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1.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246850, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data is lacking on outcomes among COPD patients in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the study was to assess the incidence and predictors of mortality among COPD patients enrolled in the Uganda Registry for Asthma and COPD. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the Incidence and predictors of mortality among COPD patients in Uganda? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Individuals with a diagnosis of COPD at six hospitals in Uganda were enrolled into the registry, and followed every six months. Mortality was ascertained through post-mortem reports and verbal autopsies. Mortality rates (MR), mortality rate ratios (MRR), and hazard ratios (HR) were computed to assess associations between socio-demographic, behavioural, and clinical characteristics at enrolment into the registry and mortality up to two years after. RESULTS: We enrolled 296 COPD patients. Median age was 60 years, and 51·3% were male. The overall mortality rate was 95·90 deaths/1000 person-years. COPD severity by post-bronchodilator FEV1 was the strongest risk factor for mortality. Compared to stage 1, adjusted hazard ratios were as follows for stage 4: 9·86 (95%CI: 1·70-57·14, p = 0·011), stage 3: 6·16 (95%CI: 1·25-30·32, p = 0·025), and stage 2: 1·76 (95%CI: 0·33-9·48, p = 0·51). Underweight patients had a higher incidence of mortality compared to normal weight patients (MRR: 3·47 (95%CI: 1·45-8·31, p = 0·0026). CONCLUSION: Among COPD patients in Uganda, two-year mortality is high, and disease severity at baseline was the strongest risk factor for mortality. Our findings suggest the need for early, accurate, diagnosis and management of COPD, to potentially improve survival.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduces vector densities and malaria transmission, however, the most effective spraying intervals for IRS have not been well established. We estimated the optimal timing interval for IRS using a statistical approach. METHODS: Six rounds of IRS were implemented in Tororo District, a historically high malaria transmission setting in Uganda, during the study period (3 rounds with bendiocarb active ingredient (Ficam®): December 2014 to December 2015, and 3 rounds with pirimiphos methyl active ingredient (Actellic 300®CS): June 2016 to July 2018). A generalized additive model was used to estimate the optimal timing interval for IRS based on the predicted malaria incidence. The model was fitted to clinical incidence data from a cohort of children aged 0.5-10 years from selected households observed throughout the study period. RESULTS: 494 children, 67% aged less than 5 years at enrolment were analysed. Six-months period incidence of malaria decreased from 2.96 per person-years at the baseline to 1.74 following the first round of IRS and then to 0.02 after 6 rounds of IRS. The optimal time interval for IRS differed between bendiocarb and pirimiphos methyl and by IRS round. To retain an optimum impact, bendiocarb would require respraying 17 (95% CI: 14.2-21.0) weeks after application whereas pirimiphos methyl could remain impactful for 40 (95% CI: 37.0-42.8) weeks, although in the final year this estimates 36 (95% CI: 32.7-37.7) weeks. However, we could not estimate from the data the optimal time after the second and third rounds of bendiocarb and after the second round of pirimiphos methyl. Neither the amount of rainfall nor the EIR nor the distribution of nets were found to be statistically significant for determining the time period between spray rounds. CONCLUSION: In our setting, the effect of the two IRS products was distinct. Statistically, pirimiphos methyl provided a longer window of protection than bendiocarb, although impact varied between different spray rounds and years which was not explained by rainfall or EIR or distribution of nets in our statistical approach. Understanding the effectiveness of IRS and how long it lasts can help for planning campaigns, but one should consider the financial cost and insecticide resistance. Monitoring the timing of spray campaigns using clinical incidence could be repeated in future programs to help determine the average period of protectivity of these products.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1409, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) patients in Uganda incur large costs related to the illness, and while seeking and receiving health care. Such costs create access and adherence barriers which affect health outcomes and increase transmission of disease. The study ascertained the proportion of Ugandan TB affected households incurring catastrophic costs and the main cost drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with retrospective data collection and projections was conducted in 2017. A total of 1178 drug resistant (DR) TB (44) and drug sensitive (DS) TB patients (1134), 2 weeks into intensive or continuation phase of treatment were consecutively enrolled across 67 randomly selected TB treatment facilities. RESULTS: Of the 1178 respondents, 62.7% were male, 44.7% were aged 15-34 years and 55.5% were HIV positive. For each TB episode, patients on average incurred costs of USD 396 for a DS-TB episode and USD 3722 for a Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) episode. Up to 48.5% of households borrowed, used savings or sold assets to defray these costs. More than half (53.1%) of TB affected households experienced TB-related costs above 20% of their annual household expenditure, with the main cost drivers being non-medical expenditure such as travel, nutritional supplements and food. CONCLUSION: Despite free health care in public health facilities, over half of Ugandan TB affected households experience catastrophic costs. Roll out of social protection interventions like TB assistance programs, insurance schemes, and enforcement of legislation related to social protection through multi-sectoral action plans with central NTP involvement would palliate these costs.

4.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900781

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Detailed data on the characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. OBJECTIVE: We determined the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Uganda. MEASUREMENTS: As of the 16 May 2020, a total of 203 cases had been confirmed. We report on the first 56 patients; 29 received hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and 27 did not. Endpoints included admission to intensive care, mechanical ventilation or death during hospitalisation. MAIN RESULTS: The median age was 34.2 years; 67.9% were male; and 14.6% were <18 years. Up 57.1% of the patients were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were fever (21.4%), cough (19.6%), rhinorrhea (16.1%), headache (12.5%), muscle ache (7.1%) and fatigue (7.1%). Rates of comorbidities were 10.7% (pre-existing hypertension), 10.7% (diabetes) and 7.1% (HIV), Body Mass Index (BMI) of ≥30 36.6%. 37.0% had a blood pressure (BP) of >130/90 mm Hg, and 27.8% had BP of >140/90 mm Hg. Laboratory derangements were leucopenia (10.6%), lymphopenia (11.1%) and thrombocytopenia (26.3%). Abnormal chest X-ray was observed in 14.3%. No patients reached the primary endpoint. Time to clinical recovery was shorter among patients who received HCQ, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Most of the patients with COVID-19 presented with mild disease and exhibited a clinical trajectory not similar to other countries. Outcomes did not differ by HCQ treatment status in line with other concluded studies on the benefit of using HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia
5.
World Allergy Organ J ; 13(6): 100130, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612738

RESUMO

Background: The burden of asthma in Africa is high, and yet the disease is not universally prioritised. Data on allergic asthma and its impact on asthma morbidity are limited in Africa. Our aim was to describe the distribution of skin prick positivity among asthmatics in Eastern Africa. Methods: From August 2016 to May 2018, 1671 asthmatic patients were enrolled from Uganda, Kenya, and Ethiopia as part of the African Severe Asthma Program clinical study. Skin prick testing was performed at baseline using a panel of 12 allergens, and factors associated with skin prick reactivity determined. Results: Of the 1, 671 patients recruited, 71% were female with a median age of 40 years, 93.6% were aged >15 years and the patterns of asthma symptom frequency was intermittent in 2.9%, mild persistent in 19.9%, moderate persistent in 42.6% and severe persistent in 34.6% at baseline. Self-reported triggers, were dust (92%), cold weather (89%), upper respiratory infections (84%), strong smells (79%) and exposure to tobacco (78%). The majority (90%) of the participants had at least 1 positive allergen reaction, with 0.9% participants reacting to all the 12 allergens. Participants commonly reacted to house dust mites (66%), Blomia tropicalis (62%), and the German cockroach (52%). Patients sensitized to more allergens (>2) had significantly reduced lung function (FEV ≤ 80%; p = 0.001) and were more likely to visit the emergency department due to asthma (p = 0.012). There was no significant relationship between number of allergens and measures of asthma control, quality of life, and other clinical outcomes. Only the country of origin was independently associated with atopy among African asthmatics. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of skin prick positivity among East African patients with asthma, with the commonest allergen being house dust mite. Skin reactivity did not correlate well with asthma severity and poor asthma control. The relation between atopy, measured through skin prick testing, and measures of asthma control among asthma patients in Eastern Africa is unclear and needs further study. Trial registration: The ASAP study was registered prospectively. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03065920; Registration date: February 28, 2017; Last verified: February 28, 2017.

6.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054641

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The relationship between clinical and biomarker characteristics of asthma and its severity in Africa is not well known. METHODS: Using the Expert Panel Report 3, we assessed for asthma severity and its relationship with key phenotypic characteristics in Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia. The characteristics included adult onset asthma, family history of asthma, exposures (smoking and biomass), comorbidities (HIV, hypertension, obesity, tuberculosis (TB), rhinosinusitis, gastro-oesophageal disease (GERD) and biomarkers (fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), skin prick test (SPT) and blood eosinophils). We compared these characteristics on the basis of severity and fitted a multivariable logistic regression model to assess the independent association of these characteristics with asthma severity. RESULTS: A total of 1671 patients were enrolled, 70.7% women, with median age of 40 years. The prevalence of intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent and severe persistent asthma was 2.9%, 19.9%, 42.6% and 34.6%, respectively. Only 14% were on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Patients with severe persistent asthma had a higher rate of adult onset asthma, smoking, HIV, history of TB, FeNO and absolute eosinophil count but lower rates of GERD, rhinosinusitis and SPT positivity. In the multivariate model, Ethiopian site and a history of GERD remained associated with asthma severity. DISCUSSION: The majority of patients in this cohort presented with moderate to severe persistent asthma and the use of ICS was very low. Improving access to ICS and other inhaled therapies could greatly reduce asthma morbidity in Africa.

7.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1978-1987, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656480

RESUMO

Introduction: Chronic pain classification in HIV positive patients is essential for diagnosis and treatment. However, this is rarely done despite association with poor outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 345 consented patients at a specialized HIV care center in Uganda was conducted. Chronic pain was defined as pain of more than two weeks duration. Data was collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire, the IASP classification of chronic pain; the StEP; Mini Mental Status Examination, Patient Health Questionnaire, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the World Health Organization quality of life instrument brief version. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, t-test and logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine factors associated with chronic pain. Results: Description of pain aetiology was difficult. Chronic pain was reported in 21.5% of the participants. Non-neuropathic (92.0%) was more common than neuropathic pain (8.0%). Chronic pain was found to be associated with feeling ill [OR=6.57 (3.48 - 12.39)], and worse scores in the quality of life domain for physical health [OR=0.71 (0.60 - 0.83)]. Conclusion: People living with HIV/AIDS commonly have chronic pain that is associated with poor quality of life. More sensitive tools are needed to accurately describe chronic pain in resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/classificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuralgia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
Epilepsy Behav ; 96: 104-108, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125798

RESUMO

RATIONALE: There is a paucity of information about the association of seizure severity and quality of life (QoL) in people living with epilepsy (PLWE) in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the relationship between seizure severity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with epilepsy being followed up in an outpatient neurology clinic in urban central Uganda. METHODS: Forty-eight PLWE who met the study inclusion criteria were enrolled. The study questionnaire was comprised of the Chalfont Seizure Severity Scale (CSSS) and the Quality of Life Inventory in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between seizure severity and QoL score. RESULTS: The median age of the study participants was 25 years, with median age (interquartile range (IQR)) of epilepsy onset of 12 (6-18) years. Over 57.4% of the study participants were unemployed. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) of QOLIE-31 and Seizure Severity Score was 62.5 (14.5) and 62.4 (1.6), respectively. There was no gender difference in the seizure severity scores (p = 0.451). An inverse relationship existed between seizure severity and the total QOLIE-31 score (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r = -0.48, p = 0.001), and seizure worry (r = -0.31, p = 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: In this Ugandan sample, seizure severity is unacceptably high and directly impacts the life of PLWE. Interventions that reduce seizure severity are urgently needed in our settings to reduce seizures and improve the QoL in PLWE.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 227, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent large-scale population data on the prevalence of asthma and its risk factors are lacking in Uganda. This survey was conducted to address this data gap. METHODS: A general population based survey was conducted among people ≥12 years. A questionnaire was used to collect participants socio-demographics, respiratory symptoms, medical history, and known asthma risk factors. Participants who reported wheeze in the past 12 months, a physician diagnosis of asthma or current use of asthma medications were classified as having asthma. Asthmatics who were ≥ 35 years underwent spirometry to determine how many had fixed airflow obstruction (i.e. post bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio < lower limit of normal (LLN). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize participants' characteristics. Prevalence of asthma was calculated as a proportion of asthmatics over total survey population. To obtain factors independently associated with asthma, a random-effects model was fitted to the data. RESULTS: Of the 3416 participants surveyed, 61.2% (2088) were female, median age was 30 years (IQR, 20-45) and 323 were found to have asthma. Sixteen people with asthma ≥35 years had fixed airflow obstruction. The prevalence of asthma was 11.0% (95% CI:8.9-13.2; males 10.3%, females 11.4%, urban 13.0% and rural 8.9%. Significantly more people with asthma smoked than non-asthmatics: 14.2% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.001, were exposed to biomass smoke: 28.0% vs. 20.0%, p < 0.001, had family history of asthma: 26.9% vs. 9.4%, p, < 0.001, had history of TB: 3.1% vs. 1.30%, p = 0.01, and had hypertension: 17.9% vs. 12.0%, p = 0. 003. In multivariate analysis smoking, (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.26 (1.96-5.41, p < 0.001) family history of asthma, AOR 2.90 (98-4.22 p- < 0.001), nasal congestion, AOR 3.56 (2.51-5.06, p < 0.001), biomass smoke exposure, AOR 2.04 (1.29-3.21, p = 0.002) and urban residence, AOR 2.01(1.23-3.27, p = 0.005) were independently associated with asthma. CONCLUSION: Asthma is common in Uganda and is associated with smoking, biomass smoke exposure, urbanization, and allergic diseases. Health care systems should be strengthened to provide asthma care. Measures to reduce exposure to the identified associated factors are needed.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade/complicações , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Urbanização , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Biocombustíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486291

RESUMO

Air pollution is a major cause of sub-optimal lung function and lung diseases in childhood and adulthood. In this study we compared the lung function (measured by spirometry) of 537 Ugandan children, mean age 11.1 years in sites with high (Kampala and Jinja) and low (Buwenge) ambient air pollution levels, based on the concentrations of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5). Factors associated with lung function were explored in a multiple linear regression model. PM2.5 level in Kampala, Jinja and Buwenge were 177.5 µg/m³, 96.3 µg/m³ and 31.4 µg/m³ respectively (p = 0.0000). Respectively mean forced vital capacity as % of predicted (FVC%), forced expiratory volume in one second as % of predicted (FEV1%) and forced expiratory flow 25⁻75% as % of predicted (FEF25⁻75%) of children in high ambient air pollution sites (Kampala and Jinja) vs. those in the low ambient air pollution site (Buwenge subcounty) were: FVC% (101.4%, vs. 104.0%, p = 0.043), FEV1% (93.9% vs. 98.0, p = 0.001) and FEF25⁻75% (87.8 vs. 94.0, p = 0.002). The proportions of children whose %predicted parameters were less than 80% predicted (abnormal) were higher among children living in high ambient air pollution than those living in lower low ambient air pollutions areas with the exception of FVC%; high vs. low: FEV1 < 80%, %predicted (12.0% vs. 5.3%, p = 0.021) and FEF25⁻75 < 80%, %predicted (37.7% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.052) Factors associated with lung function were (coefficient, p-value): FVC% urban residence (-3.87, p = 0.004), current cough (-2.65, p = 0.048), underweight (-6.62, p = 0.000), and overweight (11.15, p = 0.000); FEV1% underweight (-6.54, p = 0.000) and FEF25⁻75% urban residence (-8.67, p = 0.030) and exposure to biomass smoke (-7.48, p = 0.027). Children in study sites with high ambient air pollution had lower lung function than those in sites with low ambient air pollution. Urban residence, underweight, exposure to biomass smoke and cough were associated with lower lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Medição de Risco/métodos , Espirometria , Uganda , Urbanização
11.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 184, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV and asthma are highly prevalent diseases in Africa but few studies have assessed the impact of HIV on asthma prevalence in high HIV burden settings. The objective of this analysis was to compare the prevalence of asthma among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) and those without HIV participating in the Uganda National Asthma Survey (UNAS). METHODS: UNAS was a population-based survey of persons aged ≥12 years. Asthma was diagnosed based on either self-reported current wheeze concurrently or within the prior 12 months; physician diagnosis; or use of asthma medication. HIV was defined based on confidential self-report. We used Poisson regression with robust standard errors to estimate asthma prevalence and the prevalence ratio (PR) for HIV and asthma. RESULTS: Of 3416 participants, 2067 (60.5%) knew their HIV status and 103 (5.0%) were PLHIV. Asthma prevalence was 15.5% among PLHIV and 9.1% among those without HIV, PR 1.72, (95%CI 1.07-2.75, p = 0.025). HIV modified the association of asthma with the following factors, PLHIV vs. not PLHIV: tobacco smoking (12% vs. 8%, p = < 0.001), biomass use (11% vs. 7%, p = < 0.001), allergy (17% vs. 11%, p = < 0.001), family history of asthma (17% vs. 11%, p = < 0.001), and prior TB treatment (15% vs. 10%, p = < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In Uganda the prevalence of asthma is higher in PLHIV than in those without HIV, and HIV interacts synergistically with other known asthma risk factors. Additional studies should explore the mechanisms underlying these associations. Clinicians should consider asthma as a possible diagnosis in PLHIV presenting with respiratory symptoms.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Distribuição Aleatória , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Thorax ; 73(10): 983-985, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752346

RESUMO

Data on asthma treatment outcomes in Africa are limited. 449 patients with asthma (age 5-93 years) in Uganda were followed up for 2 years to determine rates of exacerbations and mortality and associated factors. During follow-up the median number of exacerbations per patient was 1 (IQR 0-5) and 17 patients died (3.7%, 27.3 deaths per 1000 person years). Considering only the first year of follow-up, 59.6% of the patients experienced at least one exacerbation, 32.4% experienced three or more exacerbations. A multivariable model showed that the likelihood of experiencing at least one exacerbation in the first year of follow-up was lower with better baseline asthma control (higher asthma control test (ACT) score), with OR 0.87 (95% CI: 0.82 to 0.93, P=0.000), and was higher with more exacerbations in the year prior to enrolment (OR for log number of exacerbations 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.57, P=0.018). Better asthma control (OR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.99, P=0.021) and number of baseline exacerbations (OR 1.35,95% CI: 1.11 to 1.66, P=0.005) were also the only factors that were independently associated with experiencing three or more exacerbations during the first year of follow-up. The only factor found to be associated with all-cause mortality was FEV1, with higher recent FEV1 associated with lower all-cause mortality (OR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.65; P=0.002). Rates of asthma exacerbations and mortality are high in Uganda and are associated with poor asthma control. Health systems should be strengthened to care for asthma patients.


Assuntos
Asma/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Neurol Sci ; 386: 23-28, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406961

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stroke remains a global concern due to increasing lifespan, patterns of industrialization, adoption of harmful western diets, and an increasing prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. We investigated an adopted novel self-management intervention, TargetEd mAnageMent Intervention (TEAM) to reduce modifiable stroke risk factors in Uganda. METHODS: A six-month, uncontrolled, prospective pilot study to establish feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of TEAM in Ugandans at high risk for stroke was conducted. The primary outcome was change in systolic BP from baseline to 24-week follow-up. Secondary outcomes included change in diastolic BP, serum cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein (HDL, LDL) and triglycerides. RESULTS: Mean (SD) baseline systolic BP was 162.9 (±25.6) mmHg while mean (SD) baseline diastolic BP was 99.1 (±13.8) mmHg. There was a significant reduction in mean baseline blood pressure of 163/98.8mmHg to blood pressure of 147.8/88.0mmHg at 24weeks, P=0.023. There were also significant reductions in the serum total cholesterol levels at 24weeks with P=0.001. CONCLUSION: Targeted training in self-management (TEAM) adapted to the Ugandan setting is feasible, highly acceptable to participants and appears to be associated with reduced blood pressure, improved lipid profiles and improved glucose control in diabetics.


Assuntos
Autogestão/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(3): 753-757, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28990911

RESUMO

Contributions of species other than Plasmodium falciparum to human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa are uncertain. We collected blood from children aged 6 months to 10 years diagnosed with malaria by Giemsa-stained blood smears (176 subjects) or histidine rich protein-2-based rapid diagnostic tests (323 subjects) in 2016; 50 samples from each of 10 sites across Uganda were studied to identify infecting species. Of 499 available samples, 474 demonstrated plasmodial infection by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA genes, including P. falciparum in 472, Plasmodium malariae in 22, Plasmodium ovale in 15, and Plasmodium vivax in four; 435 were pure P. falciparum, two did not contain P. falciparum, and the remainder were mixed infections including P. falciparum. The prevalence of nonfalciparum species varied geographically. Stratifying based on recent history of indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides, nonfalciparum infections were seen in 27/189 (14.8%) samples from sites that received and 13/285 (4.6%) samples from sites that did not receive IRS since 2010 (P = 0.0013). Overall, 39/474 (8.2%) samples from individuals diagnosed with malaria included nonfalciparum infections. Thus, a substantial proportion of episodes of malaria in Uganda include infections with plasmodial species other than P. falciparum.


Assuntos
Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Plasmodium/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Uganda/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Pediatr ; 16: 34, 2016 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26961364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seizures in up to one third of children with epilepsy may not be controlled by the first anti-epileptic drug (AED). In this study, we describe multiple AED usage in children attending a referral clinic in Uganda, the factors associated with multiple AED use and seizure control in affected patients. METHODS: One hundred thirty nine patients attending Mulago hospital paediatric neurology clinic with epilepsy and who had been on AEDs for ≥6 months were consecutively enrolled from July to December 2013 to reach the calculated sample size. With consent, the history and physical examination were repeated and the neurophysiologic and imaging features obtained from records. Venous blood was also drawn to determine AED drug levels. We determined the proportion of children on multiple AEDs and performed regression analyses to determine factors independently associated with multiple AED use. RESULTS: Forty five out of 139 (32.4 %) children; 46.7 % female, median age 6 (IQR = 3-9) years were on multiple AEDs. The most common combination was sodium valproate and carbamazepine. We found that 59.7 % of children had sub-therapeutic drug levels including 42.2 % of those on multi-therapy. Sub-optimal seizure control (adjusted odds ratio [OR(a)] 3.93, 95 % CI 1.66-9.31, p = 0.002) and presence of focal neurological deficits (OR(a) 3.86, 95 % CI 1.31-11.48, p = 0.014) were independently associated with multiple AED use but not age of seizure onset, duration of epilepsy symptoms, seizure type or history of status epilepticus. CONCLUSION: One third of children with epilepsy in Mulago receive multiple AEDs. Multiple AED use is most frequent in symptomatic focal epilepsies but doses are frequently sub-optimal. There is urgent need to improve clinical monitoring in our patients.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda
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