1 have previously been reported as independently associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We have now refined the prognostic strength of IKZF1 deletions by analyzing the effect of co-occurring deletions. Patients and Methods The analysis involved 991 patients with BCP ALL treated in the Associazione Italiana Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica-Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster (AIEOP-BFM) ALL 2000 trial with complete information for copy number alterations of IKZF1, PAX5, ETV6, RB1, BTG1, EBF1, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, Xp22.33/Yp11.31 (PAR1 region; CRLF2, CSF2RA, and IL3RA), and ERG; replication of findings involved 417 patients from the same trial. Results IKZF1 deletions that co-occurred with deletions in CDKN2A, CDKN2B, PAX5, or PAR1 in the absence of ERG deletion conferred the worst outcome and, consequently, were grouped as IKZF1plus. The IKZF1plus group comprised 6% of patients with BCP ALL, with a 5-year event-free survival of 53 ± 6% compared with 79 ± 5% in patients with IKZF1 deletion who did not fulfill the IKZF1plus definition and 87 ± 1% in patients who lacked an IKZF1 deletion ( P ≤ .001). Respective 5-year cumulative relapse incidence rates were 44 ± 6%, 11 ± 4%, and 10 ± 1% ( P ≤ .001). Results were confirmed in the replication cohort, and multivariable analyses demonstrated independence of IKZF1plus. The IKZF1plus prognostic effect differed dramatically in analyses stratified by minimal residual disease (MRD) levels after induction treatment: 5-year event-free survival for MRD standard-risk IKZF1plus patients was 94 ± 5% versus 40 ± 10% in MRD intermediate- and 30 ± 14% in high-risk IKZF1plus patients ( P ≤ .001). Corresponding 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse rates were 6 ± 6%, 60 ± 10%, and 60 ± 17% ( P ≤ .001). Conclusion IKZF1plus describes a new MRD-dependent very-poor prognostic profile in BCP ALL. Because current AIEOP-BFM treatment is largely ineffective for MRD-positive IKZF1plus patients, new experimental treatment approaches will be evaluated in our upcoming trial AIEOP-BFM ALL 2017.

15.
J Diabetes Complications ; 32(2): 130-138, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223856

RESUMO

AIMS: Low levels of reactive oxygen species and resulting oxidative protein modifications may play a beneficial role in cellular function under stress conditions. Here we studied the influence of age-dependent protein carbonylation on expression and activity of the anti-oxidative selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in insulin-deficient Ins2Akita mice and type 2 diabetic obese db/db mice in context of diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Protein carbonylation, GPx expression and activity were examined in kidney tissue and lysates by common histological and protein biochemical methods. RESULTS: In kidneys of Ins2Akita mice, carbonylated proteins, GPx-1 and GPx-4 expression were mainly detected in podocytes and mesangial cells. GPx activity was increased in kidney cortex homogenates of these mice. Remarkably, young animals did not show a concomitant increase in GPx expression but enhanced GPx carbonylation. No carbonylation-dependent modification of GPx activity was detected in db/db mice. In cultured podocytes hyperglycemia induced an increase in GPx expression but had no effect on activity or carbonylation. In kidney tissue sections of type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients, GPx-1 and GPx-4 expression but not overall protein carbonylation was significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the existence of a threshold for beneficial carbonylation-dependent redox signaling during the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

16.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1479, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167669

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) frequently help to sustain tumor growth and mediate immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Here, we identified a subset of iron-loaded, pro-inflammatory TAMs localized in hemorrhagic areas of the TME. The occurrence of iron-loaded TAMs (iTAMs) correlated with reduced tumor size in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Ex vivo experiments established that TAMs exposed to hemolytic red blood cells (RBCs) were converted into pro-inflammatory macrophages capable of directly killing tumor cells. This anti-tumor effect could also be elicited via iron oxide nanoparticles. When tested in vivo, tumors injected with such iron oxide nanoparticles led to significantly smaller tumor sizes compared to controls. These results identify hemolytic RBCs and iron as novel players in the TME that repolarize TAMs to exert direct anti-tumor effector function. Thus, the delivery of iron to TAMs emerges as a simple adjuvant therapeutic strategy to promote anti-cancer immune responses.

17.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 95(12): 1387-1398, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28971221

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with iron overload conditions, such as primary and secondary hemochromatosis. Conversely, patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) show elevated ferritin levels, a biomarker for increased body iron stores. Despite these documented associations between dysregulated iron metabolism and T2DM, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that T2DM patients have reduced serum levels of hepcidin, the iron-regulated hormone that maintains systemic iron homeostasis. Consistent with this finding, we also observed an increase in circulating iron and ferritin levels. Our analysis of db/db mice demonstrates that this model recapitulates the systemic alterations observed in patients. Interestingly, db/db mice show an overall hepatic iron deficiency despite unaltered expression of ferritin and the iron importer TfR1. In addition, the liver correctly senses increased circulating iron levels by activating the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway even though hepcidin expression is decreased. We show that increased AKT phosphorylation may override active BMP/SMAD signaling and decrease hepcidin expression in 10-week old db/db mice. We conclude that the metabolic alterations occurring in T2DM impact on the regulation of iron homeostasis on multiple levels. As a result, metabolic perturbations induce an "iron resistance" phenotype, whereby signals that translate increased circulating iron levels into hepcidin production, are dysregulated. KEY MESSAGES: T2DM patients show increased circulating iron levels. T2DM is associated with inappropriately low hepcidin levels. Metabolic alterations in T2DM induce an "iron resistance" phenotype.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Homeostase , Ferro/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade de Órgãos , Transcriptoma
18.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 403, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864822

RESUMO

Hepcidin regulates systemic iron homeostasis. Suppression of hepcidin expression occurs physiologically in iron deficiency and increased erythropoiesis but is pathologic in thalassemia and hemochromatosis. Here we show that epigenetic events govern hepcidin expression. Erythropoiesis and iron deficiency suppress hepcidin via erythroferrone-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively, in vivo, but both involve reversible loss of H3K9ac and H3K4me3 at the hepcidin locus. In vitro, pan-histone deacetylase inhibition elevates hepcidin expression, and in vivo maintains H3K9ac at hepcidin-associated chromatin and abrogates hepcidin suppression by erythropoietin, iron deficiency, thalassemia, and hemochromatosis. Histone deacetylase 3 and its cofactor NCOR1 regulate hepcidin; histone deacetylase 3 binds chromatin at the hepcidin locus, and histone deacetylase 3 knockdown counteracts hepcidin suppression induced either by erythroferrone or by inhibiting bone morphogenetic protein signaling. In iron deficient mice, the histone deacetylase 3 inhibitor RGFP966 increases hepcidin, and RNA sequencing confirms hepcidin is one of the genes most differentially regulated by this drug in vivo. We conclude that suppression of hepcidin expression involves epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylase 3.Hepcidin controls systemic iron levels by inhibiting intestinal iron absorption and iron recycling. Here, Pasricha et al. demonstrate that the hepcidin-chromatin locus displays HDAC3-mediated reversible epigenetic modifications during both erythropoiesis and iron deficiency.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hepcidinas/genética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Acetilação , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Epigênese Genética , Eritropoetina/genética , Eritropoetina/metabolismo , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Histonas/química , Humanos , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4023, 2017 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642463

RESUMO

Liver cells communicate with the extracellular environment to take up nutrients via endocytosis. Iron uptake is essential for metabolic activities and cell homeostasis. Here, we investigated the role of the endocytic system for maintaining iron homeostasis. We specifically depleted the small GTPase Rab5 in the mouse liver, causing a transient loss of the entire endo-lysosomal system. Strikingly, endosome depletion led to a fast reduction of hepatic iron levels, which was preceded by an increased abundance of the iron exporter ferroportin. Compensatory changes in livers of Rab5-depleted mice include increased expression of transferrin receptor 1 as well as reduced expression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. Serum iron indices (serum iron, free iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity) in Rab5-KD mice were increased, consistent with an elevated splenic and hepatic iron export. Our data emphasize the critical importance of the endosomal compartments in hepatocytes to maintain hepatic and systemic iron homeostasis in vivo. The short time period (between day four and five) upon which these changes occur underscore the fast dynamics of the liver iron pool.

20.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 95(8): 851-860, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28585096

RESUMO

Expression of the hepatic peptide hormone hepcidin responds to iron levels via BMP/SMAD signaling, to inflammatory cues via JAK/STAT signaling, to the nutrient-sensing mTOR pathway, as well as to proliferative signals and gluconeogenesis. Here, we asked the question whether hepcidin expression is altered by metabolites generated by intermediary metabolism. To identify such metabolites, we took advantage of a comprehensive RNAi screen, which revealed effectors involved in citrate metabolism. We show that the inhibition of citrate-consuming enzymes increases hepcidin mRNA expression in primary murine hepatocytes. Consistently, citrate treatment of primary murine hepatocytes or intravenous injection of citrate in mice increases cellular citrate concentrations and hepcidin expression. We further demonstrate that the hepcidin response to citrate involves the SMAD signaling pathway. These results reveal links between iron homeostasis and energy metabolism that may help to explain why iron levels are frequently altered in metabolic disorders. KEY MESSAGES: • Elevated citrate levels increase hepcidin mRNA expression in primary hepatocytes. • Citrate treatment in primary hepatocytes activates hepcidin expression. • Intravenous injection of citrate in mice increases hepcidin mRNA levels. • The hepcidin response to citrate involves the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepcidinas/genética , Aconitato Hidratase/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Hepcidinas/sangue , Homeostase , Ferro/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Reguladora do Ferro/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo
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