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1.
Heart ; 105(18): 1423-1431, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess the relative incidence and compare characteristics and outcome of unstable angina (UA) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). DESIGN: Two independent prospective multicentre diagnostic studies (Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation [APACE] and High-Sensitivity Troponin in the Evaluation of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [High-STEACS]) enrolling patients with acute chest discomfort presenting to the emergency department. Central adjudication of the final diagnosis was done by two independent cardiologists using all clinical information including serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn). All-cause death and future non-fatal MI were assessed at 30 days and 1 year. RESULTS: 8992 patients were enrolled at 11 centres. UA was adjudicated in 8.9%(95% CI 8.0 to 9.7) and 2.8% (95% CI 2.3 to 3.3) patients in APACE and High-STEACS, respectively, and NSTEMI in 15.1% (95% CI 14.0 to 16.2) and 13.4% (95% CI 12.4 to 14.3). Coronary artery disease was pre-existing in 73% and 76% of patients with UA. At 30 days, all-cause mortality in UA was substantially lower as compared with NSTEMI (0.5% vs 3.7%, p=0.002 in APACE, 0.7% vs 7.4%, p=0.004 in High-STEACS). Similarly, at 1 year in UA all-cause mortality was 3.3% (95% CI 1.2 to 5.3) vs 10.4% (95% CI 7.9 to 12.9) in APACE, and 5.1% (95% CI 0.7 to 9.5) vs 22.9% (95% CI 19.3 to 26.4) in High-STEACS, and similar to non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). In contrast, future non-fatal MI in APACE was comparable in UA and NSTEMI (11.2%, 95% CI 7.8 to 14.6 and 7.9%, 95% CI 5.7 to 10.2), and higher than in NCCP (0.6%, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The relative incidence and mortality of UA is substantially lower than that of NSTEMI, while the rate of future non-fatal MI is similar.

2.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13112, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) is incompletely understood. Better understanding of its prevalence and determinants might help to address the current potential oversimplification of the relation between physical activity and cardiac health in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We prospectively assessed the prevalence and determinants of exercise-induced LVD in patients with stable CAD and normal LV function at rest undergoing bicycle rest/stress myocardial perfusion imaging single-photon emission computed tomography (MPI-SPECT). Exercise-induced LVD was defined as a relevant (5% or more) drop in left ventricular ejection fraction after maximal exercise. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I/T (Hs-cTnI/T) and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations were measured before exercise to quantify cardiomyocyte injury and hemodynamic cardiac stress, respectively. RESULTS: Among 317 patients, exercise-induced LVD was present in 83 (26%) patients. Exercise-induced LVD was associated with the extent of exercise-inducible myocardial ischaemia as well as transient ischaemic dilatation. Still, 43% of patients developing exercise-induced LVD did not have functionally relevant CAD. Neither baseline characteristics, nor the quantification of the extent of cardiomyocyte injury and hemodynamic cardiac stress using hs-cTnI/T and NT-proBNP concentrations, respectively, allowed predicting exercise-induced LVD. CONCLUSION: One out of four patients with stable CAD develops exercise-induced LVD after bicycle exercise test. While the extent of exercise-inducible myocardial ischaemia is a predictor, other still unrecognized mechanisms also seem to play a major role, as nearly half of all patients with exercise-induced LVD do not have functionally relevant CAD.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 269: 114-121, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various scores have been derived for the assessment of syncope patients in the emergency department (ED) but stay inconsistently validated. We aim to compare their performance to the one of a common, easy-to-use CHADS2 score. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients ≥ 40 years old presenting with syncope to the ED in a multicenter study. Early clinical judgment (ECJ) of the treating ED-physician regarding the probability of cardiac syncope was quantified. Two independent physicians adjudicated the final diagnosis after 1-year follow-up. Major cardiovascular events (MACE) and death were recorded during 2 years of follow-up. Nine scores were compared by their area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC) for death, MACE or the diagnosis of cardiac syncope. RESULTS: 1490 patients were available for score validation. The CHADS2-score presented a higher or equally high accuracy for death in the long- and short-term follow-up than other syncope-specific risk scores. This score also performed well for the prediction of MACE in the long- and short-term evaluation and stratified patients with accuracy comparative to OESIL, one of the best performing syncope-specific risk score. All scores performed poorly for diagnosing cardiac syncope when compared to the ECJ. CONCLUSIONS: The CHADS2-score performed comparably to more complicated syncope-specific risk scores in the prediction of death and MACE in ED syncope patients. While better tools incorporating biochemical and electrocardiographic markers are needed, this study suggests that the CHADS2-score is currently a good option to stratify risk in syncope patients in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01548352.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Síncope/diagnóstico , Síncope/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Clin Chem ; 64(11): 1596-1606, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to directly compare high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) in the detection of functionally relevant coronary artery disease (fCAD). METHODS: Consecutive patients referred with clinical suspicion of fCAD and no structural heart disease other than coronary artery disease were included. The presence of fCAD was based on rest/stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and coronary angiography. hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations were measured in a blinded fashion. Diagnostic accuracy was quantified using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and evaluated both for uniform use in all patients and for sex-specific use in women and men separately. The prognostic end point was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs; cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction) within 2 years. For the prognostic performance, we used a multivariable model comparison with the Akaike information criterion (AIC). RESULTS: fCAD was detected in 613 of 2062 patients (29.7%) overall, 112 of 664 of women (16.9%), and 501 of 1398 of men (35.8%). hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT had comparable diagnostic accuracy when assessed for uniform use in all patients (AUC, 0.68 vs 0.66; P = 0.107) and separately in women (AUC, 0.68 vs 0.63; P = 0.068) and men (AUC, 0.65 vs 0.64; P = 0.475). However, women required lower rule-out cutoffs to achieve high sensitivity, and men needed higher rule-in cutoffs to achieve high specificity. hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT were strongly and independently associated with MACE within 2 years (P < 0.001), with comparable prognostic accuracies by the AIC. CONCLUSIONS: hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT provide moderate and comparable diagnostic accuracy. Sex-specific cutoffs may be preferred. The prognostic utility of both troponins is comparable.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Sexuais , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
5.
Cardiol J ; 25(5): 601-610, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While prolongation of QRS duration and QTc interval during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been reported in animals, limited data is available for these readily available electrocardiography (ECG) markers in humans. METHODS: Diagnostic and prognostic value of QRS duration and QTc interval in patients with suspected AMI in a prospective diagnostic multicentre study were prospectively assessed. Digital 12-lead ECGs were recorded at presentation. QRS duration and QTc interval were automatically calculated in a blinded fashion. Final diagnosis was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. The prognostic endpoint was all-cause mortality during 24 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Among 4042 patients, AMI was the final diagnosis in 19% of patients. Median QRS duration and median QTc interval were significantly greater in patients with AMI compared to those with other final diagnoses (98 ms [IQR 88-108] vs. 94 ms [IQR 86-102] and 436 ms [IQR 414-462] vs. 425 ms [IQR 407-445], p < 0.001 for both comparisons). The diagnostic value of both ECG signatures however was only modest (AUC 0.56 and 0.60). Cumulative mortality rates after 2 years were 15.9% vs. 5.6% in patients with a QRS > 120 ms compared to a QRS duration ≤ 120 ms (p < 0.001), and 11.4% vs. 4.3% in patients with a QTc > 440 ms compared to a QRS duration ≤ 440 ms (p < 0.001). After adjustment for age and important ECG and clinical parameters, the QTc interval but not QRS duration remained an independent predictor of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Prolongation of QRS duration > 120 ms and QTc interval > 440 ms predict mortality in patients with suspected AMI, but do not add diagnostic value.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte/tendências , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 107(9): 824-835, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial scar is associated with adverse cardiac outcomes. The Selvester QRS-score was developed to estimate myocardial scar from the 12-lead ECG, but its manual calculation is difficult. An automatically computed QRS-score would allow identification of patients with myocardial scar and an increased risk of mortality. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of the automatically computed QRS-score. METHODS: The diagnostic value of the QRS-score computed automatically from a standard digital 12-lead was prospectively assessed in 2742 patients with suspected myocardial ischemia referred for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). The prognostic value of the QRS-score was then prospectively tested in 1151 consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected acute heart failure (AHF). RESULTS: Overall, the QRS-score was significantly higher in patients with more extensive myocardial scar: the median QRS-score was 3 (IQR 2-5), 4 (IQR 2-6), and 7 (IQR 4-10) for patients with 0, 5-20 and > 20% myocardial scar as quantified by MPI (p < 0.001 for all pairwise comparisons). A QRS-score ≥ 9 (n = 284, 10%) predicted a large scar defined as > 20% of the LV with a specificity of 91% (95% CI 90-92%). Regarding clinical outcomes in patients presenting to the ED with symptoms suggestive of AHF, mortality after 1 year was 28% in patients with a QRS-score ≥ 3 as opposed to 20% in patients with a QRS-score < 3 (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The QRS-score can be computed automatically from the 12-lead ECG for simple, non-invasive and inexpensive detection and quantification of myocardial scar and for the prediction of mortality. TRIAL-REGISTRATION: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Identifier, NCT01838148 and NCT01831115.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Cicatriz/patologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/métodos , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Miocárdio/patologia , Idoso , Cicatriz/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suíça/epidemiologia
7.
Clin Chem ; 64(2): 386-395, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to prospectively advance a rule-out strategy for functionally significant coronary artery disease (CAD) by use of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) from bench to bedside, by application of a 3-step approach: validation in serum, correlation in plasma, and application on a clinical platform. METHODS: Patients without known CAD referred for rest/stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography/computer tomography (MPI-SPECT/CT) were assigned to 3 consecutive cohorts: validation, correlation, and application. Functionally relevant CAD was adjudicated with the use of expert interpretation of MPI-SPECT/CT and, if available, coronary angiography. In the validation cohort resting hs-cTnI was measured in serum before stress testing with the research Erenna system, in serum and plasma in the correlation cohort with the research Erenna system, and in plasma in the application cohort with the clinical Clarity system. RESULTS: Overall, functionally relevant CAD was adjudicated in 21% (304/1478) of patients. In the validation cohort (n = 613), hs-cTnI concentrations were significantly higher in patients with functionally relevant CAD (median 2.8 ng/L vs 1.9 ng/L, P < 0.001) as compared to patients without functionally relevant CAD and allowed a rule out with 95% sensitivity in 14% of patients. In the correlation cohort (n = 606), hs-cTnI concentrations in serum and plasma strongly correlated (Spearman r = 0.921) and had similar diagnostic accuracy as quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.686 vs 0.678, P = 0.425). In the application cohort (n = 555), very low hs-cTnI plasma concentrations (< 0.5 ng/L) ruled out functionally relevant CAD with 95% sensitivity in 10% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: A single resting plasma hs-cTnI measurement can safely rule out functionally relevant CAD in around 10% of patients without known CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Clin Biochem ; 52: 33-40, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29107010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single biomarker approaches provide only moderate accuracy in the non-invasive detection of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. We therefore assessed the combination of the two most promising single biomarkers: high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected myocardial ischemia referred to stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography imaging (MPI) were enrolled. Clinical judgment (CJ) of the treating cardiologist regarding myocardial ischemia, quantified using a visual analogue scale, and blood concentrations of hs-cTnI and BNP were determined before and after stress. The presence of myocardial ischemia was adjudicated by independent cardiologists using MPI, blinded to biomarker measurements. Death and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during follow-up were the prognostic endpoints. RESULTS: Among 1142 consecutive patients inducible myocardial ischemia was found in 456 (40%) of all patients. For the detection of inducible myocardial ischemia, CJ before exercise stress testing (CJb) showed an area under the receiver-operating-characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.66 (95%CI 0.63-0.69), hs-cTnI 0.70 (95%CI 0.67-0.73, p=0.07 vs CJb), and BNP 0.66 (95%CI 0.62-0.69, p=0.98). The use of a dual-biomarker strategy combining hs-cTnI and BNP with CJb did not provide a significant advantage over the combination of hs-cTnI alone and CJb (AUC 0.74, 95%CI 0.72-0.77 vs AUC 0.74, 95%CI 0.71-0.77, p=0.16). Hs-cTnI showed good prognostic value for AMI (HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3-1.9), and BNP for death (HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3-2.1). CONCLUSION: A dual-biomarker strategy combing BNP and hs-cTnI does not further increase diagnostic accuracy on top of clinical judgment and hs-cTnI alone. SUMMARY AND HIGHLIGHTS: We included 1142 consecutive patients with suspected inducible ischemia, and evaluated the added value of the biomarkers high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), alone and in combination, on top of clinical judgment. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Biochemical and Electrocardiographic Signatures in the Detection of Exercise-induced Myocardial Ischemia (BASEL VIII), NCT01838148, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01838148.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/análise , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Eletrocardiografia , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Troponina I/análise , Troponina I/sangue
9.
Circulation ; 137(5): 436-451, 2018 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Society of Cardiology recommends a 0/1-hour algorithm for rapid rule-out and rule-in of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) concentrations irrespective of renal function. Because patients with renal dysfunction (RD) frequently present with increased hs-cTn concentrations even in the absence of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, concern has been raised regarding the performance of the 0/1-hour algorithm in RD. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter diagnostic study enrolling unselected patients presenting with suspected non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction to the emergency department, we assessed the diagnostic performance of the European Society of Cardiology 0/1-hour algorithm using hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI in patients with RD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and compared it to patients with normal renal function. The final diagnosis was centrally adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists using all available information, including cardiac imaging. Safety was quantified as sensitivity in the rule-out zone, accuracy as the specificity in the rule-in zone, and efficacy as the proportion of the overall cohort assigned to either rule-out or rule-in based on the 0- and 1-hour sample. RESULTS: Among 3254 patients, RD was present in 487 patients (15%). The prevalence of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was substantially higher in patients with RD compared with patients with normal renal function (31% versus 13%, P<0.001). Using hs-cTnT, patients with RD had comparable sensitivity of rule-out (100.0% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 97.6-100.0] versus 99.2% [95% CI, 97.6-99.8]; P=0.559), lower specificity of rule-in (88.7% [95% CI, 84.8-91.9] versus 96.5% [95% CI, 95.7-97.2]; P<0.001), and lower overall efficacy (51% versus 81%, P<0.001), mainly driven by a much lower percentage of patients eligible for rule-out (18% versus 68%, P<0.001) compared with patients with normal renal function. Using hs-cTnI, patients with RD had comparable sensitivity of rule-out (98.6% [95% CI, 95.0-99.8] versus 98.5% [95% CI, 96.5-99.5]; P=1.0), lower specificity of rule-in (84.4% [95% CI, 79.9-88.3] versus 91.7% [95% CI, 90.5-92.9]; P<0.001), and lower overall efficacy (54% versus 76%, P<0.001; proportion ruled out, 18% versus 58%, P<0.001) compared with patients with normal renal function. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with RD, the safety of the European Society of Cardiology 0/1-hour algorithm is high, but specificity of rule-in and overall efficacy are decreased. Modifications of the rule-in and rule-out thresholds did not improve the safety or overall efficacy of the 0/1-hour algorithm. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00470587.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Triagem , Troponina/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
10.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 78(5): 943-8, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25909413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased accessibility and rapidity of computed tomography (CT) have led to increased use and radiation exposure to pediatric trauma patients. The thyroid is radiosensitive and therefore at risk for developing malignancy from radiation exposure during cervical spine CT. This analysis aimed to determine which preelementary trauma patients warrant cervical spine CT by defining incidence and clinical characteristics of preelementary cervical spine injury. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of pre-elementary trauma patients from 1998 to 2010 with cervical spine injury admitted to a Level I trauma center. Patients were identified from the trauma registry using DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. codes and reviewed for demographics, mechanism of injury, clinical presentation, injury location, injury type, treatment, and outcome. RESULTS: A total of 2,972 preelementary trauma patients were identified. Twenty-two (0.74%) had confirmed cervical spine injuries. Eleven (50%) were boys, and the mean (SD) age was 3 (1.7) years. The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle collision (n = 16, 73%). The majority (59%) were in extremis, and 12 (55%) arrived intubated. The median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 3 (interquartile range, 3-10); the median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 33 (interquartile range, 17-56). Nineteen injuries (76%) were at the level of C4 level and higher. The mortality rate was 50%. All patients had clinical findings suggestive of or diagnostic for cervical spine injury; 18 (82%) had abnormal neurologic examination result, 2 (9%) had torticollis, and 2 (9%) had neck pain. CONCLUSION: The incidence of cervical spine injury in preelementary patients was consistent with previous reports. Missing a cervical spine injury in asymptomatic preelementary patients is extremely low. Reserving cervical spine CT to symptomatic preelementary patients would decrease unnecessary radiation exposure to the thyroid. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Sistema de Registros , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Exame Neurológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia
11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 77(1): 166-9, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24977773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head injury is the most common cause of neurologic disability and mortality in children. Previous studies have demonstrated that depressed skull fractures (SFs) represent approximately one quarter of all SFs in children and approximately 10% percent of hospital admissions after head injury. We hypothesized that nondepressed SFs (NDSFs) in children are not associated with adverse neurologic outcomes. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for all children 5 years or younger with SFs who presented to our Level I trauma center during a 4-year period. Data collected included patient demographics, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, level of consciousness at the time of injury, type of SF (depressed SF vs. NDSF), magnitude of the SF depression, evidence of neurologic deficit, and the requirement for neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS: We evaluated 1,546 injured young children during the study period. From this cohort, 563 had isolated head injury, and 223 of them had SF. Of the SF group, 163 (73%) had NDSFs, of whom 128 (78%) presented with a GCS score of 15. None of the NDSF patients with a GCS score of 15 required neurosurgical intervention or developed any neurologic deficit. Of the remaining 35 patients with NDSF and GCS score less than 15, 7 (20%) had a temporary neurologic deficit that resolved before discharge, 4 (11%) developed a persistent neurologic deficit, and 2 died (6%). CONCLUSION: Children 5 years or younger with NDSFs and a normal neurologic examination result at admission do not develop neurologic deterioration. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological study, level III.


Assuntos
Fraturas Cranianas/complicações , Fraturas Cranianas/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Exame Neurológico , Fraturas Cranianas/terapia
12.
Phys Med Biol ; 57(13): 4211-21, 2012 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22684053

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of estimating pediatric thyroid doses from CT using surface neck doses. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters were used to measure the neck surface dose of 25 children ranging in ages between one and three years old. The neck circumference for each child was measured. The relationship between obtained surface doses and thyroid dose was studied using acrylic phantoms of various sizes and with holes of different depths. The ratios of hole-to-surface doses were used to convert patients' surface dose to thyroid dose. ImPACT software was utilized to calculate thyroid dose after applying the appropriate age correction factors. A paired t-test was performed to compare thyroid doses from our approach and ImPACT. The ratio of thyroid to surface dose was found to be 1.1. Thyroid doses ranged from 20 to 80 mGy. Comparison showed no statistical significance (p = 0.18). In addition, the average of surface dose variation along the z-axis in helical scans was studied and found to range between 5% (in 10 cm diameter phantom/24 mm collimation/pitch 1.0) and 8% (in 16 cm diameter phantom/12 mm collimation/pitch 0.7). We conclude that surface dose is an acceptable predictor for pediatric thyroid dose from CT. The uncertainty due to surface dose variability may be reduced if narrower collimation is used with a pitch factor close to 1.0. Also, the results did not show any effect of thyroid depth on the measured dose.


Assuntos
Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Doses de Radiação , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos da radiação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Radiometria , Software , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
J Trauma ; 70(3): 724-31, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21610365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased utilization of computed tomography (CT) scans for evaluation of blunt trauma patients has resulted in increased doses of radiation to patients. Radiation dose is relatively amplified in children secondary to body size, and children are more susceptible to long-term carcinogenic effects of radiation. Our aim was to measure radiation dose received in pediatric blunt trauma patients during initial CT evaluation and to determine whether doses exceed doses historically correlated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of patients aged 0 years to 17 years was conducted over 6 months. Dosimeters were placed on the neck, chest, and groin before CT scanning to measure surface radiation. Patient measurements and scanning parameters were collected prospectively along with diagnostic findings on CT imaging. Cumulative effective whole body dose and organ doses were calculated. RESULTS: The mean number of scans per patient was 3.1 ± 1.3. Mean whole body effective dose was 17.43 mSv. Mean organ doses were thyroid 32.18 mGy, breast 10.89 mGy, and gonads 13.15 mGy. Patients with selective CT scanning defined as ≤2 scans had a statistically significant decrease in radiation dose compared with patients with >2 scans. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid doses in 71% of study patients fell within the dose range historically correlated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer and whole body effective doses fell within the range of historical doses correlated with an increased risk of all solid cancers and leukemia. Selective scanning of body areas as compared with whole body scanning results in a statistically significant decrease in all doses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Doses de Radiação , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Am Coll Surg ; 212(4): 463-7, 467.e1-42; discussion 467-9, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21463769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rising medical malpractice premiums have reached a crisis point in many areas of the United States. In 2003 the Texas legislature passed a comprehensive package of tort reform laws that included a cap at $250,000 on noneconomic damages in most medical malpractice cases. We hypothesized that tort reform laws significantly reduce the risk of malpractice lawsuit in an academic medical center. We compared malpractice prevalence, incidence, and liability costs before and after comprehensive state tort reform measures were implemented. STUDY DESIGN: Two prospectively maintained institutional databases were used to calculate and characterize malpractice risk: a surgical operation database and a risk management and malpractice database. Risk groups were divided into pretort reform (1992 to 2004) and post-tort reform groups (2004 to the present). Operative procedures were included for elective, urgent, and emergency general surgery procedures. RESULTS: During the study period, 98,513 general surgical procedures were performed. A total of 28 lawsuits (25 pre-reform, 3 postreform) were filed, naming general surgery faculty or residents. The prevalence of lawsuits filed/100,000 procedures performed is as follows: before reform, 40 lawsuits/100,000 procedures, and after reform, 8 lawsuits/100,000 procedures (p < 0.01, relative risk 0.21 [95% CI 0.063 to 0.62]). Virtually all of the liability and defense cost was in the pretort reform period: $595,000/year versus $515/year in the postreform group (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of comprehensive tort reform in Texas was associated with a significant decrease in the prevalence and cost of surgical malpractice lawsuits at one academic medical center.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Seguro de Responsabilidade Civil/economia , Responsabilidade Legal/economia , Imperícia/economia , Imperícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Seguro de Responsabilidade Civil/legislação & jurisprudência , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Texas
15.
Am J Surg ; 200(6): 832-7; discussion 837-8, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21146029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tight glucose control (TGC) may reduce mortality in critically ill trauma patients. We hypothesize that euglycemia is beneficial, and a measure considering time and degree of hyperglycemia is most associated with mortality. METHODS: We performed a review of intensive care unit trauma patients admitted for more than 3 days between January 2005 and December 2007 on a TGC protocol with a goal of 80 to 110 mg/dL. Hyperglycemic, hypoglycemic, and euglycemic time ranges, and area of interpolated curves above and below 80 to 110 mg/dL were assessed. Associations with mortality were based on logistic regression models adjusted for age, injury severity score, and admission Glasgow Coma Scale score. RESULTS: A total of 546 patients were identified, and 68 (13%) died. Time spent as hyperglycemic (P = .29) and hyperglycemic area under the curve (P = .58) were not associated with mortality; hyperglycemic area/time (P = .01) was associated with mortality. Regarding hypoglycemia, area over the curve (P = .009) and time spent as hypoglycemic (P = .002) were associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: TGC prevents prolonged, high degrees of hyperglycemia; avoiding hypoglycemia likely provides mortality benefit for trauma patients.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
16.
J Trauma ; 55(5): 873-85, 2003 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14608160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have shown in a previous work that HBOC-201 is able to reverse anaerobic metabolism at low volumes in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhage. On the basis of these results, we hypothesize that low-volume resuscitation with HBOC-201 in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhage provides adequate tissue oxygenation to limit end-organ damage and allow for survival of the animal. METHODS: Twenty-four Yorkshire swine (55-65 kg) were rapidly hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 30 mm Hg, maintained hypotensive for 45 minutes, and then divided into four groups. The first group, Shed Blood (BL), was resuscitated with shed blood to baseline MAP. A second group, Shed Blood (60), underwent resuscitation for four hours at an MAP of 60 mm Hg with shed blood. The third group, LR + Blood, was resuscitated with lactated Ringer's (maximum, 40 mL/kg) followed by shed blood to baseline MAP. The final group, HBOC (60), underwent resuscitation for 4 hours at an MAP of 60 mm Hg with HBOC-201. Hemodynamic variables, urine output, blood gas analyses, lactate levels, and jejunal oximetry were followed throughout the experiment. Animals were allowed to survive and underwent necropsy on postinjury day 3. Histologic comparisons were made. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance/Duncan's multiple range test. RESULTS: All animals survived the hemorrhage/resuscitation. One animal in the LR + Blood group died on postinjury day 1. Heart rate, MAP, and arterial pH were similar between groups. Cardiac output was significantly lower throughout resuscitation in the HBOC (60) group. Jejunal oximetry was similar throughout the experiment in all groups, revealing a decline in Po2 during hemorrhage and return to baseline or near baseline during resuscitation. There was no evidence of renal dysfunction. Histologically, one animal in the LR + Blood group and four of six animals in the HBOC (60) group demonstrated mild hepatocellular damage. All other tissues examined were found to have no significant abnormalities. Elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase levels were noted when comparing the HBOC (60) group to the Shed Blood (BL) and Shed Blood (60) groups on day 2. Significant decreases in hemoglobin levels were noted in the HBOC (60) group compared with all other groups beginning on day 2. CONCLUSION: Low-volume resuscitation with HBOC-201 provides adequate tissue oxygenation for survival in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhagic shock with no long-term organ dysfunction identified. Although some animals did show mild hepatocellular damage with elevations of aspartate aminotransferase at day 2, these findings did not appear to have clinical relevance, and the enzyme elevations were trending toward normal by the third postoperative day. Decreases in hemoglobin levels at the later time points were expected, given the half-life of the product.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Substitutos Sanguíneos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Análise de Variância , Animais , Débito Cardíaco , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Suínos
17.
J Trauma ; 55(4): 747-54, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14566133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ideal resuscitation fluid for military applications would be effective at low volumes, thereby reducing logistical constraints. We have previously shown that the bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier HBOC-201 is an effective low-volume resuscitation fluid. The goal of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of HBOC-201 in comparison with other low-volume resuscitation fluids in a swine model of controlled hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Forty-two immature female Yorkshire swine (55-70 kg) were divided into seven groups of six. Animals were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure of 30 mm Hg. After 45 minutes, animals were resuscitated to a mean arterial pressure of 60 mm Hg with one of the following agents: hypertonic saline 7.5% (HTS), hypertonic saline 7.5%/Dextran-70 6% (HSD), pentastarch 6%, hetastarch 6%, or HBOC-201. Lactated Ringer's (LR) solution was used as a standard resuscitation control. Another group of animals received no resuscitation. Resuscitation was continued for 4 hours. Hemodynamic variables and oxygen consumption were measured continuously. Arterial and mixed venous blood gases and serum lactate levels were measured at intervals throughout the experiment. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc test when appropriate. Significance was defined as p < 0.05. RESULTS: Five of six animals in the no-resuscitation control group, six of six in the HTS group, and one animal in the HSD group died before completion of the study. All other animals survived to completion. Animals receiving resuscitation with HBOC-201 had significantly lower cardiac output, mixed venous oxygen saturation levels, and urinary output throughout the resuscitation period; however, there were no differences with regard to lactate, base excess, or oxygen consumption. Animals receiving HBOC-201 required significantly less fluid than any other group. CONCLUSION: In this model, hypotensive resuscitation with HBOC-201 restores tissue oxygenation and reverses anaerobic metabolism at significantly lower volumes when compared with HTS, HSD, pentastarch, or hetastarch solutions. These data suggest that HBOC-201 would be an effective primary resuscitation fluid for far-forward military or rural trauma settings where logistic constraints and prolonged transport times are common. However, when HBOC-201 is administered as a primary resuscitation fluid in hypotensive protocols, common clinical markers for determining adequacy of resuscitation may not be useful.


Assuntos
Substitutos Sanguíneos/farmacologia , Hipotensão/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Débito Cardíaco , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hemoglobinas , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Suínos
18.
J Trauma ; 55(4): 755-60; discussion 760-1, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14566134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that HBOC-201 is an efficient resuscitation fluid. However, little is known about its immunomodulatory effects. The goal of this study was to investigate human neutrophil activation after exposure to HBOC-201 and other low-volume resuscitation fluids. METHODS: Whole blood from 10 healthy volunteers was serially diluted with HBOC-201, 7.5% hypertonic saline (HTS), 7.5% hypertonic saline-6% dextran 70 (HSD), Hextend, or PentaLyte. After an incubation period, samples were analyzed for oxidative burst and CD11b expression using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Increases in both CD11b and oxidative burst activity were noted in samples diluted with HBOC-201, Hextend, PentaLyte, and lactated Ringer's solution. Samples maximally diluted with HBOC-201 demonstrated increased CD11b expression when compared with lactated Ringer's solution and Hextend (196.11% vs. 22.68% and 33.97%; p = 0.018 and p = 0.033). CONCLUSION: Although differences were noted only at the highest dilutions, further studies investigating the effects of HBOC-201 are warranted.


Assuntos
Substitutos Sanguíneos/farmacologia , Ativação de Neutrófilo/efeitos dos fármacos , Explosão Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Variância , Antígeno CD11b/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Masculino
19.
J Trauma ; 53(6): 1068-72, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12478030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that a neurotoxic effect of blood or its components may contribute to secondary neural cell dysfunction. This study investigated the effects of HBOC-201 (Hemopure) and purified human hemoglobin (hHgb) on rat fetal neural cell culture. METHODS: Neural cell cultures were exposed to HBOC-201 and hHgb (0.02, 0.2, 2.0, and 6.5 g/dL) for 24 hours, and then analyzed for proliferation, metabolism, and neurolysis. RESULTS: Cultures exposed to HBOC-201 maintained levels of proliferation and metabolism similar to controls while demonstrating no cellular lysis. However, cultures exposed to hHgb demonstrated decreased proliferation after exposure to 0.2, 2.0, and 6.5 g/dL hHgb (14,252.14, 3,221.89, and 343.12 vs. 19,509.53; p< 0.05) when compared with controls. In addition, cultures exposed to hHgb demonstrated decreased metabolic activity and increased cell lysis when compared with controls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cultures exposed to HBOC-201 displayed sustained metabolic activity and proliferation, and demonstrated no neurolysis, suggesting that HBOC-201 does not display the toxic characteristics of hHgb.


Assuntos
Substitutos Sanguíneos/farmacologia , Hemoglobinas/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Animais , Bovinos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Probabilidade , Ratos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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