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1.
Am Heart J ; 219: 70-77, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines for managing patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) recommend statin therapy initially. Target levels/goals for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were initially included, subsequently de-emphasized in 2013, and then re-introduced as thresholds, leading to confusion in clinical practice. We designed a multicenter, observational registry of patients with ASCVD, to describe and track LDL-C treatment patterns in the United States over time. METHODS: Patients with ASCVD receiving any pharmacologic lipid-lowering therapy were eligible for enrollment in one of three cohorts: 1) currently receiving a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor (PCSK9i), or not receiving PCSK9i with 2) LDL-C 70-99 mg/dL, or 3) LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL. Patients undergo a 1-year retrospective chart review, followed by chart reviews and phone interviews every 6 months for 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 5006 patients were enrolled at 119 centers. Mean age was 68 years, 40% of patients were female, 86% were white, 80% had coronary artery disease, and 33% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among those not on a PCSK9i, high-intensity statins and ezetimibe were utilized in only 44% and 9%, respectively. Among women vs men, only 36.6% vs 48.2% received high-intensity statins (P < .001). Among patients on a PCSK9i, only one-third were receiving a statin, suggesting statin intolerance is a driver of PCSK9i use at present. CONCLUSION: Our data on current practice in the US continue to illustrate that high-intensity statins and ezetimibe are underutilized in at-risk patients outside of clinical trials, particularly women. This study will track temporal changes in treatment patterns and identify opportunities for improvement in lipid management in patients with ASCVD.

2.
Vasc Med ; 25(1): 3-12, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512991

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that statin therapy in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) is beneficial yet use remains suboptimal. We examined trends in statin use, intensity, and discontinuation among adults aged ⩾ 40 years with incident severe PAD and a subset with critical limb ischemia (CLI) between 2002 and 2015 within an integrated healthcare delivery system. Discontinuation of statin therapy was defined as the first 90-day gap in treatment within 1 year following PAD diagnosis. We identified 11,059 patients with incident severe PAD: 31.1% (n = 3442) with CLI and 68.9% (n = 7617) without CLI. Mean (SD) age was 68.6 (11.3) years, 60.5% were male, 54.2% white, 23.2% Hispanic, and 16.2% black. Statin use in the year before diagnosis increased from 50.4% in 2002 to 66.0% in 2015 (CLI: 43.7% to 68.0%; without CLI: 53.1% to 64.2%, respectively). The proportion of patients on high-intensity statins increased from 7.3% in 2002 to 41.9% in 2015 (CLI: 7.2% to 39.4%; without CLI: 7.4% to 44.2%, respectively). Of the 40.5% (n = 4481) who were not on a statin in the year before diagnosis, 13.5% (n = 607) newly initiated therapy within 1 month (CLI: 10.1% (n = 150); without CLI: 15.3% (n = 457)). Following diagnosis, 12.5% (n = 660) discontinued statin therapy within 1 year (CLI: 15.5% (n = 202); without CLI: 11.5% (n = 458)). Although use of statins increased from 2002 to 2015, a substantial proportion of the overall PAD and CLI subpopulation remained untreated with statins, representing a significant treatment gap in a population at high risk for cardiovascular events and adverse limb outcomes.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(20): 2496-2507, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) cholesterol guideline includes recommendations for intensive lipid-lowering therapy in patients at very high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to estimate event rates among adults with a history of ASCVD who met and did not meet the definition of very high risk in the 2018 AHA/ACC cholesterol guideline. METHODS: Data from U.S. adults with health insurance in the MarketScan database who had a history of ASCVD on January 1, 2016 (n = 27,775) were analyzed. Very high risk for ASCVD events was defined as a history of ≥2 major ASCVD events or 1 event and ≥2 high-risk conditions. Patients were followed through December 31, 2017, for ASCVD events, including myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and major adverse limb events. RESULTS: Overall, 15,366 patients (55.3%) with ASCVD met the definition of very high risk. Among patients with and without very high risk, the ASCVD event rate per 1,000 person-years was 53.1 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50.1 to 56.1) and 17.0 (95% CI: 15.2 to 18.9), respectively. Among patients with ≥2 major ASCVD events and with 1 event and ≥2 high-risk conditions, the ASCVD event rate per 1,000 person-years was 89.8 (95% CI: 82.2 to 98.0) and 41.3 (95% CI: 38.3 to 44.4), respectively. The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios for ASCVD events among patients with very high risk, overall, with ≥2 major ASCVD events and with 1 event and ≥2 high-risk conditions versus those without very high risk were 2.98 (95% CI: 2.63 to 3.37), 4.89 (95% CI: 4.22 to 5.66), and 2.33 (95% CI: 2.04 to 2.66), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The 2018 AHA/ACC cholesterol guideline directs intensive lipid-lowering therapy to adults with a very high ASCVD event rate.

5.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 33(2): 189-199, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746585

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Determine the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among adults with clinically evident CVD who meet the inclusion criteria for the FOURIER clinical trial on PCSK9 inhibition in a real-world database. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2072 African American and 2972 white REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study participants 45-85 years of age with clinically evident CVD. Study participants meeting the FOURIER inclusion criteria (one major or two minor cardiovascular risk factors, fasting LDL cholesterol ≥ 70 mg/dL or non-HDL cholesterol ≥ 100 mg/dL, triglycerides ≤ 400 mg/dL, and taking statin) were followed for CVD events (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, and CVD death) from baseline in 2003-2007 through 2014. RESULTS: Overall, 771 (37.2%) African Americans and 1200 (40.4%) whites met the FOURIER inclusion criteria. The CVD event rate per 1000 person years was 60.6 (95% CI 53.6-67.6) among African Americans and 63.5 (95% CI 57.7-69.3) among whites. The risk for CVD events among adults meeting the FOURIER inclusion criteria was higher for those with a history of multiple cardiovascular events (hazard ratios among African Americans and whites 1.34 [95% CI 1.05-1.71] and 1.34 [1.10-1.63], respectively), a prior coronary revascularization (1.44 [1.13-1.84] and 1.23 [1.00-1.52], respectively), diabetes (1.38 [1.08-1.76] and 1.41 [1.15-1.72], respectively), reduced glomerular filtration rate (1.63 [1.26-2.11] and 1.29 [1.03-1.62], respectively), and albuminuria (1.77 [1.37-2.27] and 1.33 [1.07-1.65], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The CVD event rate is high among African Americans and whites meeting the FOURIER inclusion criteria. Characteristics associated with a higher CVD risk may inform the decision to initiate PCSK9 inhibition.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Lipídeos/sangue , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/etnologia , Dislipidemias/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(1): e010376, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616455

RESUMO

Background Prior studies suggest that persistence with and adherence to statin therapy is low. Interventions to improve statin persistence and adherence have been developed over the past decade. Methods and Results This was a retrospective cohort study of adults aged ≥21 y with commercial or government health insurance in the MarketScan (Truven Health Analytics) and Medicare databases who initiated statins in 2007-2014 and (1) started treatment after a myocardial infarction (n=201 573), (2) had diabetes mellitus but without coronary heart disease (CHD; n=610 049), or (3) did not have CHD or diabetes mellitus (n=2 244 868). Persistence with (ie, not discontinuing treatment) and high adherence to statin therapy were assessed using pharmacy fills in the year following treatment initiation. In 2007 and 2014, the proportions of patients persistent with statin therapy were 78.1% and 79.1%, respectively, among those initiating treatment following myocardial infarction; 66.5% and 67.3%, respectively, for those with diabetes mellitus but without CHD; and 64.3% and 63.9%, respectively, for those without CHD or diabetes mellitus. Between 2007 and 2014, high adherence to statin therapy increased from 57.9% to 63.8% among patients initiating treatment following myocardial infarction and from 34.9% to 37.6% among those with diabetes mellitus but without CHD (each Ptrend<0.001). Among patients without CHD or diabetes mellitus, high adherence did not improve between 2007 (35.7%) and 2014 (36.8%; Ptrend=0.14). In 2014, statin adherence was lower among younger, black, and Hispanic patients versus white patients and those initiating a high-intensity statin dosage. Statin adherence was higher among men and patients with cardiologist care following treatment initiation. Conclusions Persistence with and adherence to statin therapy remain low, particularly among those without CHD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(2): e010640, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651020

RESUMO

Background The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines recognize cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus but not chronic kidney disease ( CKD ) as high-risk conditions warranting statin therapy. Statin use may be lower for adults with CKD compared with adults with conditions that have guideline indications for statin use. Methods and Results We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1999-2002 through 2011-2014 to determine trends in the percentage of US adults ≥20 years of age with and without CKD taking statins. CKD was defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73m2 or albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g. Statin use was identified through a medication inventory. Between 1999-2002 and 2011-2014, the percentage of adults taking statins increased from 17.6% to 35.7% among those with CKD and from 6.8% to 14.7% among those without CKD . After multivariable adjustment, adults with CKD were not more likely to be taking statins compared with those without CKD (prevalence ratio, 1.01; 95% CI] 0.96-1.08). Among adults without a history of cardiovascular disease, those with CKD but not diabetes mellitus were less likely to be taking statins compared with those with diabetes mellitus but not CKD (prevalence ratio, 0.54; 95% CI , 0.44-0.66). Among adults with a history of cardiovascular disease, there was no difference in statin use between those with CKD but not diabetes mellitus versus those with diabetes mellitus but not CKD (prevalence ratio, 0.95; 95% CI , 0.79-1.15). Conclusions CKD does not appear to be a major stimulus for statin use among US adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Previsões , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Epidemiol ; 10: 1667-1677, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532597

RESUMO

Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a condition characterized by high cholesterol levels and increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) that often goes undiagnosed. The Dutch Lipid Network Criteria (DLNC) are used to identify FH in clinical settings via physical examination, personal and family history of CHD, in addition to the presence of deleterious mutations of the LDLR, ApoB, and PCSK9 genes. Agreement between clinical and genetic diagnosis of FH varies. While an ICD diagnosis code was not available for coding FH until 2016, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) clinical concept codes, including genetic diagnoses, for FH have been utilized in electronic health records (EHRs). Objective: To evaluate the concordance of identifying FH via SNOMED and ICD-10 CM codes vs the DLNC in an EHR database. Methods: Using the Practice Fusion EHR database, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated comparing an FH cohort identified via SNOMED and ICD-10 CM codes to one identified via the DLNC. Results: Among 907,616 patients with hypercholesterolemia, 2,180 were identified as FH via SNOMED code (zero were identified via ICD-10 CM), 259 had a DLNC score 6-8 (probable FH), and 45 had a DLNC score >8 (definite FH). Compared to DLNC score >8, the sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of the FH SNOMED code were 84.4%, 99.4%, and 6.4%, respectively. Compared to DLNC score ≥6, the sensitivity was 36.8% and the specificity was 99.5% with a PPV of 18.7%. Conclusion: Compared to the clinical criteria for FH, identification of FH patients via SNOMED diagnosis codes had high sensitivity and specificity, but low PPV. The discordance of these two techniques in identifying FH patients speaks to the challenges in identifying FH patients in large electronic databases such as administrative claims and EHR.

9.
Clin Epidemiol ; 9: 267-277, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28533698

RESUMO

Medicare is the federal health insurance program for individuals in the US who are aged ≥65 years, select individuals with disabilities aged <65 years, and individuals with end-stage renal disease. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services grants researchers access to Medicare administrative claims databases for epidemiologic and health outcomes research. The data cover beneficiaries' encounters with the health care system and receipt of therapeutic interventions, including medications, procedures, and services. Medicare data have been used to describe patterns of morbidity and mortality, describe burden of disease, compare effectiveness of pharmacologic therapies, examine cost of care, evaluate the effects of provider practices on the delivery of care and patient outcomes, and explore the health impacts of important Medicare policy changes. Considering that the vast majority of US citizens ≥65 years of age have Medicare insurance, analyses of Medicare data are now essential for understanding the provision of health care among older individuals in the US and are critical for providing real-world evidence to guide decision makers. This review is designed to provide researchers with a summary of Medicare data, including the types of data that are captured, and how they may be used in epidemiologic and health outcomes research. We highlight strengths, limitations, and key considerations when designing a study using Medicare data. Additionally, we illustrate the potential impact that Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services policy changes may have on data collection, coding, and ultimately on findings derived from the data.

10.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0141047, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26492462

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ADL) are often the first clinical sign of lymphatic filariasis (LF). They are often accompanied by swelling of the affected limb, inflammation, fever, and general malaise and lead to the progression of lymphedema. Although ADL episodes have been studied for a century or more, questions still remain as to their etiology. We quantified antibody levels to pathogens that potentially contribute to ADL episodes during and after an episode among lymphedema patients in Léogâne, Haiti. We estimated the proportion of ADL episodes hypothesized to be attributed to specific pathogens. METHODS: We measured antibody levels to specific pathogens during and following an ADL episode among 41 lymphedema patients enrolled in a cohort study in Léogâne, Haiti. We calculated the absolute and relative changes in antibody levels between the ADL and convalescent time points. We calculated the proportion of episodes that demonstrated a two-fold increase in antibody level for several bacterial, fungal, and filarial pathogens. RESULTS: Our results showed the greatest proportion of two-fold changes in antibody levels for the carbohydrate antigen Streptococcus group A, followed by IgG2 responses to a soluble filarial antigen (BpG2), Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B, and an antigen for the fungal pathogen Candida. When comparing the median antibody level during the ADL episode to the median antibody level at the convalescent time point, only the antigens for Pseudomonas species (P-value = 0.0351) and Streptolysin O (P-value = 0.0074) showed a significant result. CONCLUSION: Although our results are limited by the lack of a control group and few antibody responses, they provide some evidence for infection with Streptococcus A as a potential contributing factor to ADL episodes. Our results add to the current evidence and illustrate the importance of determining the causal role of bacterial and fungal pathogens and immunological antifilarial response in ADL episodes.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Linfangite/etiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Filariose Linfática/etiologia , Feminino , Haiti , Humanos , Linfangite/sangue , Linfangite/imunologia , Linfedema/sangue , Linfedema/imunologia , Masculino , Wuchereria bancrofti/imunologia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 8(9): e3140, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25211334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphedema management programs have been shown to decrease episodes of adenolymphangitis (ADLA), but the impact on lymphedema progression and of program compliance have not been thoroughly explored. Our objectives were to determine the rate of ADLA episodes and lymphedema progression over time for patients enrolled in a community-based lymphedema management program. We explored the association between program compliance and ADLA episodes as well as lymphedema progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A lymphedema management program was implemented in Odisha State, India from 2007-2010 by the non-governmental organization, Church's Auxiliary for Social Action, in consultation with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A cohort of patients was followed over 24 months. The crude 30-day rate of ADLA episodes decreased from 0.35 episodes per person-month at baseline to 0.23 at 24 months. Over the study period, the percentage of patients who progressed to more severe lymphedema decreased (P-value  = 0.0004), while those whose lymphedema regressed increased over time (P-value<0.0001). Overall compliance to lymphedema management, lagged one time point, appeared to have little to no association with the frequency of ADLA episodes among those without entry lesions (RR = 0.87 (0.69, 1.10)) and was associated with an increased rate (RR = 1.44 (1.11, 1.86)) among those with entry lesions. Lagging compliance two time points, it was associated with a decrease in the rate of ADLA episodes among those with entry lesions (RR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.99)) and was somewhat associated among those without entry lesions (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.06)). Compliance to soap was associated with a decreased rate of ADLA episodes among those without inter-digital entry lesions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that a community-based lymphedema management program is beneficial for lymphedema patients for both ADLA episodes and lymphedema. It is one of the first studies to demonstrate an association between program compliance and rate of ADLA episodes.


Assuntos
Linfangite/epidemiologia , Linfangite/terapia , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Linfedema/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente
12.
Food Nutr Bull ; 35(2): 211-220, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25076769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition rehabilitation centers (NRCs) have shown mixed results in reducing morbidity and mortality among undernourished children in the developing world. Follow-up on children after leaving these programs remains undocumented. OBJECTIVE: To assess the nutritional improvement of children attending the Centro de Rehabilitación Infantil Nutricional (CRIN), a residential NRC in rural Bolivia, from entrance to exit and to a household follow-up visit 1 month to 6 years later, and to identify factors associated with nutritional improvement. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted of clinical records collected by CRIN staff from 135 children under 3 years of age attending CRIN in rural Cochabamba, Bolivia, from 2003 to 2009, and of clinical records of household follow-up measurements on a subset of 26 children that were taken between 1 month and 6 years postexit. Nutritional status was evaluated by calculating z-scores for weight-for-height (WHZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and height-for-age (HAZ). Children with z-scores < -2 were considered to be wasted, underweight, or stunted, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of wasting decreased significantly, while the prevalence of stunting did not change significantly between entrance and exit from the program. From entrance to exit, the mean changes in WHZ (0.79) and WAZ (1.08) were statistically significant, while the mean change in HAZ (-0.02) was not significant. Linear regression analysis suggested that nutritional status and diarrhea at entrance had the greatest effect on WHZ and HAZ changes between entrance and exit. Children maintained their nutritional gains from the program between exit and follow-up and showed statistically significant improvement in WAZ (but not HAZ). CONCLUSIONS: CRIN is effective at rehabilitating nutritional deficits associated with wasting, but not those associated with stunting.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/reabilitação , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Bolívia , Pré-Escolar , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural , Resultado do Tratamento , Síndrome de Emaciação/prevenção & controle
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 58(4): 546-54, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24253244

RESUMO

GeoSentinel is a global surveillance network of travel medicine clinics that collect data from ill international travelers. Analyses have relied on proportionate morbidity calculations, but proportionate morbidity cannot estimate disease risk because healthy travelers are not included in the denominator. The authors evaluated the use of a case-control design, controlling for GeoSentinel site and date of clinic visit, to calculate a reporting odds ratio (ROR). The association between region of travel and acute gastrointestinal illness was evaluated. All analyses found that the association with acute gastrointestinal illness was greatest among those who traveled to North Africa and South-Central Asia. There was consistency in the magnitude of the ROR and proportionate morbidity ratio (PMR) in regions such as the Caribbean. However, in other regions, the matched ROR was noticeably different than the PMR. The case-control ROR may be preferred for single-disease/syndrome analytical studies using GeoSentinel surveillance data or other surveillance data.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Medicina de Viagem/métodos , Viagem , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev Saude Publica ; 47(2): 403-13, 2013 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24037368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the strengths and limitations of the Family Health Strategy from the perspective of health care professionals and the community. METHODS: Between June-August 2009, in the city of Vespasiano, Minas Gerais State, Southeastern Brazil, a questionnaire was used to evaluate the Family Health Strategy (ESF) with 77 healthcare professionals and 293 caregivers of children under five. Health care professional training, community access to health care, communication with patients and delivery of health education and pediatric care were the main points of interest in the evaluation. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals as well as to assess the statistical significance of the variables studied. RESULTS: The majority of health care professionals reported their program training was insufficient in quantity, content and method of delivery. Caregivers and professionals identified similar weaknesses (services not accessible to the community, lack of healthcare professionals, poor training for professionals) and strengths (community health worker-patient communications, provision of educational information, and pediatric care). Recommendations for improvement included: more doctors and specialists, more and better training, and scheduling improvements. Caregiver satisfaction with the ESF was found to be related to perceived benefits such as community health agent household visits (OR 5.8, 95%CI 2.8;12.1), good professional-patient relationships (OR 4.8, 95%CI 2.5;9.3), and family-focused health (OR 4.1, 95%CI 1.6;10.2); and perceived problems such as lack of personnel (OR 0.3, 95%CI 0.2;0.6), difficulty with access (OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.1;0.4), and poor quality of care (OR 0.3, 95%CI 0.1;0.6). Overall, 62% of caregivers reported being generally satisfied with the ESF services. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying the limitations and strengths of the Family Health Strategy from the healthcare professional and caregiver perspective may serve to advance primary community healthcare in Brazil.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Satisfação no Emprego , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Adolescente , Brasil , Cuidadores/educação , Pré-Escolar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Rev. saúde pública ; 47(2): 403-413, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-685572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the strengths and limitations of the Family Health Strategy from the perspective of health care professionals and the community. METHODS: Between June-August 2009, in the city of Vespasiano, Minas Gerais State, Southeastern Brazil, a questionnaire was used to evaluate the Family Health Strategy (ESF) with 77 healthcare professionals and 293 caregivers of children under five. Health care professional training, community access to health care, communication with patients and delivery of health education and pediatric care were the main points of interest in the evaluation. Logistic regression analysis was used to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals as well as to assess the statistical significance of the variables studied. RESULTS: The majority of health care professionals reported their program training was insufficient in quantity, content and method of delivery. Caregivers and professionals identified similar weaknesses (services not accessible to the community, lack of healthcare professionals, poor training for professionals) and strengths (community health worker-patient communications, provision of educational information, and pediatric care). Recommendations for improvement included: more doctors and specialists, more and better training, and scheduling improvements. Caregiver satisfaction with the ESF was found to be related to perceived benefits such as community health agent household visits (OR 5.8, 95%CI 2.8;12.1), good professional-patient relationships (OR 4.8, 95%CI 2.5;9.3), and family-focused health (OR 4.1, 95%CI 1.6;10.2); and perceived problems such as lack of personnel (OR 0.3, 95%CI 0.2;0.6), difficulty with access (OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.1;0.4), and poor quality of care (OR 0.3, 95%CI 0.1;0.6). Overall, 62% of caregivers reported being generally satisfied with the ESF services. CONCLUSIONS: ...


OBJETIVO: Analisar as limitações e os pontos positivos da Estratégia de Saúde da Família na perspectiva dos profissionais da saúde e da comunidade. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado entre os meses de junho e agosto de 2009, na cidade de Vespasiano, MG, localizada na região Sudeste do Brasil. Para avaliar a Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF), foi aplicado questionário em 77 profissionais da saúde e 293 cuidadores de crianças menores de cinco anos. Variáveis como o treinamento das equipes de saúde, acesso da comunidade aos serviços prestados pelas equipes de ESF, comunicação com os pacientes, a atenção prestada à criança e as informações de saúde passadas aos cuidadores foram alguns dos pontos de interesse da investigação. Análises de regressão logística foram utilizadas para se avaliar a significância estatística das variáveis estudadas, bem como os valores de odds ratio e intervalo de confiança. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos profissionais relatou que seus treinamentos foram insuficientes em quantidade, conteúdo e metodologia utilizada. Os cuidadores e profissionais identificaram semelhantes limitações da Estratégia de Saúde da Família (os serviços inacessíveis à comunidade, falta de treinamento e número insuficiente de profissionais) e também pontos fortes semelhantes (a comunicação entre agentes comunitários e comunidade, fornecimento de informações educacionais e foco na atenção à criança). Como recomendações para a melhoria do programa foram apontados: a necessidade de mais médicos e especialistas, treinamentos em maior quantidade e qualidade e melhoria na marcação de ...


OBJETIVO: Analizar las limitaciones y los puntos positivos de la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia en la perspectiva de los profesionales de la salud y de la comunidad. MÉTODOS: Estudio realizado entre los meses de Junio y Agosto de 2009, en la ciudad de Vespasiano, MG, localizada en el la región sureste de Brasil. Para evaluar la Estrategia de la Salud de la Familia (ESF), se aplicó cuestionario en 77 profesionales de la salud y 293 cuidadores de niños menores de cinco años. Las Variables, entrenamiento de los grupos de salud, acceso de la comunidad a los servicios suministrados por los grupos de ESF, comunicación con los pacientes, la atención suministrada al niño y las informaciones de salud entregadas a los cuidadores, fueron algunos de los puntos de interés de la investigación. Los análisis de regresión logística se utilizaron para evaluar la significancia estadística de las variables estudiadas, así como los valores de odds ratio (OR) e intervalo de confianza (IC). RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los profesionales mencionó que sus entrenamientos fueron insuficientes en cantidad, contenido y metodología utilizada. Los cuidadores y profesionales identificaron limitaciones semejantes de la ESF (los servicios inaccesibles a la comunidad, falta de entrenamiento e insuficiente número de profesionales) y también semejantes puntos fuertes (la comunicación entre agentes comunitarios y comunidad, suministro de informaciones educativas y énfasis en la atención del niño). Como recomendaciones para mejorar el programa fueron señalados: la necesidad de más médicos y especialistas, entrenamientos en mayor cantidad y calidad y mejoría al concertar cita con médicos. La satisfacción de los cuidadores fue relacionada con los ...


Assuntos
Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Capacitação de Recursos Humanos em Saúde , Satisfação no Emprego , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Brasil , Cuidadores/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 7(3): e2100, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23516648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) infects approximately 120 million people worldwide. As many as 40 million have symptoms of LF disease, including lymphedema, elephantiasis, and hydrocele. India constitutes approximately 45% of the world's burden of LF. The Indian NGO Church's Auxiliary for Social Action (CASA) has been conducting a community-based lymphedema management program in Orissa State since 2007 that aims to reduce the morbidity associated with lymphedema and elephantiasis. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the effects of this program on lymphedema patients' perceived disability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this prospective cohort study, 370 patients ≥14 years of age, who reported lymphedema lasting more than three months in one or both legs, were recruited from villages in the Bolagarh sub-district, Khurda District, Orissa, India. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II was administered to participants at baseline (July, 2009), and then at regular intervals through 24 months (July, 2011), to assess patients' perceived disability. Disability scores decreased significantly (p<0.0001) from baseline to 24 months. Multivariable analysis using mixed effects modeling found that employment and time in the program were significantly associated with lower disability scores after two years of program involvement. Older age, female gender, the presence of other chronic health conditions, moderate (Stage 3) or advanced (Stage 4-7) lymphedema, reporting an adenolymphangitis (ADL) episode during the previous 30 days, and the presence of inter-digital lesions were associated with higher disability scores. Patients with moderate or advanced lymphedema experienced greater improvements in perceived disability over time. Patients participating in the program for at least 12 months also reported losing 2.5 fewer work days per month (p<0.001) due to their lymphedema, compared to baseline. SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that community-based lymphedema management programs can reduce disability and prevent days of work lost. These effects were sustained over a 24 month period.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Filariose Linfática/diagnóstico , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Linfedema/diagnóstico , Linfedema/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Filariose Linfática/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Linfedema/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 31(6): 454-60, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22858811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess factors influencing perspectives on Brazil's national Family Health Program (PSF) by exploring satisfaction with PSF units and home-visit community health agents and perceptions about PSF unit accessibility among frequent users (primary caretakers of children under age 5) in Vespasiano, Minas Gerais. METHODS: Data were collected though cross-sectional household surveys to determine programmatic and demographic factors affecting user satisfaction with the PSF. Multivariate logistic modeling was used to estimate users' satisfaction with PSF units and agents and perceived access to PSF unit services. Chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to estimate statistical differences. RESULTS: The majority of caretakers were satisfied with both their PSF unit and their PSF community health agent and had received at least one monthly home visit from the health agent. Satisfaction with both the health agent and the unit was positively associated with perceived access to the unit and frequency of agent home visits. Caretakers who reported that their PSF agent made one or more home visits per month were more likely to perceive the PSF unit as being "accessible" (or "sometimes accessible"). CONCLUSIONS: The current data are important indicators of population health in Minas Gerais, Brazil, and suggest that users' satisfaction with the PSF and perceptions about its accessibility can be improved by ensuring that all households receive at least one health agent home visit per month. These results could be applied to other parts of Brazil or Latin America to improve understanding of user perceptions of health systems.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Satisfação do Paciente , Brasil , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 31(6): 454-460, jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-643988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess factors influencing perspectives on Brazil's national Family Health Program (PSF) by exploring satisfaction with PSF units and home-visit community health agents and perceptions about PSF unit accessibility among frequent users (primary caretakers of children under age 5) in Vespasiano, Minas Gerais. METHODS: Data were collected though cross-sectional household surveys to determine pro grammatic and demographic factors affecting user satisfaction with the PSF. Multivariate logistic modeling was used to estimate users' satisfaction with PSF units and agents and perceived access to PSF unit services. Chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to estimate statistical differences. RESULTS: The majority of caretakers were satisfied with both their PSF unit and their PSF community health agent and had received at least one monthly home visit from the health agent. Satisfaction with both the health agent and the unit was positively associated with per ceived access to the unit and frequency of agent home visits. Caretakers who reported that their PSF agent made one or more home visits per month were more likely to perceive the PSF unit as being "accessible" (or "sometimes accessible"). CONCLUSIONS: The current data are important indicators of population health in Minas Gerais, Brazil, and suggest that users' satisfaction with the PSF and perceptions about its accessibility can be improved by ensuring that all households receive at least one health agent home visit per month. These results could be applied to other parts of Brazil or Latin America to improve understanding of user perceptions of health systems.


OBJETIVO: Evaluar los factores que influyen en las perspectivas sobre el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) del Brasil, mediante el análisis de la satisfacción de los usuarios frecuentes del PSF (cuidadores primarios de niños menores de 5 años) con las unidades y los agentes de salud comunitarios que efectúan las visitas a domicilio, y de la percepción de dichos usuarios respecto de la accesibilidad a la unidad del PSF en Vespasiano, Minas Gerais. MÉTODOS: Se recopilaron datos mediante encuestas transversales de hogares para determinar los factores programáticos y demográficos que afectaban la satisfacción de los usuarios con el PSF. Para estimar la satisfacción de los usuarios con las unidades y los agentes de salud del PSF y su percepción sobre el acceso a los servicios prestados por la unidad del PSF se usó un modelo logístico multifactorial. Para calcular las diferencias estadísticas se usaron las pruebas de ji al cuadrado y análisis de la varianza (ANOVA). RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los cuidadores estuvieron satisfechos tanto con su unidad del PSF como con su agente de salud comunitario del programa, de quien habían recibido al menos una visita a domicilio mensual. La satisfacción con este y con la unidad se asoció positivamente con la percepción de acceso a la unidad y con la frecuencia de las visitas a domicilio del agente. Los cuidadores que informaron que su agente del PSF hizo una o más visitas al domicilio por mes presentaron mayores probabilidades de considerar a la unidad del PSF como "accesible" (o "a veces accesible"). CONCLUSIONES: Los datos actuales son indicadores importantes del estado de salud de la población en Minas Gerais, Brasil, y sugieren que la satisfacción de los usuarios con el PSF y su percepción acerca de la accesibilidad a este pueden mejorarse si se garantiza que todos los hogares reciban al menos una visita a domicilio mensual del agente de salud. Estos resultados podrían aplicarse a otras zonas del Brasil o de América Latina para comprender mejor la percepción de los usuarios sobre los sistemas de salud.


Assuntos
Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde da Família , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Satisfação do Paciente , Brasil , Bem-Estar da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Low Genit Tract Dis ; 12(3): 232-41, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18596467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review all studies examining sociocultural factors influencing cervical cancer screening among immigrant and ethnic minorities in the United States along the theoretical framework of the Health Belief Model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, and Cochrane database searches were conducted searching for English language, US-based studies to examine minority and immigrant populations within the theoretical framework of the Health Belief Model. Fifty-five of more than 3,381 potentially relevant articles were included in the final analysis. RESULTS: Commonly held beliefs across several cultural groups emerged including the following: fatalistic attitudes, a lack of knowledge about cervical cancer, fear of Pap smears threatening one's virginity, as well as beliefs that a Pap smear is unnecessary unless one is ill. Beliefs unique to specific cultural groups included: body-focused notions among Hispanics, as childbirth, menses, sex, and stress were considered to play a role in one's susceptibility to cancer. African Americans identified administrative processes in establishing health care as barriers to screening, whereas Asian immigrants held a variety of misconceptions concerning one's susceptibility to cancer as well as stigmatization imposed by their own community and providers. CONCLUSION: Health care providers and policy makers must be cognizant of the various sociocultural factors influencing health-related beliefs and health care utilization among immigrant and ethnic minorities in the United States. Culturally relevant screening strategies and programs that address these sociocultural factors must be developed to address the growing disparity in cervical cancer burden among underserved, resource-poor populations in the United States.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Teste de Papanicolaou , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etnologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos
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