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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(12): 1519-1528, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with coronary or peripheral artery disease, the combination of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily and aspirin 100 mg once daily compared with aspirin 100 mg once daily reduced major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality and increased bleeding. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to explore the effects of the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin on sites, timing, severity, and management of bleeding in the COMPASS (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) study. METHODS: This study reports, by treatment group, the number and proportion of patients; hazard rate ratios for bleeding according to site and severity; the timing of bleeding using landmark analyses; and the number and proportion of patients who received blood products and other hemostatic treatments. RESULTS: Of 27,395 patients enrolled (mean age 68 years, 22% women), 18,278 were randomized to the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin or to aspirin alone and followed for a mean of 23 months. Compared with aspirin alone, the combination increased modified International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding (288 of 9,152 [3.1%] vs. 170 of 9,126 [1.9%]), (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.40 to 2.05; p < 0.001), International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding (206 of 9,152 [2.3%] vs. 116 of 9,126 [1.3%]), (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.41 to 2.23; p < 0.0001), and minor bleeding (838 of 9,152 [9.2%] vs. 503 of 9,126 [5.5%]), (HR: 1.70; 95% CI 1.52 to 1.90; p < 0.0001); the combination also increased the need for any red cell transfusion (87 of 9,152 [1.0%] vs. 44 of 9,126 [0.5%]), (HR: 1.97; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.83, p = 0.0002). The gastrointestinal (GI) tract was the most common site of increased major bleeding (140 of 9,152 [1.5%] vs. 65 of 9,126 [0.7%]), (HR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.60 to 2.89; p < 0.001), and the increase in bleeding was predominantly in the first year after randomization. Approximately one-third of major GI bleeding was gastric or duodenal, one-third was colonic or rectal, and one-third was from an unknown GI site. The study investigators reported that approximately three-quarters of major bleeding episodes were of mild or moderate intensity. A similar proportion of patients in each treatment group who experienced major bleeding received platelets, clotting factors, or other hemostatic agents. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin alone increased major bleeding, mainly from the GI tract. Most excess bleeding occurred during the first year after randomization, was of mild or moderate intensity, and was managed with conventional supportive therapy. (Rivaroxaban for the Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Events in Coronary or Peripheral Artery Disease [COMPASS]; NCT01776424).

2.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691, ago., 30 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 x 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. (AU)


Assuntos
Bactérias , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina
3.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412, Aug., 2019. tabela, grafico
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1022748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem
4.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691.e2, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/induzido quimicamente , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pantoprazol/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412.e5, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlcera Péptica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
N Engl J Med ; 358(26): 2765-75, 2008 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18579811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This phase 3 trial compared the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban, an oral direct inhibitor of factor Xa, with those of enoxaparin for extended thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind study, we assigned 4541 patients to receive either 10 mg of oral rivaroxaban once daily, beginning after surgery, or 40 mg of enoxaparin subcutaneously once daily, beginning the evening before surgery, plus a placebo tablet or injection. The primary efficacy outcome was the composite of deep-vein thrombosis (either symptomatic or detected by bilateral venography if the patient was asymptomatic), nonfatal pulmonary embolism, or death from any cause at 36 days (range, 30 to 42). The main secondary efficacy outcome was major venous thromboembolism (proximal deep-vein thrombosis, nonfatal pulmonary embolism, or death from venous thromboembolism). The primary safety outcome was major bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 3153 patients were included in the superiority analysis (after 1388 exclusions), and 4433 were included in the safety analysis (after 108 exclusions). The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 18 of 1595 patients (1.1%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 58 of 1558 patients (3.7%) in the enoxaparin group (absolute risk reduction, 2.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 3.7; P<0.001). Major venous thromboembolism occurred in 4 of 1686 patients (0.2%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 33 of 1678 patients (2.0%) in the enoxaparin group (absolute risk reduction, 1.7%; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.5; P<0.001). Major bleeding occurred in 6 of 2209 patients (0.3%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 2 of 2224 patients (0.1%) in the enoxaparin group (P=0.18). CONCLUSIONS: A once-daily, 10-mg oral dose of rivaroxaban was significantly more effective for extended thromboprophylaxis than a once-daily, 40-mg subcutaneous dose of enoxaparin in patients undergoing elective total hip arthroplasty. The two drugs had similar safety profiles. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00329628.)


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfolinas/efeitos adversos , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Rivaroxabana , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle
7.
Thromb Res ; 120(5): 685-93, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17292948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rivaroxaban (BAY 59-7939) is a novel, oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor in clinical development for the prevention of thromboembolic disorders. The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof-of-principle for rivaroxaban. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an open-label, dose-escalation study to assess the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban, relative to enoxaparin, for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total hip replacement surgery. Patients were randomized in a 3:1 ratio to rivaroxaban (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg twice daily [bid] or 30 mg once daily [od] starting 6-8 h after surgery) or enoxaparin (40 mg od starting the evening before surgery). Therapy continued until mandatory bilateral venography was performed 5-9 days after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 625 patients received therapy, of whom 466 patients were eligible for the per-protocol efficacy analysis. The primary efficacy endpoint - deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) or all-cause mortality - occurred in 22.2%, 23.8%, 20.0%, 10.2%, 17.4%, 15.1% and 16.8% of patients receiving rivaroxaban 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30 mg bid, 30 mg od and enoxaparin, respectively. The dose-response relationship with rivaroxaban for the primary efficacy endpoint was not statistically significant (p=0.0504), although major VTE (proximal DVT, PE and VTE-related death) decreased dose dependently with rivaroxaban (p=0.0108). Major, post-operative bleeding increased dose dependently with rivaroxaban (p=0.0008), occurring in 0-10.8% of patients, compared with 0% in patients receiving enoxaparin. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated proof-of-principle for rivaroxaban for the prevention of VTE after total hip replacement surgery.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Flebografia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Rivaroxabana , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Circulation ; 114(22): 2374-81, 2006 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17116766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban (BAY 59-7939)--an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor--could be an alternative to heparins and warfarin for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-comparator-controlled, multinational, dose-ranging study assessed the efficacy and safety of once-daily rivaroxaban relative to enoxaparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing elective total hip replacement. Patients (n=873) were randomized to once-daily oral rivaroxaban doses of 5, 10, 20, 30, or 40 mg (initiated 6 to 8 hours after surgery) or a once-daily subcutaneous enoxaparin dose of 40 mg (given the evening before and > or = 6 hours after surgery). Study drugs were continued for an additional 5 to 9 days; mandatory bilateral venography was performed the following day. The primary end point (composite of any deep vein thrombosis, objectively confirmed pulmonary embolism, and all-cause mortality) was observed in 14.9%, 10.6%, 8.5%, 13.5%, 6.4%, and 25.2% of patients receiving 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg rivaroxaban, and 40 mg enoxaparin, respectively (n=618, per-protocol population). No significant dose-response relationship was found for efficacy (P=0.0852). Major postoperative bleeding was observed in 2.3%, 0.7%, 4.3%, 4.9%, 5.1%, and 1.9% of patients receiving 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg rivaroxaban, and 40 mg enoxaparin, respectively (n=845, safety population), representing a significant dose-response relationship (P=0.0391). CONCLUSIONS: Rivaroxaban showed efficacy and safety similar to enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total hip replacement, with the convenience of once-daily oral dosing and without the need for coagulation monitoring. When both efficacy and safety are considered, these results suggest that 10 mg rivaroxaban once daily should be investigated in phase III studies.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfolinas/administração & dosagem , Pós-Menopausa , Rivaroxabana , Segurança , Tamanho da Amostra , Análise de Sobrevida , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem
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