Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 89
Filtrar
1.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 34(1): 64-68, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Much has been written on initial airway management in patients undergoing cervical spine procedures, but comparatively less is known about extubation criteria. High cervical and occipital fusion procedures pose a particular risk for extubation given the potential for a reduced range of motion at the occiput-C1 and C1-C2 joints should reintubation be necessary. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of posterior high cervical and occipital fusion cases to identify factors related to delayed extubation and postoperative airway and pulmonary complications. Using a convenience sample of all cases operated between January 2009 and April 2018, we reviewed anesthesia records and discharge summaries to compare patient characteristics, airway management, surgical factors, and postoperative complications between patients who underwent delayed extubation and those who did not. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients met our inclusion criteria. Overall, 92 (68.1%) patients were extubated in the operating room (OR), and 43 (31.9%) underwent delayed extubation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified age, procedure length, C2 as the highest level fused, and percentage colloid administered as predictors of delayed extubation. We did not find a difference in the rate of postoperative pulmonary complications between groups (6/92 [6.5%] for OR extubation; 2/43 [4.7%] for delayed extubation). Two patients had serious airway complications, and both were extubated in the OR (2/92, 2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The decision to extubate immediately postoperatively after high cervical and occipital fusion should be considered carefully as the morbidity associated with airway obstruction can be severe in this population, while negative effects of delayed extubation were not evident in our analysis.


Assuntos
Extubação , Vértebras Cervicais , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Anesth Analg ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between obesity, or elevated body mass index (BMI), and outcomes in patients receiving venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) has not been well established. Recent studies in patients receiving venovenous ECMO did not detect an association between obesity and increased mortality. The purpose of this retrospective observational study is to evaluate the association between BMI and survival in patients receiving VA-ECMO for cardiogenic shock. METHODS: All patients >18 years of age supported on VA-ECMO for refractory cardiogenic shock in a single academic center between 2009 and 2019 were included. ECMO outcomes, including successful ECMO decannulation and 30-day survival, were analyzed after stratification according to BMI. Multivariable and univariate logistic regression were used to assess the association between BMI and VA-ECMO outcomes. RESULTS: Of the total patients (n = 355) cannulated for VA-ECMO, 61.7% of the patients survived to ECMO recovery/decannulation, 45.5% of the patients survived to 30 days after ECMO decannulation, and 38.9% of the patients survived to hospital discharge with no statistically significant differences among the BMI groups. Multivariable logistic regression did not reveal any associations between obesity as defined by BMI and survival to ECMO decannulation (odds ratio [OR] 1.07 per 5 unit increase in BMI, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86-1.33; P = .57), 30-day survival (OR = 0.91, 95% CI, 0.73-1.14; P = .41) or survival to hospital discharge (OR = 0.95, 95% CI, 0.75-1.20; P = .66). CONCLUSIONS: Despite potential challenges to cannulation and maintaining adequate flow during ECMO, this single centered, retrospective observational study did not detect association between BMI and survival to ECMO decannulation, 30-day survival, or survival to hospital discharge for patients requiring VA-ECMO for refractory cardiogenic shock. These data suggest that obesity alone should not exclude candidacy for VA-ECMO. The primary outcome in this retrospective study was survival of the ECMO therapy (survival to ECMO decannulation), defined as surviving >24 hours after decannulation without a withdrawal of care. Secondary outcomes included survival at 30 days and survival to hospital discharge.

3.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 37(3): 453-457, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759561

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Although a risk-adjusted approach to preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is generally recommended, the successful implementation of such practice without mandated protocols remains elusive. To date, such a strategy has never been adapted to curb high baseline rates of prophylaxis. Material and Methods: We conducted an observational study on a cohort of patients undergoing elective surgery before and after the implementation of a quality improvement initiative including a risk-stratified approach to prevent PONV. The primary outcome was the number of prophylactic interventions administered. Secondary outcome included the repetition of ineffective medications and the need for rescue medication in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Results: A total of 636 patients were included; 325 patients during the control period and 311 after the intervention. The educational program failed to reduce the amount of prophylactic antiemetics administered (2.0 vs. 2.6, P < 0.001) and the repeat administration of ineffective medications for rescue (16% vs. 20%, P = 0.15). More patients in the intervention group required rescue medication compared to the control group (16.9% vs. 9.7%; P = 0.04). Conclusion: Implementation of best practices to combat PONV remains elusive. Our results indicate that difficulties in changing provider behavior also apply to institutions with high prophylactic antiemetic administration rates.

4.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 26: 121-126, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is a major obstetric disorder that can lead to severe maternal, fetal and infant outcomes. In women with suspected preeclampsia, measurement of the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) ratio has been shown to have a high negative predictive value (>97%). Our aim was to estimate the value to the US healthcare system of adopting this test into clinical practice. STUDY DESIGN: An economic model was developed for the evaluation of suspected preeclampsia from a US payer perspective using data from a US observational study of 459 women evaluated between 23 and 34.6 weeks. Test results were not available to clinicians. The model compares two strategies for managing suspected preeclampsia: standard care versus a biomarker-informed pathway utilizing the sFlt1/PlGF ratio. RESULTS: Utilization of the sFlt1/PlGF ratio test reduced the number of women admitted for suspected preeclampsia by 34-49%. Despite fewer admissions, a higher proportion of women admitted to hospital subsequently developed preeclampsia, and the proportion of women not admitted who would subsequently develop preeclampsia remained low (3.2%-6.7%). Cost savings arising from a reduction in admissions are estimated to be $1050 in the base case; varying the hospitalization cost ±25% would lead to savings in the range $771 to $1330 per patient at 2020 prices. CONCLUSION: Adopting the sFlt1/PlGF ratio test as an adjunct to clinical criteria improves the assessment of risk in women presenting with suspicion of preeclampsia and has the potential to safely reduce unnecessary admissions and save costs.

5.
Obstet Gynecol ; 138(5): 777-787, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the ability of a hospital-wide, bundled quality-improvement initiative to improve postpartum maternal blood pressure control and adherence to postpartum follow-up among patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. METHODS: This quality-improvement initiative consisted of a bundle of clinical interventions including health care professional and patient education, a dedicated nurse educator, and protocols for postpartum hypertensive disorders of pregnancy care in the inpatient, outpatient and readmission setting. We implemented this initiative in patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy starting in January 2019 at the University of Chicago. The study period was divided into four periods, which correspond to preintervention, distinct bundle roll outs, and postintervention. Our primary outcome was postpartum hypertension visit adherence. Secondary outcomes included blood pressure values and antihypertensive medication use in the immediate postpartum and outpatient postpartum time periods. We then stratified our outcomes by race to assess whether the effect size differed. RESULTS: A total of 926 patients who delivered between September 2018 and November 2019 were included. Postpartum hypertension visit adherence improved from preintervention period compared with the full implementation period (33.5% vs 59.4%, P<.001). Blood pressure in the first 24 hours postpartum decreased from preintervention compared with full implementation (preintervention median [interquartile range] systolic blood pressure 149 mm Hg [138, 159] vs 137 [131, 146] in postimplementation; P<.001). After implementation, fewer patients experienced a blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher at the first postpartum blood pressure check, when compared with preintervention (39.1% vs 18.5%, P=.004). The effect size did not differ by race. CONCLUSION: A bundled quality-improvement initiative for patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was associated with improved postpartum visit adherence and blood pressure control in the postpartum period.

6.
Eur J Pain ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of analgesia and incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) of several widely used clinical treatments for postoperative analgesia following abdominal surgery through network meta-analysis (NMA) based on published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: This NMA was registered on PROSPERO as CRD 42020169606. Primary outcomes were pain scores (visual analog scale) and accumulative opioid consumption, and secondary outcomes assessed the incidence of PONV at 24 h after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 215 RCTs and 15,114 patients were identified in this NMA. In comparison with placebo, use of a preoperative paravertebral block (mean: -12.63, 95% CI: -21.12 to -4.13), continuous wound infiltration (mean: -9.68, 95%CI: -13.15 to -6.22) and postoperative wound infiltration (mean: -6.34, 95%CI: -10.59 to -2.08) had significantly lower pain scores, less opioid consumption (mean: -2.00, 95%CI: -3.52 to -0.48; mean: -1.34, 95%CI: -1.87 to -0.81; mean: -1.41, 95%CI: -2.07 to -0.74, respectively) and lower incidence of PONV (OR: 0.30, 95%CI: 0.13 to 0.67; OR: 0.49, 95%CI: 0.24 to 0.98; OR: 0.55, 95%CI: 0.34 to 0.89, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The findings from our work provide evidence that preoperative paravertebral block was superior to continuous or postoperative wound infiltration to provide postoperative analgesia, nausea and vomiting after abdominal surgery.

7.
Nitric Oxide ; 116: 7-13, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a selective pulmonary vasodilator. In-vitro studies report that NO donors can inhibit replication of SARS-CoV-2. This multicenter study evaluated the feasibility and effects of high-dose inhaled NO in non-intubated spontaneously breathing patients with Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This is an interventional study to determine whether NO at 160 parts-per-million (ppm) inhaled for 30 min twice daily might be beneficial and safe in non-intubated COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Twenty-nine COVID-19 patients received a total of 217 intermittent inhaled NO treatments for 30 min at 160 ppm between March and June 2020. Breathing NO acutely decreased the respiratory rate of tachypneic patients and improved oxygenation in hypoxemic patients. The maximum level of nitrogen dioxide delivered was 1.5 ppm. The maximum level of methemoglobin (MetHb) during the treatments was 4.7%. MetHb decreased in all patients 5 min after discontinuing NO administration. No adverse events during treatment, such as hypoxemia, hypotension, or acute kidney injury during hospitalization occurred. In our NO treated patients, one patient of 29 underwent intubation and mechanical ventilation, and none died. The median hospital length of stay was 6 days [interquartile range 4-8]. No discharged patients required hospital readmission nor developed COVID-19 related long-term sequelae within 28 days of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In spontaneous breathing patients with COVID-19, the administration of inhaled NO at 160 ppm for 30 min twice daily promptly improved the respiratory rate of tachypneic patients and systemic oxygenation of hypoxemic patients. No adverse events were observed. None of the subjects was readmitted or had long-term COVID-19 sequelae.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração por Inalação , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/virologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações
8.
Respir Care ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-dose (≥ 80 ppm) inhaled nitric oxide (INO) has antimicrobial effects. We designed a trial to test the preventive effects of high-dose NO on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in health care providers working with patients with COVID-19. The study was interrupted prematurely due to the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines for health care professionals. We thereby present data on safety and feasibility of breathing 160 ppm NO using 2 different NO sources, namely pressurized nitrogen/NO cylinders (INO) and electric NO (eNO) generators. METHODS: NO gas was inhaled at 160 ppm in air for 15 min twice daily, before and after each work shift, over 14 d by health care providers (NCT04312243). During NO administration, vital signs were continuously monitored. Safety was assessed by measuring transcutaneous methemoglobinemia (SpMet) and the inhaled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration. RESULTS: Twelve healthy health care professionals received a collective total of 185 administrations of high-dose NO (160 ppm) for 15 min twice daily. One-hundred and seventy-one doses were delivered by INO and 14 doses by eNO. During NO administration, SpMet increased similarly in both groups (P = .82). Methemoglobin decreased in all subjects at 5 min after discontinuing NO administration. Inhaled NO2 concentrations remained between 0.70 ppm (0.63-0.79) and 0.75 ppm (0.67-0.83) in the INO group and between 0.74 ppm (0.68-0.78) and 0.88 ppm (0.70-0.93) in the eNO group. During NO administration, peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate did not change. No adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study testing high-dose INO (160 ppm) for 15 min twice daily using eNO seems feasible and similarly safe when compared with INO.

9.
Phys Sportsmed ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Weight classifications are used in boxing and other combat sports to match opponents of similar size. Professional boxers commonly engage in a potentially harmful practice known as rapid weight loss or 'weight cutting' to make weight the day prior to competition before rehydrating and refueling. This investigation describes the prevalence and magnitude of rapid weight gain in boxers following weigh-in as well as differences in practice with respect to weight class and promotion. METHODS: This analysis describes official weight data from male professional boxers collected by the California State Athletic Commission between 2015 and 2018. A total of 399 athletes were included in the study. RESULTS: Among included athletes, 389 (97.5%) athletes gained weight between official weigh-in and competition. Total absolute body mass gained was 4.4 ± 2.2 kg corresponding to a total relative body mass gain of 7.2 ± 3.5%. Boxers competing in international promotions gained significantly more body mass than regional competitors (8.0 ± 3.0% vs. 6.6 ± 3.7%; p < 0.001). In total, 82 (20.6%) athletes gained 10% body mass or more before competition. More international competitors reached this 10% threshold than regional competitors (25.3% vs. 17.4%; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate high prevalence and magnitude of RWG in professional boxing, particularly in boxers competing in elite international promotions.

10.
Anesth Analg ; 133(3): 620-629, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve block (PNB) with perineural local anesthetic is used for anesthesia or analgesia with many benefits. To extend these benefits, various adjuvant drugs have been used to prolong the duration of analgesia. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of various adjuvants at prolonging the duration of sensory and motor blockade for PNB. METHODS: A network meta-analysis of placebo-controlled and active randomized controlled trials was performed comparing 10 adjuvants. Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane library were searched, with articles before May 21, 2020 included. Two authors independently selected studies and extracted data. The primary outcomes were sensory block (SB) and motor block (MB) time, and the secondary outcome was time of first analgesia rescue (FAR). Effect size measures were described as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Confidence in evidence was assessed using Confidence in Network Meta-Analysis (CINeMA). The study protocol was preregistered with the prospectively registered systematic reviews in health and social care international database (PROSPERO), as number CRD42020187866. RESULTS: Overall 16,364 citations were identified, of which 53 studies were included with data for 3649 patients. In network meta-analyses, 4 of 7 included treatment strategies were associated with more efficacious analgesia compared with placebo therapy, including dexamethasone (SB time: 5.73 hours, 95% CI, 4.16-7.30; MB time: 4.20 hours, 95% CI, 2.51-5.89; time of FAR: 8.71 hours, 95% CI, 6.63-10.79), dexmedetomidine (SB time: 4.51 hours, 95% CI, 3.52-5.50; MB time: 4.04 hours, 95% CI, 2.98-5.11; time of FAR: 5.25 hours, 95% CI, 4.08-6.43), fentanyl (SB time: 3.59 hours, 95% CI, 0.11-7.06; MB time: 4.42 hours, 95% CI, 0.78-8.06), and clonidine (SB time: 2.75 hours, 95% CI, 1.46-4.04; MB time: 2.93 hours, 95% CI, 1.69-4.16; time of FAR: 3.35 hours, 95% CI, 1.82-4.87). In a subgroup analysis, addition of dexamethasone to ropivacaine significantly increased the time of FAR when compared to dexmedetomidine (time of FAR: 5.23 hours, 95% CI, 2.92-7.54) or clonidine (time of FAR: 6.61 hours, 95% CI, 4.29-8.92) with ropivacaine. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence for the consideration of dexmedetomidine, dexamethasone, and clonidine as adjuvants to prolong the duration of PNB. The addition of dexamethasone to ropivacaine has a longer time of FAR compared with clonidine or dexmedetomidine.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueio Nervoso , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/efeitos dos fármacos , Limiar Sensorial/efeitos dos fármacos , Adjuvantes Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Clonidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Metanálise em Rede , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify novel serum biomarkers specific to postoperative delirium after major cardiac surgery to provide insight into the pathologic processes involved in delirium and its sequelae. DESIGN: Nested, case-control study. SETTING: Cardiac surgical intensive care unit in a single-site hospital setting. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 24 older adults (aged >60 years) undergoing major cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was a positive screen for delirium from postoperative days one through three based on criteria included in the long form of the Confusion Assessment Method. A multiplexed proteomic approach was applied using proximity extension assays to identify and quantify proteins found in serum collected on the day of surgery and postoperative day one in delirious and nondelirious patient cohorts. An increase in serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 levels was identified in the delirious cohort from a presurgery baseline of (mean ± standard deviation) 5.0 ± 1.1 log2 abundance (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3-5.7) to 6.7 ± 1.6 log2 abundance (95% CI, 5.7-7.7; p = 0.01) postsurgery. A similar increase was identified in FGF-23 from a presurgery baseline of 1.7 ± 1.3 log2 abundance (95% CI, 0.8-2.5) to 3.4 ± 2.2 log2 abundance (95% CI, 2.0-4.8; p = 0.06) postsurgery. An increase in interleukin-6 serum levels also was identified in the delirious cohort from a presurgery baseline of 3.8 ± 1.1 log2 abundance (95% CI, 3.1-4.5) to 8.7 ± 1.9 log2 abundance (95% CI, 7.5-9.9; p < 0.0001) postsurgery. However, the increase in interleukin-6 serum levels of the nondelirious cohort also met the study's threshold for statistical significance (p < 0.0001). Finally, an increase in monocyte chemotactic protein-3 serum levels was identified in the delirious cohort from a presurgery baseline of 4.1 ± 0.9 log2 abundance (95% CI, 3.6-4.7) to 6.1 ± 2.0 log2 abundance (95% CI, 4.8-7; p = 0.009) postsurgery. CONCLUSIONS: FGF-21, FGF-23, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 serum levels were increased postoperatively in patients who developed delirium after major cardiac surgery. This study identified two members of the FGF family as potential putative systemic biomarkers for postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery, suggesting a possible role for metabolic recovery in the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying neurocognitive dysfunction.

12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(4): 100394, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel angiogenic biomarker profiles have demonstrated emerging evidence for predicting preeclampsia onset, severity, and adverse outcomes. Limited data exist in screening patients with fetal growth restriction for preeclampsia development using angiogenic biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to risk stratify patients with fetal growth restriction using a soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 to placental growth factor ratio. Previously published cutoff of 38 was used to predict preeclampsia development and severity as well as adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes within a 2-week time period. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective observational cohort study performed in a single tertiary hospital. Patients with a singleton fetal growth restriction pregnancy between 24 and 37 weeks' gestation were evaluated using serial 2-week encounters from the time of enrollment to delivery. Pregnancies with proven genetic or infectious etiology of fetal growth restriction or congenital anomalies were excluded. Ultrasound growth and Doppler measurements were obtained at the start of every encounter with routine preeclampsia laboratory tests and blood pressure checks when clinically indicated. Maternal serum was collected for all serial encounters and measured for soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and placental growth factor after delivery in a double-blinded fashion. Maternal charts were reviewed for baseline demographic characteristics, pregnancy diagnoses and outcomes, and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients were enrolled for a total of 77 encounters, with the median (quartile 1, quartile 3) gestational age of the study enrolled at 31.43 (28.14-33.57) weeks. Patients were divided into low-risk (ratio of <38) and high-risk (ratio of ≥38) groups. Baseline characteristics of patients did not show any marked differences, including preeclampsia labs or ultrasound parameters, between the 2 groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures upon enrollment were statistically elevated when soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 to placental growth factor ratio was ≥38 (P=.02 and P=.01, respectively). Compared to patients with a low ratio, patients with a high ratio had a greater proportion of preeclampsia diagnosis, higher rates of preterm delivery under 34 and 37 weeks gestation, smaller neonatal birthweight, and a shorter time to delivery from testing to delivery. CONCLUSION: Among patients with fetal growth restriction, the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 to placental growth factor ratio may serve as a potential biomarker for identifying at risk patients for developing preeclampsia and subsequently preterm delivery.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fator de Crescimento Placentário , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 155, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surge of critically ill patients due to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) overwhelmed critical care capacity in areas of northern Italy. Anesthesia machines have been used as alternatives to traditional ICU mechanical ventilators. However, the outcomes for patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure cared for with Anesthesia Machines is currently unknow. We hypothesized that COVID-19 patients receiving care with Anesthesia Machines would have worse outcomes compared to standard practice. METHODS: We designed a retrospective study of patients admitted with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis at a large tertiary urban hospital in northern Italy. Two care units were included: a 27-bed standard ICU and a 15-bed temporary unit emergently opened in an operating room setting. Intubated patients assigned to Anesthesia Machines (AM group) were compared to a control cohort treated with standard mechanical ventilators (ICU-VENT group). Outcomes were assessed at 60-day follow-up. A multivariable Cox regression analysis of risk factors between survivors and non-survivors was conducted to determine the adjusted risk of death for patients assigned to AM group. RESULTS: Complete daily data from 89 mechanically ventilated patients consecutively admitted to the two units were analyzed. Seventeen patients were included in the AM group, whereas 72 were in the ICU-VENT group. Disease severity and intensity of treatment were comparable between the two groups. The 60-day mortality was significantly higher in the AM group compared to the ICU-vent group (12/17 vs. 27/72, 70.6% vs. 37.5%, respectively, p = 0.016). Allocation to AM group was associated with a significantly increased risk of death after adjusting for covariates (HR 4.05, 95% CI: 1.75-9.33, p = 0.001). Several incidents and complications were reported with Anesthesia Machine care, raising safety concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that care associated with the use of Anesthesia Machines is inadequate to provide long-term critical care to patients with COVID-19. Added safety risks must be considered if no other option is available to treat severely ill patients during the ongoing pandemic. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/instrumentação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 25: 7-11, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020331

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women with a history of preeclampsia have a higher risk of recurrent preeclampsia. This study sought to ascertain the relationship between the interbirth interval and the risk of recurrent preeclampsia and difference in angiogenic markers between the two groups. METHODS: Data was collected from an ongoing cohort study of women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) enrolled at the admission to the labor and delivery floor. From this dataset, multigravida women with a prior diagnosis of preeclampsia were identified and compared to women with no prior history of preeclampsia. RESULTS: Of the 375 women with HDP who were predominantly African American, 245 were multigravida and 44 (18.0%) had a prior history of preeclampsia. Women with prior preeclampsia had an earlier gestational age of delivery, higher rates of preterm delivery and a higher incidence of preeclampsia with severe features (56.8% vs 29.8%) in the index pregnancy (p-values ≤ 0.001) than those without. The median number of years between history of preeclampsia in previous pregnancy and current pregnancy was 6 years (IQR 3, 8). Among patients with a prior history of preeclampsia, the interbirth interval was not associated with severe preeclampsia (p = 0.60) and there was no difference in angiogenic factors between patients with a prior history of preeclampsia compared to those without. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the duration of the interbirth interval was not identified as a risk factor of developing severe preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy and angiogenic factors are not a reflection of maternal predisposition to recurrent preeclampsia.

15.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 71(4): 326-332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Substance Use Disorders (SUD) and acceptance of drug testing among anesthetists in Brazil has not been determined. METHODS: An internet-based survey was performed to investigate the prevalence of SUD among anesthetists in Brazil, to explore the attitudes of anesthetists regarding whether SUD jeopardizes the health of an impaired provider or their patient, and to determine the provider's perspective regarding acceptance and effectiveness of drug testing to reduce SUD. The questionnaire was distributed via social media. REDCap was utilized to capture data. A sample size of 350 to achieve a confidence level of 95% and confidence interval of 5 was estimated. Study report was based on STROBE and CHERRIES statements. RESULTS: The survey was returned from 1,295 individuals. Most individuals knew an anesthesia provider with a SUD (82.07%), while 23% admitted personal use. The most common identified substances of abuse were opioids (67.05%). Very few respondents worked in a setting that performs drug testing (n = 17, 1.33%). Most individuals believed that drug testing could improve personal safety (82.83%) or the safety of patients (85.41%). Individuals with a personal history of SUD were less likely to believe in the effectiveness of drug testing to reduce one's own risk (74.92% vs. 85.18%, p < 0.0001) or improve the safety of patients (76.27% vs. 88.13%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SUDs are common among anesthetists in Brazil. Drug testing would be accepted as a viable means to reduce the incidence although a larger study should be performed to investigate the logistical feasibility.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Anestesistas , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
16.
EClinicalMedicine ; 34: 100829, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875978

RESUMO

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by substantial heterogeneity in clinical, biochemical, and physiological characteristics. However, the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 infection is poorly understood. Previous studies established clinical and biological phenotypes among classical ARDS cohorts, with important therapeutic implications. The phenotypic profile of COVID-19 associated ARDS remains unknown. Methods: We used latent class modeling via a multivariate mixture model to identify phenotypes from clinical and biochemical data collected from 263 patients admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital intensive care unit with COVID-19-associated ARDS between March 13 and August 2, 2020. Findings: We identified two distinct phenotypes of COVID-19-associated ARDS, with substantial differences in biochemical profiles despite minimal differences in respiratory dynamics. The minority phenotype (class 2, n = 70, 26·6%) demonstrated increased markers of coagulopathy, with mild relative hyper-inflammation and dramatically increased markers of end-organ dysfunction (e.g., creatinine, troponin). The odds of 28-day mortality among the class 2 phenotype was more than double that of the class 1 phenotype (40·0% vs.· 23·3%, OR = 2·2, 95% CI [1·2, 3·9]). Interpretation: We identified distinct phenotypic profiles in COVID-19 associated ARDS, with little variation according to respiratory physiology but with important variation according to systemic and extra-pulmonary markers. Phenotypic identity was highly associated with short-term mortality. The class 2 phenotype exhibited prominent signatures of coagulopathy, suggesting that vascular dysfunction may play an important role in the clinical progression of severe COVID-19-related disease.

17.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(11): 3248-3254, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE(S): Throughout the last several decades, the perioperative mortality rate from anesthesia care has declined, shifting focus to perioperative emergencies. Data on these emergencies, often referred to as "Anesthesia STAT" calls (STATs), are lacking at adult hospitals. The goal of this study was to determine the etiology of STATs at a major academic medical center and to determine surgical cases and patient comorbid conditions that increase the risk for STATs. DESIGN: This was a retrospective observational study. SETTING: This study took place at a large academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients who underwent anesthesia care were included in this study. INTERVENTIONS: No interventions were performed during this study. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data collected included the etiologies of STATs, patient demographic information, patient comorbid conditions, and surgeries during which STATs occurred. Between February 1, 2019, and January 31, 2020, 92 STATs occurred during 58,547 anesthetic cases, with an incidence rate of 0.16%. The most common etiology for a STAT was cardiac arrest, followed by respiratory compromise. Surgical services associated with a significant increase of STATs included general, thoracic, oral/maxillofacial, and vascular surgery. Comorbid conditions that significantly increased the risk of STATs included hypertension, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac arrest is the most common etiology of STATs. Specific surgical services and comorbid conditions are associated with an increased risk of STATs.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Parada Cardíaca , Adulto , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Emergências , Humanos , Incidência , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(8): 900-909, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is common and associated with worse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In non-COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome, RV dysfunction develops due to pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction, inflammation, and alveolar overdistension or atelectasis. Although similar pathogenic mechanisms may induce RV dysfunction in COVID-19, other COVID-19-specific pathology, such as pulmonary endothelialitis, thrombosis, or myocarditis, may also affect RV function. We quantified RV dysfunction by echocardiographic strain analysis and investigated its correlation with disease severity, ventilatory parameters, biomarkers, and imaging findings in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We determined RV free wall longitudinal strain (FWLS) in 32 patients receiving mechanical ventilation for COVID-19-associated respiratory failure. Demographics, comorbid conditions, ventilatory parameters, medications, and laboratory findings were extracted from the medical record. Chest imaging was assessed to determine the severity of lung disease and the presence of pulmonary embolism. RESULTS: Abnormal FWLS was present in 66% of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients and was associated with higher lung compliance (39.6 vs 29.4 mL/cmH2O, P = 0.016), lower airway plateau pressures (21 vs 24 cmH2O, P = 0.043), lower tidal volume ventilation (5.74 vs 6.17 cc/kg, P = 0.031), and reduced left ventricular function. FWLS correlated negatively with age (r = -0.414, P = 0.018) and with serum troponin (r = 0.402, P = 0.034). Patients with abnormal RV strain did not exhibit decreased oxygenation or increased disease severity based on inflammatory markers, vasopressor requirements, or chest imaging findings. CONCLUSIONS: RV dysfunction is common among critically ill COVID-19 patients and is not related to abnormal lung mechanics or ventilatory pressures. Instead, patients with abnormal FWLS had more favorable lung compliance. RV dysfunction may be secondary to diffuse intravascular micro- and macro-thrombosis or direct myocardial damage. TRIAL REGISTRATION: National Institutes of Health #NCT04306393. Registered 10 March 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04306393.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Direita
19.
Pain Physician ; 24(2): E153-E160, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies for reducing postoperative opioid consumption have been explored in many recent studies, due in large part to the recent opioid epidemic. Preemptive analgesia has been proposed as a potential method, but its use is still controversial. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of acetaminophen as preemptive analgesia for patients undergoing general anesthesia. STUDY DESIGN: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). SETTING: The electronic databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science were searched. The protocol was previously registered in the PROSPERO database under the registration number CRD 42020165634. METHODS: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. RCTs that compared preemptive acetaminophen with placebo in surgical patients receiving general anesthesia were included. The risk of bias for each included study was independently assessed using the criteria outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. RESULTS: Six studies with 563 patients were included. Overall, the studies showed a reduction in 24-hour opioid consumption (standardized mean difference [SMD], -1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.36 to -0.55; P = 0.002), pain scores at 12 hours postoperatively (SMD, -0.86; 95% CI, -1.25 to -0.48; P < 0.0001), and a lower incidence of postoperative nausea (risk ratio [RR] 0.45; 95% CI, 0.34-0.58; P < 0.001) and vomiting (RR 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.72; P = 0.002). LIMITATIONS: The major limitation of this meta-analysis relates to the risk of bias in the limited number of included studies. CONCLUSIONS: Preemptive acetaminophen administration significantly reduces opioid consumption within the initial 24 hours following general anesthesia, with lower pain scores at 12 hours after surgery, and less nausea and vomiting. However, well-conducted RCTs are still needed.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(5): e018526, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619970

RESUMO

Background Preeclampsia is a prominent risk factor for long-term development of cardiovascular disease. Although existing studies report a strong correlation between preeclampsia and heart failure, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. One possibility is the glycoprotein growth factor activin A. During pregnancy, elevated activin A levels are associated with impaired cardiac global longitudinal strain at 1 year, but whether these changes persist beyond 1 year is not known. We hypothesized that activin A levels would remain increased more than 1 year after a preeclamptic pregnancy and correlate with impaired cardiac function. Methods and Results To test our hypothesis, we performed echocardiograms and measured activin A levels in women approximately 10 years after an uncomplicated pregnancy (n=25) or a pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia (n=21). Compared with women with a previously normal pregnancy, women with preeclampsia had worse global longitudinal strain (-18.3% versus -21.3%, P=0.001), left ventricular posterior wall thickness (0.91 mm versus 0.80 mm, P=0.003), and interventricular septal thickness (0.96 mm versus 0.81 mm, P=0.0002). Women with preeclampsia also had higher levels of activin A (0.52 versus 0.37 ng/mL, P=0.02) and activin/follistatin-like 3 ratio (0.03 versus 0.02, P=0.04). In a multivariable model, the relationship between activin A levels and worsening global longitudinal strain persisted after adjusting for age at enrollment, mean arterial pressure, race, and body mass index (P=0.003). Conclusions Our findings suggest that both activin A levels and global longitudinal strain are elevated 10 years after a pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia. Future studies are needed to better understand the relationship between preeclampsia, activin A, and long-term cardiac function.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/etiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Ativinas/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...