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1.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(2): 625-632, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163023

RESUMO

Background: Following initiation of MDR-TB treatment, patients have a choice to receive follow up DOT supervision at either the central initiating facility or at a peripheral facility. Objectives: We describe the adherence patterns of MDR-TB patients undergoing DOT supervision at the two health facility categories during intensive phase of treatment. Methods: We used a retrospective cohort of patients initiated on MDR TB treatment at Mulago National Referral Hospital between 2014 and 2016. We extracted data from the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Program records and analysed these using STATA V14. Result: Majority (84.01%) of the patients received their DOT supervision from the peripheral facilities. Males made up 62.1% of patients, and 91.2% had had their household contacts screened for MDR-TB. 26.5% of the patients on peripheral DOT supervision had good adherence to treatment protocol compared to 0% among patients on central initiating health facility DOT supervision. Among the patients with good adherence, 24.1% had contacts screened for MDR-TB as compared to 3.6% with poor adherence. Conclusion: More patients preferred MDR-TB DOT supervision at peripheral facilities, which had better adherence to the treatment protocol compared to the central initiating facility. Younger people and those with household contacts screened had better adherence to the treatment protocol, highlighting areas for targeted interventional programs for MDR-TB in resource limited settingsMore patients preferred MDR-TB DOT supervision at peripheral facilities, which had better adherence to the treatment protocol compared to the central initiating facility. Younger people and those with household contacts screened had better adherence to the treatment protocol, highlighting areas for targeted interventional programs for MDR-TB in resource limited settings.

2.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(2): 633-640, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163024

RESUMO

Background: Drop out of presumptive TB individuals before making a final diagnosis poses a danger to the individual and their community. We aimed to determine the proportion of these presumptive TB drop outs and their associated factors in Bugembe Health Centre, Jinja, Uganda. Methods: We used data from the DHIS2, presumptive and laboratory registers of Bugembe Health Centre IV for 2017. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the population characteristics. A modified Poisson regression model via the generalized linear model (GLM) with log link and robust standard errors was used for bivariate and multivariate analysis.We used data from the DHIS2, presumptive and laboratory registers of Bugembe Health Centre IV for 2017. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the population characteristics. A modified Poisson regression model via the generalized linear model (GLM) with log link and robust standard errors was used for bivariate and multivariate analysis. Result: Among the 216 registered presumptive TB patients who were less than 1% of patients visiting the outpatients' department, 40.7% dropped out before final diagnosis was made. Age and HIV status were significantly associated with pre-diagnostic drop out while gender and distance from the health center were not. Conclusion: A high risk to individuals and the community is posed by the significant proportion of presumptive TB patients dropping out before final diagnosis. Health systems managers need to consider interventions targeting young persons, male patients, HIV positive persons.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1409, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) patients in Uganda incur large costs related to the illness, and while seeking and receiving health care. Such costs create access and adherence barriers which affect health outcomes and increase transmission of disease. The study ascertained the proportion of Ugandan TB affected households incurring catastrophic costs and the main cost drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with retrospective data collection and projections was conducted in 2017. A total of 1178 drug resistant (DR) TB (44) and drug sensitive (DS) TB patients (1134), 2 weeks into intensive or continuation phase of treatment were consecutively enrolled across 67 randomly selected TB treatment facilities. RESULTS: Of the 1178 respondents, 62.7% were male, 44.7% were aged 15-34 years and 55.5% were HIV positive. For each TB episode, patients on average incurred costs of USD 396 for a DS-TB episode and USD 3722 for a Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) episode. Up to 48.5% of households borrowed, used savings or sold assets to defray these costs. More than half (53.1%) of TB affected households experienced TB-related costs above 20% of their annual household expenditure, with the main cost drivers being non-medical expenditure such as travel, nutritional supplements and food. CONCLUSION: Despite free health care in public health facilities, over half of Ugandan TB affected households experience catastrophic costs. Roll out of social protection interventions like TB assistance programs, insurance schemes, and enforcement of legislation related to social protection through multi-sectoral action plans with central NTP involvement would palliate these costs.

4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 162, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many high burden countries are scaling-up GeneXpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert) testing for tuberculosis (TB) using a hub-and-spoke model. However, the effect of scale up on reducing TB has been limited. We sought to characterize variation in implementation of referral-based Xpert TB testing across Uganda, and to identify health system factors that may enhance or prevent high-quality implementation of Xpert testing services. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study triangulating quantitative and qualitative data sources at 23 community health centers linked to one of 15 Xpert testing sites between November 2016 and May 2017 to assess health systems infrastructure for hub-and-spoke Xpert testing. Data sources included a standardized site assessment survey, routine TB notification data, and field notes from site visits. RESULTS: Challenges with Xpert implementation occurred at every step of the diagnostic evaluation process, leading to low overall uptake of testing. Of 2192 patients eligible for TB testing, only 574 (26%) who initiated testing were referred for Xpert testing. Of those, 54 (9.4%) were Xpert confirmed positive just under half initiated treatment within 14 days (n = 25, 46%). Gaps in required infrastructure at 23 community health centers to support the hub-and-spoke system included lack of refrigeration (n = 14, 61%) for sputum testing and lack of telephone/mobile communication (n = 21, 91%). Motorcycle riders responsible for transporting sputum to Xpert sites operated variable with trips once, twice, or three times a week at 10 (43%), nine (39%) and four (17%) health centers, respectively. Staff recorded Xpert results in the TB laboratory register at only one health center and called patients with positive results at only two health centers. Of the 15 Xpert testing sites, five (33%) had at least one non-functioning module. The median number of tests per day was 3.57 (IQR 2.06-4.54), and 10 (67%) sites had error/invalid rates > 5%. CONCLUSIONS: Although Xpert devices are now widely distributed throughout Uganda, health system factors across the continuum from test referral to results reporting and treatment initiation preclude effective implementation of Xpert testing for patients presenting to peripheral health centers. Support for scale up of innovative technologies should include support for communication, coordination and health systems integration.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Testes Genéticos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Uganda
5.
J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis ; 15: 100099, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720425

RESUMO

Rationale: Many high-burden countries are scaling-up Xpert MTB/RIF using a hub-and-spoke model. We evaluated the quality of care for patients undergoing TB evaluation at microscopy centers (spokes) linked to Xpert testing sites (hubs) in Uganda. Objectives: To characterize the extent to which patients were receiving care in accordance with international and national guidelines. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all adults with presumptive pulmonary TB at 24 health centers linked to Xpert testing sites. Health center staff photographed TB registers, and uploaded photos to a secure server bi-weekly. We assessed the proportion of patients (1) initiating testing; (2) completing testing; and (3) treated for confirmed TB within 14 days. Measurements and Main Results: Between January to December 2017, 6744 patients underwent evaluation for pulmonary TB. Only 1316 patients had sputum referred for Xpert testing, including 1075/3229 (33.3%) people living with HIV and 241/3515 (6.9%) without HIV. Of 119 patients confirmed to have TB by Xpert testing, 44 (36%) did not initiate treatment. There were significant losses along the entire diagnostic cascade of care, with only 5330/6744 (79.0%) patients having samples referred for sputum-based testing, 2978/5330 (55.9%) patients completing recommended testing if referred, and 313/418 (74.9%) patients initiating treatment within 14 days if confirmed to have TB. Conclusions: Although coverage of Xpert testing services across Uganda is high, the quality of care delivered to patients undergoing TB evaluation remains poor. Further research is needed to identify health system interventions to facilitate uptake of Xpert testing and high-quality care.

6.
F1000Res ; 8: 872, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681473

RESUMO

Background: Uganda is located in East Africa and is among the countries with the lowest income globally. The ten health centres in this project serve populations in the under-privileged communities of Kampala. The objective of the study was to implement diabetes mellitus (DM) screening among tuberculosis (TB) patients in a routine program setting with limited resources and high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study was conducted in ten health centres in Kampala, Uganda. As part of a project to implement DM screening in a routine setting, TB patients were screened for DM by trained health workers. A fasting blood glucose (FBG) value ≥7.0mmol/l was considered to indicate DM. For this study, aggregate data was collected and analysed using SPSS for Windows, version 13.0. Results:  Among 4,590 TB patients registered, 4,016 (88.0%) were screened with random blood glucose (RBG). Of those with RBG ≥6.1mmol/l, 1,093 (83.3%) were screened with FBG. In total, 92 (2.3%) patients were diagnosed with DM and 66 (71.8%) of them were newly diagnosed. The proportion of TB patients screened with FBG in the health centres varied from 58.2% to 100%. The proportion of patients screened with FBG and the prevalence of DM were significantly higher in private health centres compared with public health centres. The health centres in peri-urban areas screened more patients with RBG than those in urban areas. Health centres without DM services screened a larger number of patients with RBG and FBG than those with DM services. Conclusions: It appears feasible to implement screening TB patients for DM in routine program settings with limited resources and high HIV prevalence. Its introduction requires close collaboration between TB and DM services. The challenges identified need government attention and certain institutional and service-related factors need to be better managed at times.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Tuberculose , Glicemia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Tuberculose/complicações , Uganda
7.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22(9): e25394, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529618

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In order to end the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic by 2035, countries must achieve a 10% annual decline in tuberculosis incidence rates by 2025. Provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with population level decreases in TB notification rates. We aimed to assess whether the progressive scale-up of ART provision over the past nine years has had an effect on population level trends of TB notification in Uganda stratified by sex and HIV status. METHODS: The study area consisted of Kampala and eight surrounding districts. Annual TB notifications and mid-year populations were used to calculate notification rates per 100,000 population from the study area. Numbers alive and retained on ART were used to calculate ART coverage, overall and by sex. TB notification rates (TBNRs) overall and stratified by sex and HIV status were calculated for the period 2009 to 2017. Trends in TBNRs before and after rollout of universal ART for pregnant women in 2013 were examined using Poisson regression models. To gain insight into the trends in CD4+ T-cell counts at ART initiation over the study period, we performed a sub analysis of patient level data from the Infectious Diseases Institute clinic. RESULTS: From 2009 to 2017, ART coverage increased by 27.6% among men and by 35.4% among women. TBNRs declined during the same period. Overall, the average annual percentage decline in TBNRs was -3.5% (95%CI -3.7% to -3.3%), (-2.3% (95%CI -2.6% to -1.9%) in men and -5.4% (95%CI -5.7% to -5.0%) in women). ART coverage increased after 2013 but this was not associated with an accelerated decline in overall TBNRs among HIV-positive persons -3.6% before 2013 and -5.2% after 2013; p = 0.33. The proportion of patients initiating ART with CD4+ T-cell count ≤ 200 cells/mL did not decrease significantly after 2013 (42.2% to 32.2%, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although ART scale-up was temporally associated with a decline in TB notification rates, the achieved rates of decline are below those required to achieve the End TB Targets. Additional investments in tuberculosis control should include efforts to promote earlier care seeking and ART initiation among HIV-positive persons.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Tuberculose/etiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
ERJ Open Res ; 5(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367636

RESUMO

Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends household tuberculosis (TB) contact investigation in low-income countries, but most contacts do not complete a full clinical and laboratory evaluation. Methods: We performed a randomised trial of home-based, SMS-facilitated, household TB contact investigation in Kampala, Uganda. Community health workers (CHWs) visited homes of index patients with pulmonary TB to screen household contacts for TB. Entire households were randomly allocated to clinic (standard-of-care) or home (intervention) evaluation. In the intervention arm, CHWs offered HIV testing to adults; collected sputum from symptomatic contacts and persons living with HIV (PLWHs) if ≥5 years; and transported sputum for microbiologic testing. CHWs referred PLWHs, children <5 years, and anyone unable to complete sputum testing to clinic. Sputum testing results and/or follow-up instructions were returned by automated SMS texts. The primary outcome was completion of a full TB evaluation within 14 days; secondary outcomes were TB and HIV diagnoses and treatments among screened contacts. Results: There were 471 contacts of 190 index patients allocated to the intervention and 448 contacts of 182 index patients allocated to the standard-of-care. CHWs identified 190/471 (40%) intervention and 213/448 (48%) standard-of-care contacts requiring TB evaluation. In the intervention arm, CHWs obtained sputum from 35/91 (39%) of sputum-eligible contacts and SMSs were sent to 95/190 (50%). Completion of TB evaluation in the intervention and standard-of-care arms at 14 days (14% versus 15%; difference -1%, 95% CI -9% to 7%, p=0.81) and yields of confirmed TB (1.5% versus 1.1%, p=0.62) and new HIV (2.0% versus 1.8%, p=0.90) diagnoses were similar. Conclusions: Home-based, SMS-facilitated evaluation did not improve completion or yield of household TB contact investigation, likely due to challenges delivering the intervention components.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(11): 1919-1925, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with pulmonary tuberculosis are at risk of developing chronic respiratory disorders due to residual lung damage. To date, the scope of the problem in high-burden tuberculosis countries is relatively unknown. METHODS: Chronic respiratory symptoms (cough and phlegm lasting >2 weeks) and radiological lung abnormalities were compared between adults with and without a history of tuberculosis among the general population of Uganda. Multivariable regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with adjustment for age, gender, smoking, education, setting, and region. Random effects models accounted for village clustering effect. RESULTS: Of 45293 invited people from 70 villages, 41154 (90.9%) participated in the survey. A total of 798 had a history of tuberculosis and, among them, 16% had respiratory symptoms and 41% X-ray abnormalities. Adjusted ORs showed strong evidence for individuals with a history of tuberculosis having increased risk of respiratory symptoms (OR, 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.25-4.96) and X-ray abnormalities (OR, 17.52; 95% CI, 14.76-20.79), attributing 6% and 24% of the respective population risks. CONCLUSIONS: In Uganda, a history of tuberculosis was a strong predictor of respiratory symptoms and lung abnormalities, before older age and smoking. Eliminating tuberculosis disease could reduce the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms as much as eliminating smoking.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Pulmão/anormalidades , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/microbiologia , Radiografia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 954, 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies to identify and treat undiagnosed prevalent cases that have not sought diagnostic services on their own, are necessary to treat TB in patients earlier and interrupt transmission. Late presentation for medical services of symptomatic patients require special efforts to detect early and notify TB in high risk populations. An intervention that combined quality improvement with facility-led active case finding (QI-ACF) was implemented in 10 districts of Northern Uganda with the highest TB burden to improve case notification among populations at highest risk of TB. METHODS: Using QI-ACF intervention approach in 48 facilities, we; 1) targeted key vulnerable populations, 2) engaged district and facility teams in TB systems strengthening, 3) conducted systematic screening and diagnosis in vulnerable groups (people living with HIV, fishing communities, and prisoners), and 4) trained health workers on national x-ray diagnosis guidelines for smear-negative patients. Facility-led QI-ACF meant that health care providers identified the target population, mobilized and massively screened suspects, and addressed gaps in documentation. Chest X-ray diagnosis was promoted for smear-negative TB among those suspects whose sputum examination was negative. The effect of the intervention on case notification was then assessed separately over the post intervention period. RESULTS: Over all TB case notification in the intervention districts increased from 171 to 223 per 100,000 population between the baseline months of October-December 2016 and end line month of April-June 2017. TB patient contacts had the majority of TB positive cases identified during active case finding (40, 6.1%). Fishing communities had the highest TB positivity rate at 6.8%. Prisoners accounted for the lowest number of TB positive cases at 34 (2.3%). CONCLUSION: Targeting should be applied at all levels of TB intervention to improve yield: targeting districts and facilities with the lowest rates of case notification and targeting index patient contacts, HIV clients, and fishing communities. Screening tools are useful to guide health workers to identify presumptive cases. Efforts to improve availability of x-ray for TB diagnosis contributed to almost half of the new cases identified. Having all HIV patients who were eligible for viral load provide sputum for TB screening proved easy to implement.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Notificação de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Melhoria de Qualidade , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Programas de Rastreamento , Radiografia Torácica , Escarro/virologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/transmissão , Uganda/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
11.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 963, 2017 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29258581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The road map for childhood tuberculosis launched in 2013 provided strong renewed efforts focused towards zero deaths due to tuberculosis in children. From 2010, there were efforts to improve childhood tuberculosis diagnosis in Kampala and this study aimed to document the trend and outcome of tuberculosis in children over the period. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of tuberculosis data for Kampala city for the period 2011-2015. We extracted data from the unit TB registers in the 52 Diagnostic and treatment units (DTUs) in the Kampala. We report on data for children 0 to 14 years. RESULTS: We accessed 33,221 TB patient records of which 2333 (7.0% 95% CI 6.7 to 7.3) were children. The proportion of children with pulmonary TB was 80% (1870/2333) (95% CI 76.7 to 83.7 and extra-pulmonary TB accounted for 20% (463/2333) (CI 18.3 to 21.5). Among pulmonary TB cases, the clinically diagnosed were 82% (1530/1870) (95% CI 80.0 to 83.5) while the bacteriologically confirmed were 18% (340/1870) (95% CI 16.5 to 20.0). Among the bacteriologically confirmed, 45% (154/340) (95% CI 40.1 to 50.6) were smear positive. During the study period 2011 through 2015, the childhood TB notification rate declined as follows; 105, 76, 72, 88, and 74 per 100,000 respectively. The treatment success rate increased from 78% in 2011 to 83% in 2015. CONCLUSIONS: The TB notification rate among children in Kampala city showed a large decline during the period 2011 to 2015. There was a slight improvement in the treatment success rate among the children.


Assuntos
Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0187145, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29108007

RESUMO

SETTING: Seven public tuberculosis (TB) units in Kampala, Uganda, where Uganda's national TB program recently introduced household contact investigation, as recommended by 2012 guidelines from WHO. OBJECTIVE: To apply a cascade analysis to implementation of household contact investigation in a programmatic setting. DESIGN: Prospective, multi-center observational study. METHODS: We constructed a cascade for household contact investigation to describe the proportions of: 1) index patient households recruited; 2) index patient households visited; 3) contacts screened for TB; and 4) contacts completing evaluation for, and diagnosed with, active TB. RESULTS: 338 (33%) of 1022 consecutive index TB patients were eligible for contact investigation. Lay health workers scheduled home visits for 207 (61%) index patients and completed 104 (50%). Among 287 eligible contacts, they screened 256 (89%) for symptoms or risk factors for TB. 131 (51%) had an indication for further TB evaluation. These included 59 (45%) with symptoms alone, 58 (44%) children <5, and 14 (11%) with HIV. Among 131 contacts found to be symptomatic or at risk, 26 (20%) contacts completed evaluation, including five (19%) diagnosed with and treated for active TB, for an overall yield of 1.7%. The cumulative conditional probability of completing the entire cascade was 5%. CONCLUSION: Major opportunities exist for improving the effectiveness and yield of TB contact investigation by increasing the proportion of index households completing screening visits by lay health workers and the proportion of at-risk contacts completing TB evaluation.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Prática de Saúde Pública , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(12): 339-342, 2017 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28358797

RESUMO

In 2012, Uganda introduced the use of GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale CA), a sensitive, automated, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based platform for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, for programmatic use among children, adults with presumptive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated TB, and symptomatic persons at risk for rifampicin (RIF)-resistant TB. The effect of using the platform's Xpert MTB/RIF assay on TB care and control was assessed using routinely collected programmatic data; in addition, a retrospective review of district quarterly summaries using abstracted TB register data from purposively selected facilities in the capital city of Kampala was conducted. Case notification rates were calculated and nonparametric statistical methods were used for analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed in case notification rates before and after the Xpert MTB/RIF assay became available, although four of 10 districts demonstrated a statistically significant difference in bacteriologically confirmed TB. Once the GeneXpert MTB/RIF platform is established and refined, a more comprehensive evaluation should be conducted.


Assuntos
Automação Laboratorial , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Vigilância da População/métodos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Criança , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
14.
Afr Health Sci ; 16(4): 1101-1108, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28592966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction towards care during encounter with clinicians is key for better treatment outcomes. We assessed patient satisfaction with TB clinical care consultations in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: This was a facility-based cross sectional study done between September 2012 and February 2013 using qualitative method of data collection. Participants consecutively completed a pre-tested structured satisfaction questionnaire. A criteria of the rating as good; >75% was considered acceptable, (50-75%) as more effort is needed and <50 as unacceptable and require immediate action was used to categorize data for analysis using Epi-info 7.1.4.0. RESULTS: Of the 260 registered TB patients, 178(68.5%) completed the questionnaire. Overall, 162 (91.0%) were satisfied with the clinical consultation. Factors that contributed to high patient satisfaction, were: time spent with clinician (85.4%), explanation of what was done (87.6%), technical skills (91.6%), personal manner of the clinician seen (91.6%). Factors for low satisfaction were; waiting time before getting an appointment (61.8%), convenience of location of consultation office (53.4%), getting through to the office by phone (21.3%) and length of time waiting at the office (61.2%). CONCLUSION: Tuberculosis patients in Kampala are satisfied with TB clinical care consultations. Addressing factors with low patient satisfaction may significantly impact on treatment outcome.


Assuntos
Satisfação do Paciente , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Médico-Paciente , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Uganda , População Urbana
15.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 967, 2015 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26407719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global tuberculosis (TB) estimate in 2011 was 500,000 cases among children under 15 years representing 5.7 % of all cases and 64, 000 deaths among HIV negative children representing 6.5 % of the total deaths. In Uganda, the child TB cases reported in 2012 made up less than 3 % of the total cases while recent modelling estimates it at 15-20 % of adult cases. Mapping of these cases in Kampala district most especially for the children under five years would reflect recent transmission in the various communities in the district. We therefore conducted a retrospective study of reported child TB cases in Kampala district Uganda for 2009-2010 to provide an estimate of child TB incidence and map the cases. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on data collected from the health unit TB registers in the five divisions of Kampala district, Uganda. The data was a starting point in preparation for a TB Vaccine study in children. The extracted data spanned a period from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2010. The projected population of children below 15 years was 637,922 in 2009 and 744,750 in 2010 for Kampala district. We based our projections on the National Bureau of Statistics most recent census report of 2002 before the study duration while assuming a population growth rate of 3.7 % each year. We captured the data into EPI DATA 3.1 and analysed it using STATA version 12. RESULTS: We accessed 15,499 records and analysed 1167 records that were of children below 15 years old. The child TB cases represented 7.5 % (7.3 in 2009 & 7.6 % in 2010) of all the registered cases in Kampala district. The females were 47 % and the median age was 4 years (IQR 1, 10). The percent of children less than 5 years old was 54 %. The percent of pulmonary TB cases was 89 % (1041/1167) with 15 % smear positive. The proportion of extra-pulmonary TB cases was 11 % (126/1167). Among those that tested for HIV, 60 % (359/620) had test results available with an HIV co-infection rate of 47 % (168/359). Antiretroviral treatment uptake was 24 % among the co-infected. The incidence of child TB in Kampala was 56 (95 % CI 50-62) per 100,000 in 2009 and 44 (95 % CI 40-49) per 100,000 in 2010. Most of the TB cases (60 % (410/685)) in Kampala live in slum areas. CONCLUSION: There was a higher child TB incidence of 56 per 100,000 in 2009 compared with 44 per 100,000 in 2010. The percentage of child TB cases was much higher at 7.5 % of all the reported TB cases than the WHO reported national average. For the review period, the TB cases clustered in particular slums in Kampala district.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0132573, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26172948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains under-diagnosed in many countries, in part due to poor evaluation practices at health facilities. Theory-informed strategies are needed to improve implementation of TB evaluation guidelines. We aimed to evaluate the impact of performance feedback and same-day smear microscopy on the quality of TB evaluation at 6 health centers in rural Uganda. METHODS: We tested components of a multi-faceted intervention to improve adherence to the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC): performance feedback and same-day smear microscopy. The strategies were selected based on a qualitative assessment guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior and the PRECEDE model. We collected patient data 6 months before and after the introduction of each intervention component, and compared ISTC adherence in the pre- and post-intervention periods for adults with cough ≥ 2 weeks' duration. RESULTS: The performance feedback evaluation included 1,446 adults; 838 (58%) were evaluated during the pre-intervention period and 608 (42%) during the post-intervention period. Performance feedback resulted in a 15% (95%CI +10% to +20%, p<0.001) increase in the proportion of patients receiving ISTC-adherent care. The same-day microscopy evaluation included 1,950 adults; 907 (47%) were evaluated during the pre-intervention period and 1,043 (53%) during the post-intervention period. Same-day microscopy was associated with a 14% (95%CI +10% to +18%, p<0.001) increase in the proportion of patients receiving ISTC-adherent care. CONCLUSIONS: Performance feedback and same-day microscopy should be considered along with ISTC training as part of a multi-faceted intervention to improve the quality of TB evaluation in other high TB burden countries.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Tosse/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Modelos Biológicos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Rural/normas , População Rural , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Uganda
17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 2(1): ofv030, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26034778

RESUMO

Background. Tuberculosis (TB) control is a public health priority with 3 million cases unrecognized by the public health system each year. We assessed the impact of improved TB diagnostics and on-site training on TB case detection and treatment outcomes in rural healthcare facilities. Methods. Fluorescence microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF, and on-site training were introduced at 10 healthcare facilities. Using quasi-experimental methods, these 10 intervention healthcare facilities were compared with 2 controls and their own performance the previous year. Results. From January to October 2012, 186 357 and 32 886 outpatients were seen in the 10 intervention and 2 control facilities, respectively. The intervention facilities had a 52.04% higher proportion of presumptive TB cases with a sputum examination (odds ratio [OR] = 12.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.60-28.55). After adjusting for age group and gender, the proportion of smear-positive patients initiated on treatment was 37.76% higher in the intervention than in the control facilities (adjusted OR [AOR], 7.59; 95% CI, 2.19-26.33). After adjusting for the factors above, as well as human immunodeficiency virus and TB retreatment status, the proportion of TB cases who completed treatment was 29.16% higher (AOR, 4.89; 95% CI, 2.24-10.67) and the proportion of TB cases who were lost to follow-up was 66.98% lower (AOR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01-0.09). When compared with baseline performance, the intervention facilities had a significantly higher proportion of presumptive TB cases with a sputum examination (64.70% vs 3.44%; OR, 23.95; 95% CI, 12.96-44.25), and these facilities started 56.25% more smear-positive TB cases on treatment during the project period (AOR, 15.36; 95% CI, 6.57-35.91). Conclusions. Optimizing the existing healthcare workforce through a bundled diagnostics and on-site training intervention for nonphysician healthcare workers will rapidly improve TB case detection and outcomes towards global targets.

18.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 13, 2015 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25604986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Slow decline in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been observed in most high TB burden countries. Knowledge of the prevalence of different TB risk factors can help expand TB control strategies. However with the exception of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) the prevalence of the other TB risk factors are poorly studied in Uganda. We aimed to determine the prevalence of different TB risk factors and TB disease presentation among TB patients in Kampala Uganda. METHODS: We assessed 365 adult TB patients and used descriptive statistics to summarize their socio-demographic, clinical, radiological, sputum mycobacteriology and TB risk factors (HIV, diabetes, TB contact, alcohol use, tobacco smoking, poverty and overcrowding) data. RESULTS: A total of 158 (43.3%) patients were male and the median age was 29 (IQR 28-30). Majority of the patients (89.2%) had pulmonary TB, 86.9% were new and 13.2% were retreatment. Wasting (i.e. body mass index of <18.5 kg/m(2)) was found in 38.5% of the patients and 63% presented with cough. Constitutional symptoms (fever, anorexia, night sweats and weight loss) were reported by 32.1%. Most patients (78.6%) presented with non-cavity lung parenchyma disease (infiltrates, nodules, masses) but 35.2% had cavity disease. Pleural disease was detected in 19.3% of patients. Positive smear microscopy and culture (irrespective of month of treatment) was found in 52.7% and 36.5% of patients respectively. Any drug resistance was detected in 21.1% of patients while multidrug resistance (MDR) TB defined as resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid was detected in 6.3% of patients. All MDR patients were new patients. The prevalence of TB risk factors were as follows: HIV 41.4%, diabetes 5.4%, close contact 11.5%, family history 17.5%, smoking 26.37%, poverty 39.5%, overcrowding 57.3% and alcohol use 50.7%. Overcrowding increased smear positive rate, prevalence ratio 1.22, p = 0.09 but all the other studied risk factors did not affect clinical, radiological and mycobacteriological study patient characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Among TB patients in Kampala, Uganda, there is high prevalence of the known TB risk factors. Targeting reducing their prevalence may lead to better TB control in the country. Tuberculosis, risk factors, Uganda.


Assuntos
Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Retratamento , Fatores de Risco , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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