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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome (SIHIWES) is a recently described multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by de novo variants in CHD4. In this study, we investigated the clinical spectrum of the disorder, genotype-phenotype correlations, and the effect of different missense variants on CHD4 function. METHODS: We collected clinical and molecular data from 32 individuals with mostly de novo variants in CHD4, identified through next-generation sequencing. We performed adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and nucleosome remodeling assays on variants from five different CHD4 domains. RESULTS: The majority of participants had global developmental delay, mild to moderate intellectual disability, brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, and dysmorphic features. Macrocephaly was a frequent but not universal finding. Additional common abnormalities included hypogonadism in males, skeletal and limb anomalies, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. The majority of variants were nontruncating and affected the SNF2-like region of the protein. We did not identify genotype-phenotype correlations based on the type or location of variants. Alterations in ATP hydrolysis and chromatin remodeling activities were observed in variants from different domains. CONCLUSION: The CHD4-related syndrome is a multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder. Missense substitutions in different protein domains alter CHD4 function in a variant-specific manner, but result in a similar phenotype in humans.

2.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369477

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysmorphic features result from errors in morphogenesis frequently associated with genetic syndromes. Recognizing patterns of dysmorphic features is a critical step in the diagnosis and management of human congenital anomalies and genetic syndromes. This review presents recent developments in genetic syndromes and their related dysmorphology in diverse populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical findings in patients with genetic syndromes differ in their heterogeneity across different population groups. Some genetic syndromes have variable features in different ethnicities, in part due to specific background exam characteristics such as flat facial profiles or nasal differences; however, other genetic syndromes are similar across different ethnicities. Facial analysis technology is accurate in diagnosing genetic syndromes in populations around the world and is a powerful adjunct to conventional clinical examination. This accuracy also reinforces the concept that genetic syndromes can and should be diagnosed in any ethnicity. SUMMARY: The increasing amount of data from studies on genetic syndromes in diverse populations is significantly improving our knowledge and approach to dysmorphic patients from various ethnic backgrounds. Optimal management of genetic syndromes requires early diagnosis, including in developing countries.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2075-2082, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361404

RESUMO

Zinc finger protein 462 (ZNF462) is a relatively newly discovered vertebrate specific protein with known critical roles in embryonic development in animal models. Two case reports and a case series study have described the phenotype of 10 individuals with ZNF462 loss of function variants. Herein, we present 14 new individuals with loss of function variants to the previous studies to delineate the syndrome of loss of function in ZNF462. Collectively, these 24 individuals present with recurring phenotypes that define a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Most have some form of developmental delay (79%) and a minority has autism spectrum disorder (33%). Characteristic facial features include ptosis (83%), down slanting palpebral fissures (58%), exaggerated Cupid's bow/wide philtrum (54%), and arched eyebrows (50%). Metopic ridging or craniosynostosis was found in a third of study participants and feeding problems in half. Other phenotype characteristics include dysgenesis of the corpus callosum in 25% of individuals, hypotonia in half, and structural heart defects in 21%. Using facial analysis technology, a computer algorithm applying deep learning was able to accurately differentiate individuals with ZNF462 loss of function variants from individuals with Noonan syndrome and healthy controls. In summary, we describe a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome associated with haploinsufficiency of ZNF462 that has distinct clinical characteristics and facial features.

4.
Brain ; 142(9): 2631-2643, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334757

RESUMO

Marked by incomplete division of the embryonic forebrain, holoprosencephaly is one of the most common human developmental disorders. Despite decades of phenotype-driven research, 80-90% of aneuploidy-negative holoprosencephaly individuals with a probable genetic aetiology do not have a genetic diagnosis. Here we report holoprosencephaly associated with variants in the two X-linked cohesin complex genes, STAG2 and SMC1A, with loss-of-function variants in 10 individuals and a missense variant in one. Additionally, we report four individuals with variants in the cohesin complex genes that are not X-linked, SMC3 and RAD21. Using whole mount in situ hybridization, we show that STAG2 and SMC1A are expressed in the prosencephalic neural folds during primary neurulation in the mouse, consistent with forebrain morphogenesis and holoprosencephaly pathogenesis. Finally, we found that shRNA knockdown of STAG2 and SMC1A causes aberrant expression of HPE-associated genes ZIC2, GLI2, SMAD3 and FGFR1 in human neural stem cells. These findings show the cohesin complex as an important regulator of median forebrain development and X-linked inheritance patterns in holoprosencephaly.

5.
Clin Genet ; 96(3): 266-270, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282990

RESUMO

Lysine methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D; OMIM 602113) encodes a histone methyltransferase involved in transcriptional regulation of the beta-globin and estrogen receptor as part of a large protein complex known as activating signal cointegrator-2-containing complex (ASCOM). Heterozygous germline mutations in the KMT2D gene are known to cause Kabuki syndrome (OMIM 147920), a developmental multisystem disorder. Neither holoprosencephaly nor other defects in human forebrain development have been previously associated with Kabuki syndrome. Here we report two patients diagnosed with alobar holoprosencephaly in their antenatal period with de novo monoallelic KMT2D variants identified by trio-based exome sequencing. The first patient was found to have a stop-gain variant c.12565G>T (p.Gly4189*), while the second patient had a missense variant c.5A>G (p.Asp2Gly). Phenotyping of each patient did not reveal any age-related feature of Kabuki syndrome. These two cases represent the first report on association between KMT2D and holoprosencephaly.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1119-1121, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140673
7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1423-1425, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140686

RESUMO

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by mostly benign tumors of the brain, skin, heart, kidney, and eye. Aberrations in the genes TSC1 and TSC2 which encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively, cause TSC. Because disease manifestations develop over time, early diagnosis and intervention are imperative for patients. TSC is not well described in patients from sub-Saharan Africa or of black African ancestry. Here, we report on a 4-year-old Nigerian boy with skin lesions and cardiac anomalies associated with TSC. Furthermore, we note that in areas with limited resources for genetic diagnoses, the common skin manifestations found in TSC may be especially useful clinical markers.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 990-993, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006510

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly is the incomplete separation of the forebrain during embryogenesis. Both genetic and environmental etiologies have been determined for holoprosencephaly; however, a genetic etiology is not found in most cases. In this report, we present two unrelated individuals with semilobar holoprosencephaly who have the identical de novo missense variant in the gene CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 1 (CNOT1). The variant (c.1603C>T [p.Arg535Cys]) is predicted to be deleterious and is not present in public databases. CNOT1 has not been previously associated with holoprosencephaly or other brain malformations. In situ hybridization analyses of mouse embryos show that Cnot1 is expressed in the prosencephalic neural folds at gestational day 8.25 during the critical period for subsequent forebrain division. Combining human and mouse data, we show that CNOT1 is associated with incomplete forebrain division.

9.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922925

RESUMO

Majewski Osteodysplastic Primordial Dwarfism type II (MOPDII) is a form of dwarfism associated with severe microcephaly, characteristic skeletal findings, distinct dysmorphic features and increased risk for cerebral infarctions. The condition is caused by bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in the gene PCNT. Here we describe the identification of a novel founder pathogenic variant c.3465-1G > A observed in carriers from multiple Druze villages in Northern Israel. RNA studies show that the variant results in activation of a cryptic splice site causing a coding frameshift. The study was triggered by the diagnosis of a single child with MOPDII and emphasizes the advantages of applying next generation sequencing technologies in community genetics and the importance of establishing population-specific sequencing databases.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(8): 1413-1414, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912611
11.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(1): e00599, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786327

RESUMO

To help fill the knowledge gap in human genetics and genomics, an International Summit (IS) in Human Genetics and Genomics was conceived and organized by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as a 5-year initiative, from 2016 to 2020. In its first 3 years, 71 professionals from 34 countries received training.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Genética Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Genômica , Genética Médica/economia , Genética Médica/organização & administração
12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 42, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696812

RESUMO

Genetic factors are strongly implicated in the susceptibility to develop externalizing syndromes such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and substance use disorder (SUD). Variants in the ADGRL3 (LPHN3) gene predispose to ADHD and predict ADHD severity, disruptive behaviors comorbidity, long-term outcome, and response to treatment. In this study, we investigated whether variants within ADGRL3 are associated with SUD, a disorder that is frequently co-morbid with ADHD. Using family-based, case-control, and longitudinal samples from disparate regions of the world (n = 2698), recruited either for clinical, genetic epidemiological or pharmacogenomic studies of ADHD, we assembled recursive-partitioning frameworks (classification tree analyses) with clinical, demographic, and ADGRL3 genetic information to predict SUD susceptibility. Our results indicate that SUD can be efficiently and robustly predicted in ADHD participants. The genetic models used remained highly efficient in predicting SUD in a large sample of individuals with severe SUD from a psychiatric institution that were not ascertained on the basis of ADHD diagnosis, thus identifying ADGRL3 as a risk gene for SUD. Recursive-partitioning analyses revealed that rs4860437 was the predominant predictive variant. This new methodological approach offers novel insights into higher order predictive interactions and offers a unique opportunity for translational application in the clinical assessment of patients at high risk for SUD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: De novo variants (DNVs) represent an important fraction of the pathogenic variant burden in holoprosencephaly (HPE). However, unexpected recurrences can occur, as evidenced by multiple affected children harboring the same apparently DNV. This study was performed to estimate the rate of parental mosaicism in a cohort of patients with HPE. METHODS: We developed a targeted capture next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel of 153 genes with potential implication in HPE. Sequencing data from a cohort of 136 HPE family trios were analyzed to identify probands with apparently DNVs. DNVs were examined in the proband and their parents to detect any deviations from the expected ~50/50 allele ratio of true heterozygosity. Selected variants were confirmed by Droplet Digital™ polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR). RESULTS: We identified 28 high-confidence DNVs, 20 of which occurred in known HPE genes. Nineteen of the 20 variants (95%) were pathogenic or likely pathogenic. Sequence data analysis showed evidence of parental mosaicism in five cases, for an overall mosaicism rate of 26%. In addition, we found evidence for likely postzygotic events in four cases (50%). CONCLUSIONS: High sensitivity methods, such as high-depth NGS and ddPCR, are essential to providing an accurate assessment of recurrence risk in HPE families with apparently DNVs.

14.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 178(2): 238-245, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182441

RESUMO

The provision of information and support to families experiencing holoprosencephaly (HPE) in a loved one is unequivocally challenging, even for the most experienced clinicians. It deserves the balance of pertinent information coupled with medical guidance that forms the basis for shared decision-making; all of which is ideally contained within a supportive environment. It requires a willingness to carefully listen to the specific concerns of the parents and family allowing them to revisit challenging issues as much as needed to encourage existing road blocks to be resolved. It necessitates that professionals see each and every family as unique, without preconceived notions about what is or is not important and being prepared to accept thoughts and decisions that may not fit with the professional's own beliefs. To some, this may sound impractical, inefficient, or even impossible within the time constrained models of modern day clinical services. However, in practice, this patient-focused approach is arguably the most essential step in providing "personalized medicine" to the populations we encounter. This manuscript is intended to provide a brief review of relevant literature and case discussions to highlight issues for families learning of the diagnosis of HPE during a pregnancy, at birth, during childhood or more rarely, in adolescence.

15.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 178(2): 113-116, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182443
17.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 178(2): 175-186, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182442

RESUMO

Holoprosencephaly (HPE), a common developmental forebrain malformation, is characterized by failure of the cerebrum to completely divide into left and right hemispheres. The etiology of HPE is heterogeneous and a number of environmental and genetic factors have been identified. Cytogenetically visible alterations occur in 25% to 45% of HPE patients and cytogenetic techniques have long been used to study copy number variants (CNVs) in this disorder. The karyotype approach initially demonstrated several recurrent chromosomal anomalies, which led to the identification of HPE-specific loci and, eventually, several major HPE genes. More recently, higher-resolution cytogenetic techniques such as subtelomeric multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and chromosomal microarray have been used to analyze chromosomal anomalies. By using chromosomal microarray, we sought to identify submicroscopic chromosomal deletions and duplications in patients with HPE. In an analysis of 222 individuals with HPE, a deletion or duplication was detected in 107 individuals. Of these 107 individuals, 23 (21%) had variants that were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic by board-certified medical geneticists. We identified multiple patients with deletions in established HPE loci as well as three patients with deletions encompassed by 6q12-q14.3, a CNV previously reported by Bendavid et al. In addition, we identified a new locus, 16p13.2 that warrants further investigation for HPE association. Incidentally, we also found a case of Potocki-Lupski syndrome, a case of Phelan-McDermid syndrome, and multiple cases of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome within our cohort. These data confirm the genetically heterogeneous nature of HPE, and also demonstrate clinical utility of chromosomal microarray in diagnosing patients affected by HPE.

18.
Birth Defects Res ; 110(16): 1233-1240, 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) affect ~1% of newborns and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. We present the clinical epidemiology of CHD as seen in a large university medical center in Nigeria. METHODS: Participants were 767 children with echocardiographically confirmed CHD seen over a 5-year period at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. RESULTS: Clinical presentation was often late with just over half (58.1%) presenting in infancy. The male:female distribution was 1:1. The predominant types of cardiac lesion seen were septal defects (43%), conotruncal defects (23.7%), atrioventricular septal defects (9.8%), and right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (7.3%). Cyanotic CHD was seen in 28.4% of cases and the single most common cyanotic CHD was Tetralogy of Fallot (13.4%). Children with cyanotic CHD were older (p = .002), had more severe lesions (p < .0001) and were more likely to have cardiac intervention (p < .0001). Extracardiac malformations were present in nearly one-third of the children. Syndromes associated with CHD were identified in 15.5% of the children and included Down syndrome (11.9%), congenital rubella syndrome (1.0%), and Marfan syndrome (0.7%). CONCLUSIONS: This study is a large case series of CHD from a single site in sub-Saharan Africa utilizing clinical, epidemiological, and developmental considerations. It provides a rich and up-to-date description of the clinical epidemiology of CHD in Nigerian children while yielding data that could be useful for designing genetic, molecular, and biomarker studies.

19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 1797-1798, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063092
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