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1.
J Card Fail ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, characteristics and association with prognosis of left bundle branch block (LBBB) in 3 different cohorts of patients with acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analyzed 12,950 patients with AHF who were included in the EAHFE (Epidemiology Acute Heart Failure Emergency), RICA (National Heart Failure Registry of the Spanish Internal Medicine Society), and BASEL-V (Basics in Acute Shortness of Breath Evaluation of Switzerland) registries. We independently analyzed the relationship between baseline and clinical characteristics and the presence of LBBB and the potential association of LBBB with 1-year all-cause mortality and a 90-day postdischarge combined endpoint (Emergency Department reconsultation, hospitalization or death). The prevalence of LBBB was 13.5% (95% confidence interval: 12.9%-14.0%). In all registries, patients with LBBB more commonly had coronary artery disease and previous episodes of AHF, were taking chronic spironolactone treatment, had lower left ventricular ejection fraction and systolic blood pressure values and higher NT-proBNP levels. There were no differences in risk for patients with LBBB in any cohort, with adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for 1-year mortality in EAHFE/RICA/BASEL-V cohorts of 1.02 (0.89-1.17), 1.15 (0.95-1.38) and 1.32 (0.94-1.86), respectively, and for 90-day postdischarge combined endpoint of 1.00 (0.88-1.14), 1.14 (0.92-1.40) and 1.26 (0.84-1.89). These results were consistent in sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Less than 20% of patients with AHF present LBBB, which is consistently associated with cardiovascular comorbidities, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and more severe decompensations. Nonetheless, after taking these factors into account, LBBB in patients with AHF is not associated with worse outcomes.

2.
Int J Cardiol ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative myocardial infarction/injury (PMI) is a frequent, often missed and incompletely understood complication of noncardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patient- or procedure-related factors are more strongly associated to the development of PMI in patients undergoing repeated noncardiac surgery. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, patient- and procedure-related factors were evaluated for contribution to PMI using: 1) logistic regression modelling with PMI as primary endpoint, 2) evaluation of concordance of PMI occurrence in the first and the second noncardiac surgery (surgery 1 and 2). and 3) the correlation of the extent of cardiomyocyte injury quantified by high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T between surgery 1 and 2. The secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality associated with PMI reoccurrence in surgery 2. RESULTS: Among 784 patients undergoing repeated noncardiac surgery (in total 1'923 surgical procedures), 116 patients (14.8%) experienced PMI during surgery 1. Among these, PMI occurred again in surgery 2 in 35/116 (30.2%) patients. However, the vast majority of patients developing PMI during surgery 2 (96/131, 73.3%) had not developed PMI during surgery 1 (phi-coefficient 0.150, p < 0.001). The correlation between the extent of cardiomyocyte injury occurring during surgery 1 and 2 was 0.153. All-cause mortality following a second PMI in surgery 2 was dependent on time since surgery (adjusted hazard ratio 5.6 within 30 days and 2.4 within 360 days). CONCLUSIONS: In high-risk patients, procedural factors are more strongly associated with occurrence of PMI than patient factors, but patient factors are also contributors to the occurrence of PMI.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040931

RESUMO

The current European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Heart Failure Guidelines are the most comprehensive ESC document covering heart failure to date; however, the section focused on acute heart failure remains relatively concise. Although several topics are more extensively covered than in previous versions, including some specific therapies, monitoring and disposition in the hospital, and the management of cardiogenic shock, the lack of high-quality evidence in acute, emergency, and critical care scenarios, poses a challenge for providing evidence-based recommendations, in particular when by comparison the data for chronic heart failure is so extensive. The paucity of evidence and specific recommendations for the general approach and management of acute heart failure in the emergency department is particularly relevant, because this is the setting where most acute heart failure patients are initially diagnosed and stabilized. The clinical phenotypes proposed are comprehensive, clinically relevant and with minimal overlap, whilst providing additional opportunity for discussion around respiratory failure and hypoperfusion.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024819

RESUMO

AIMS: This study tested the hypothesis that combining stress-induced biomarkers (copeptin or glucose) with high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) increases diagnostic accuracy for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in patients presenting to the emergency department. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ability to rule-out NSTEMI for combinations of baseline hs-cTnT or hs-cTnI with copeptin or glucose was compared with the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) hs-cTnT/I-only rule-out algorithms in two independent (one Norwegian and one international multicentre) diagnostic studies. Among 959 patients (median age 64 years, 60.5% male) with suspected NSTEMI in the Norwegian cohort, 13% had NSTEMI. Adding copeptin or glucose to hs-cTnT/I as a continuous variable did not improve discrimination as quantified by the area under the curve {e.g. hs-cTnT/copeptin 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-0.93] vs. hs-cTnT alone 0.91 (95% CI 0.89-0.93); hs-cTnI/copeptin 0.85 (95% CI 0.82-0.87) vs. hs-cTnI alone 0.93 (95% CI 0.91-0.95)}, nor did adding copeptin <9 mmol/L or glucose <5.6 mmol/L increase the sensitivity of the rule-out provided by hs-cTnT <5 ng/L or hs-cTnI <4 ng/L in patients presenting more than 3 h after chest pain onset (target population in the ESC-0 h-algorithm). The combination decreased rule-out efficacy significantly (both P < 0.01). These findings were confirmed among 1272 patients (median age 62 years, 69.3% male) with suspected NSTEMI in the international validation cohort, of which 20.7% had NSTEMI. A trend towards increased sensitivity for the hs-cTnT/I/copeptin combinations (97-100% vs. 91-97% for the ESC-0 h-rule-out cut-offs) was observed in the Norwegian cohort. CONCLUSION: Adding copeptin or glucose to hs-cTnT/I did not increase diagnostic performance when compared with current ESC guideline hs-cTnT/I-only 0 h-algorithms.

9.
Br J Anaesth ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with perioperative myocardial injury are at risk of death and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The primary aim of this study was to determine optimal thresholds of preoperative and perioperative changes in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) to predict MACCE and mortality. METHODS: Prospective, observational, cohort study in patients ≥50 yr of age undergoing elective major noncardiac surgery at seven hospitals in Sweden. The exposures were hs-cTnT measured before and days 0-3 after surgery. Two previously published thresholds for myocardial injury and two thresholds identified using receiver operating characteristic analyses were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models and externally validated. The weighted comparison net benefit method was applied to determine the additional value of hs-cTnT thresholds when compared with the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI). The primary outcome was a composite of 30-day all-cause mortality and MACCE. RESULTS: We included 1291 patients between April 2017 and December 2020. The primary outcome occurred in 124 patients (9.6%). Perioperative increase in hs-cTnT ≥14 ng L-1 above preoperative values provided statistically optimal model performance and was associated with the highest risk for the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.8-4.7). Validation in an independent, external cohort confirmed these findings. A net benefit over RCRI was demonstrated across a range of clinical thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative increases in hsTnT ≥14 ng L-1 above baseline values identifies acute perioperative myocardial injury and provides a net prognostic benefit when added to RCRI for the identification of patients at high risk of death and MACCE. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03436238.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849666

RESUMO

AIMS: Little is known about the epidemiology, clinical presentation, management, and outcome of acute pericarditis and myopericarditis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The final diagnoses of acute pericarditis, myopericarditis, and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) of patients presenting to seven emergency departments in Switzerland with acute chest pain were centrally adjudicated by two independent cardiologists using all information including serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T. The overall incidence of pericarditis and myopericarditis was estimated relative to the established incidence of NSTEMI. Current management and long-term outcome of both conditions were also assessed. Among 2533 chest pain patients, the incidence of pericarditis, myopericarditis, and NSTEMI were 1.9% (n = 48), 1.1% (n = 29), and 21.6% (n = 548), respectively. Accordingly, the estimated incidence of pericarditis and myopericarditis in Switzerland was 10.1 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 9.3-10.9] and 6.1 (95% CI 5.6-6.7) cases per 100 000 population per year, respectively, vs. 115.0 (95% CI 112.3-117.6) cases per 100 000 population per year for NSTEMI. Pericarditis (85% male, median age 46 years) and myopericarditis (62% male, median age 56 years) had male predominance, and commonly (50% and 97%, respectively) resulted in hospitalization. No patient with pericarditis or myopericarditis died or had life-threatening arrhythmias within 30 days [incidence 0% (95% CI 0.0-4.8%)]. Compared with NSTEMI, the 2-year all-cause mortality adjusted hazard ratio of pericarditis and myopericarditis was 0.40 (95% CI 0.05-2.96), being 0.59 (95% CI 0.40-0.88) for non-cardiac causes of chest pain. CONCLUSION: Pericarditis and myopericarditis are substantially less common than NSTEMI and have an excellent short- and long-term outcome. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov, number NCT00470587, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00470587.

12.
mBio ; : e0283321, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724811

RESUMO

Shigella spp. are highly adapted pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery in human and nonhuman primates. An unusual feature of Shigella pathogenesis is that this organism invades the colonic epithelia from the basolateral pole. Therefore, it has evolved the ability to disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier to reach the basolateral surface. We have shown previously that the secreted serine protease A (SepA), which belongs to the family of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae, is responsible for the initial destabilization of the intestinal epithelial barrier that facilitates Shigella invasion. However, the mechanisms used by SepA to regulate this process remain unknown. To investigate the protein targets cleaved by SepA in the intestinal epithelium, we incubated a sample of homogenized human colon with purified SepA or with a catalytically inactive mutant of this protease. We discovered that SepA targets an array of 18 different proteins, including alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), a major circulating serine proteinase inhibitor in humans. In contrast to other serine proteases, SepA cleaved AAT without forming an inhibiting complex, which resulted in the generation of a neutrophil chemoattractant. We demonstrated that the products of the AAT-SepA reaction induce a mild but significant increase in neutrophil transepithelial migration in vitro. Moreover, the presence of AAT during Shigella infection stimulated neutrophil migration and dramatically enhanced the number of bacteria invading the intestinal epithelium in a SepA-dependent manner. We conclude that by cleaving AAT, SepA releases a chemoattractant that promotes neutrophil migration, which in turn disrupts the intestinal epithelial barrier to enable Shigella invasion. IMPORTANCE Shigella is the second leading cause of diarrheal death globally. In this study, we identified the host protein targets of SepA, Shigella's major protein secreted in culture. We demonstrated that by cleaving AAT, a serine protease inhibitor important to protect surrounding tissue at inflammatory sites, SepA releases a neutrophil chemoattractant that enhances Shigella invasion. Moreover, SepA degraded AAT without becoming inhibited by the cleaved product, and SepA catalytic activity was enhanced at higher concentrations of AAT. Activation of SepA by an excess of AAT may be physiologically relevant at the early stages of Shigella infection, when the amount of synthesized SepA is very low compared to the concentration of AAT in the intestinal lumen. This observation may also help to explain the adeptness of Shigella infectivity at low dose, despite the requirement of reaching the basolateral side to invade and colonize the colonic epithelium.

14.
Adv Ther ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796465

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to describe patient characteristics, lipid parameters, lipid-lowering drug use, and safety of patients receiving evolocumab in a real-world clinical setting. METHODS: We conducted a 1-year multicenter observational study of adults using evolocumab with confirmed atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) or at high cardiovascular risk, and elevated LDL-C despite maximally tolerated statin doses. An e-health application optionally supported patient management. The primary outcome was change in lipid parameters over time. The secondary outcomes included evolocumab safety. RESULTS: Of 100 participants, 81% had pre-existing CVD, 71% self-reported statin-related muscle symptoms, 44% received statins. All patients received evolocumab, 65% were PCSK9i pre-treated at baseline. PCSK9i-naïve patients achieved a mean LDL-C reduction of 60% within 3 months of evolocumab treatment, which was maintained thereafter; 74% achieved LDL-C < 1.8 mmol/L at least once during observation, 69% attained < 1.4 mmol/L. In PCSK9i pre-treated patients, LDL-C remained stable throughout; 79% and 74% attained < 1.8 mmol/L and < 1.4 mmol/L, respectively, at least once. Goal attainment was higher with any combination of evolocumab, statin, and/or ezetimibe. Overall, 89% self-reported full evolocumab adherence. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE) were reported in 30% of patients, two serious TEAEs occurred in one patient; three patients discontinued evolocumab because of TEAEs. CONCLUSION: In real-world clinical practice, evolocumab was mainly used in patients with statin intolerance and pre-existing CVD. In this population, adherence to evolocumab and low LDL-C levels were maintained over 1 year, with better LDL-C goal achievement in patients using evolocumab in combination with other lipid-lowering drugs. Safety of evolocumab was similar to that documented in randomized controlled trials.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Olfactory dysfunction (OD) is a common symptom of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although many patients have been reported to regain olfactory function within the first month, long-term observation reports vary. Therefore, we aimed to assess the course of chemosensory function in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 within 3-15 months after the infection. METHODS: One hundred and two patients (71 females and 31 males; mean age 38.8 years) diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and subjective OD participated in this single-center study 111-457 days after onset of OD. Patients first performed chemosensory tests at home, followed by psychophysical testing (Sniffin' Sticks (TDI), 27-item Candy Smell Test (CST), Taste Strips Test (TST)) in the clinic. Questionnaires regarding importance of olfaction (IOQ) and olfactory-specific quality of life (QOD) were applied at both timepoints. RESULTS: After a mean 216 days (SD 73; range 111-457) between OD onset and follow-up testing, the mean Sniffin' Sticks (TDI) score was 27.1 points (SD 5.8; range 4.25-38.5): 4.0% were anosmic, 72.5% hyposmic, and 23.5% normosmic. At follow-up testing, 73.5% of patients reported improvement, 5.9% deterioration, and 20.6% no change in OD. Moreover, full recovery of self-perceived smell, flavor, and taste was not observed. According to questionnaires, the individual importance of smell did not change, but participants showed improvement in OD-related quality of life (p < 0.001) and had increased parosmia scores (p = 0.014) at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Our results show that long-lasting OD after SARS-CoV-2 infection is a common symptom. The majority of patients had OD in the range of hyposmia, which was confirmed by comprehensive smell tests.

16.
Ann Intern Med ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2020 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend using the 0/1-hour and 0/2-hour algorithms over the 0/3-hour algorithm as the first and second choices of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn)-based strategies for triage of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracies of the ESC 0/1-hour, 0/2-hour, and 0/3-hour algorithms. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and Scopus from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2020. (PROSPERO: CRD42020216479). STUDY SELECTION: Prospective studies that evaluated the ESC 0/1-hour, 0/2-hour, or 0/3-hour algorithms in adult patients presenting with suspected AMI. DATA EXTRACTION: The primary outcome was index AMI. Twenty unique cohorts were identified. Primary data were obtained from investigators of 16 cohorts and aggregate data were extracted from 4 cohorts. Two independent authors assessed each study for methodological quality. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 32 studies (20 cohorts) with 30 066 patients were analyzed. The 0/1-hour algorithm had a pooled sensitivity of 99.1% (95% CI, 98.5% to 99.5%) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.8% (CI, 99.6% to 99.9%) for ruling out AMI. The 0/2-hour algorithm had a pooled sensitivity of 98.6% (CI, 97.2% to 99.3%) and NPV of 99.6% (CI, 99.4% to 99.8%). The 0/3-hour algorithm had a pooled sensitivity of 93.7% (CI, 87.4% to 97.0%) and NPV of 98.7% (CI, 97.7% to 99.3%). Sensitivity of the 0/3-hour algorithm was attenuated in studies that did not use clinical criteria (GRACE score <140 and pain-free) compared with studies that used clinical criteria (90.2% [CI, 82.9 to 94.6] vs. 98.4% [CI, 88.6 to 99.8]). All 3 algorithms had similar specificities and positive predictive values for ruling in AMI, but heterogeneity across studies was substantial. Diagnostic performance was similar across the hs-cTnT (Elecsys; Roche), hs-cTnI (Architect; Abbott), and hs-cTnI (Centaur/Atellica; Siemens) assays. LIMITATION: Diagnostic accuracy, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and cardiac troponin sampling time varied among studies. CONCLUSION: The ESC 0/1-hour and 0/2-hour algorithms have higher sensitivities and NPVs than the 0/3-hour algorithm for index AMI. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Taiwan University Hospital.

18.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; : 19458924211053118, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies provided the first evidence that the importance of olfaction decreases with the duration of olfactory dysfunction (OD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in olfactory-related quality of life (QoL) between patients with new-onset and persistent smell loss (>4 weeks) during the coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic and patients with persistent postinfectious OD (PIOD) that were recruited before the pandemic. METHODS: This was a retrospective study that included 149 patients with self-reported OD. The olfactory-related QoL was measured using the questionnaire of OD (QOD). The QOD measures the degree to which patients (i) adjust and cope with smell loss (QOD-positive statement [QOD-PS]), (ii) suffer from distorted odor perceptions (QOD-parosmia [QOD-PAR]), and (iii) suffer from smell loss in general (QOD-negative statement [QOD-NS]). Self-perceived chemosensory function, demographics, olfactory function, and duration of smell loss were evaluated. Analyses of variance were used to depict differences in QoL-outcomes between different OD groups. RESULTS: All patients included during the COVID-19 pandemic reported an extensive loss of chemosensory functions of smell, taste, and flavor perception. Psychophysical retronasal screening testing showed olfactory impairments in more than half of these patients. One-way analysis of variance and posthoc tests revealed that the QOD-NS was significantly higher in the new-onset OD group than the PIOD group. At the same time, the QOD-PS score was significantly higher in the PIOD and the persistent COVID-19 OD group than in the new-onset OD group. CONCLUSION: We showed that patients with persistent OD experienced better olfactory-related adjustment and lower QoL-impairment scores than those with recent-onset smell loss, suggesting that the olfactory-related QoL might change as a function of time after symptom onset.

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