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1.
J Vis ; 19(14): 14, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845974

RESUMO

The response latency of steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) is a sensitive measurement for investigating visual functioning of the human brain, specifically in visual development and for clinical evaluation. This latency can be measured from the slope of phase versus frequency of responses by using multiple frequencies of stimuli. In an attempt to provide an alternative measurement of this latency, this study utilized an envelope response of SSVEPs elicited by amplitude-modulated visual stimulation and then compared with the envelope of the generating signal, which was recorded simultaneously with the electroencephalography recordings. The advantage of this measurement is that it successfully estimates the response latency based on the physiological envelope in the entire waveform. Results showed the response latency at the occipital lobe (Oz channel) was approximately 104.55 ms for binocular stimulation, 97.14 ms for the dominant eye, and 104.75 ms for the nondominant eye with no significant difference between these stimulations. Importantly, the response latency at frontal channels (125.84 ms) was significantly longer than that at occipital channels (104.11 ms) during binocular stimulation. Together with strong activation of the source envelope at occipital cortex, these findings support the idea of a feedforward process, with the visual stimuli propagating originally from occipital cortex to anterior cortex. In sum, these findings offer a novel method for future studies in measuring visual response latencies and also potentially shed a new light on understanding of how long collective neural activities take to travel in the human brain.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16919, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729410

RESUMO

Natural sensory signals have nonlinear structures dynamically composed of the carrier frequencies and the variation of the amplitude (i.e., envelope). How the human brain processes the envelope information is still poorly understood, largely due to the conventional analysis failing to quantify it directly. Here, we used a recently developed method, Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis, and steady-state visually evoked potential collected using electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to investigate how the human visual system processes the envelope of amplitude-modulated signals, in this case with a 14 Hz carrier and a 2 Hz envelope. The EEG results demonstrated that in addition to the fundamental stimulus frequencies, 4 Hz amplitude modulation residing in 14 Hz carrier and a broad range of carrier frequencies covering from 8 to 32 Hz modulated by 2 Hz amplitude modulation are also found in the two-dimensional frequency spectrum, which have not yet been recognized before. The envelope of the stimulus is also found to dominantly modulate the response to the incoming signal. The findings thus reveal that the electrophysiological response to amplitude-modulated stimuli is more complex than could be revealed by, for example, Fourier analysis. This highlights the dynamics of neural processes in the visual system.

3.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(6): 645-655, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119291

RESUMO

Working memory capacity (WMC) can predict conflict control ability. Measures of both abilities are impaired by anxiety, which is often inversely linked with mindfulness. It has been shown that a combination of high mindfulness and low anxiety is associated with better conflict control and WMC. The current study explored the electrophysiology related to such behavioral differences. Two experimental groups, one with high mindfulness and low anxiety (HMLA) and one with low mindfulness and high anxiety (LMHA), performed a color Stroop task and a change detection task, both with simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. An advanced EEG analytical approach, Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) analysis, was employed. This is regarded as a robust method to analyze non-linear and non-stationary signals. Lower delta activity at posterior temporal and occipital regions was seen in the HMLA group for the Stroop conflict conditions and might be generally associated with higher accuracy in this group and indicative of higher attentiveness. Higher accuracy rates and WMC were seen in the HMLA group and might be specifically associated with the higher alpha activity observed in prefrontal cortex, fronto-central and centro-parietal regions in this group. Future studies should explore how mindfulness and anxiety can independently affect these cognitive functions and their associated neurophysiology.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Atenção Plena , Adolescente , Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
4.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1105, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973902

RESUMO

[This corrects the article on p. 627 in vol. 9, PMID: 29780338.].

5.
Front Integr Neurosci ; 12: 17, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867385

RESUMO

Prior studies have reported that meditation may improve cognitive functions and those related to attention in particular. Here, the dynamic process of attentional control, which allows subjects to focus attention on their current interests, was investigated. Concentrative meditation aims to cultivate the abilities of continuous focus and redirecting attention from distractions to the object of focus during meditation. However, it remains unclear how meditation may influence attentional reorientation, which involves interaction between both top-down and bottom-up processes. We aimed to investigate the modulating effect of meditation on the mechanisms of contingent reorienting by employing a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in conjunction with electrophysiological recording. We recruited 26 meditators who had an average of 2.9 years of meditation experience and a control group comprising 26 individuals without any prior experience of meditation. All subjects performed a 30-min meditation and a rest condition with data collected pre- and post-intervention, with each intervention given on different days. The state effect of meditation improved overall accuracy for all subjects irrespective of their group. A group difference was observed across interventions, showing that meditators were more accurate and more efficient at attentional suppression, represented by a larger Pd (distractor positive) amplitude of event related modes (ERMs), for target-like distractors than the control group. The findings suggested that better attentional control with respect to distractors might be facilitated by acquiring experience of and skills related to meditation training.

6.
Front Psychol ; 9: 627, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780338

RESUMO

There are several ways in which cognitive and neurophysiological parameters have been consistently used to explain the variability in cognitive ability between people. However, little has been done to explore how such cognitive abilities are influenced by differences in personality traits. Dispositional mindfulness and anxiety are two inversely linked traits that have been independently attributed to a range of cognitive functions. The current study investigated these two traits in combination along with measures of the attentional network, cognitive inhibition, and visual working memory (VWM) capacity. A total of 392 prospective participants were screened to select two experimental groups each of 30 healthy young adults, with one having high mindfulness and low anxiety (HMLA) and the second having low mindfulness and high anxiety (LMHA). The groups performed an attentional network task, a color Stroop task, and a change detection test of VWM capacity. Results showed that the HMLA group was more accurate than the LMHA group on the Stroop and change detection tasks. Additionally, the HMLA group was more sensitive in detecting changes and had a higher WMC than the LMHA group. This research adds to the literature that has investigated mindfulness and anxiety independently with a comprehensive investigation of the effects of these two traits in conjunction on executive function.

7.
Prog Brain Res ; 234: 85-99, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031474

RESUMO

Sport participation, fitness, and expertise have been associated with a range of cognitive benefits in a range of populations but both the factors that confer such benefits and the nature of the resulting changes are relatively unclear. Additionally, the interactions between time pressure and cognitive performance for these groups is little studied. Using a flanker task, which measures the ability to selectively process information, and with different time limits for responding, we investigated the differences in performance for participants in (1) an unpredictable, open-skill sport (volleyball), (2) an exercise group engaged in predictable, closed-skill sports (running, swimming), and (3) nonsporting controls. Analysis by means of a drift diffusion analysis of response times was used to characterize the nature of any differences. Volleyball players were more accurate than controls and the exercise group, particularly for shorter time limits for responding, as well as tending to respond more quickly. Drift diffusion model analysis suggested that better performance by the volleyball group was due to factors such as stimulus encoding or motor programming and execution rather than decision making. Trends in the pattern of data seen also suggest less noisy cognitive processing (rather than greater efficiency) and should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Esportes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético , Humanos
8.
Neuroimage ; 158: 260-270, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28694229

RESUMO

The field of motor expertise in athletes has recently been receiving increasing levels of investigation. However, there has been less investigation of how dynamic changes in behavior and in neural activity as a result of sporting participation might result in superiority for athletes in domain-general cognition. We used a flanker task to investigate conflict-related behavioral measures, such as mean reaction time (RT) and RT variability, in conjunction with electroencephalographic (EEG) measures, including N2d, theta activity power, and inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC). These measures were compared for 18 badminton players, an interceptive sport requiring the performance of skills in a fast-changing and unpredictable environment, and 18 athletic controls (14 track-and-field athletes and 4 dragon boat athletes), with high fitness levels but no requirement for skills such as responses to their opponents. Results showed that badminton players made faster and less variable responses on the flanker task than athletic controls, regardless of stimulus congruency levels. For EEG measures, both badminton players and athletic controls showed comparable modulations of conflicting on midfrontal N2 and theta power. However, such an effect on ITPC values was found only for the badminton players. The behavior-EEG correlation seen suggests that smaller changes in RT variability induced by conflicting process in badminton players may be attributable to greater stability in the neural processes in these individuals. Because these findings were independent from aerobic fitness levels, it seems such differences are likely due to training-induced adaptations, consistent with the idea of specific transfer from cognitive components involved in sport training to domain-general cognition.


Assuntos
Atletas , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 17(5): 973-983, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28656503

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the effects of anxiety on contingent attentional capture. The present study examined contingent attentional capture in trait anxiety by applying a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm during electroencephalographic recording. Overall, the behavioral and electrophysiological results showed a larger capture effect when a distractor was the same color as the target compared to when the distractor was not of the target color. Moreover, high-anxiety individuals showed a larger N2pc in the target colored distractor condition and nontarget colored distractor condition compared to the distractor-absent condition. In addition, the reaction time was slower when distractors were presented in the left visual field compared to when they were in the right visual field. This pattern was not seen in low-anxiety individuals. The findings may indicate that high-anxiety individuals allocate attention to the target less efficiently and have reduced suppression of distractors compared to low-anxiety individuals who could suppress attention to the distractors more efficiently. Future work could valuably investigate the consequences of such differences in terms of benefits and disruption associated with attentional capture differences in a range of anxious populations in different risk monitoring situations.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 38(1): 339-351, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27611342

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that the supplementary eye fields (SEF) are involved in the control of voluntary eye movements. However, recent evidence suggests that SEF may also be important for unconscious and involuntary motor processes. Indeed, Sumner et al. ([2007]: Neuron 54:697-711) showed that patients with micro-lesions of the SEF demonstrated an absence of subliminal inhibition as evoked by masked-prime stimuli. Here, we used double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy volunteers to investigate the role of SEF in subliminal priming. We applied double-pulse TMS at two time windows in a masked-prime task: the first during an early phase, 20-70 ms after the onset of the mask but before target presentation, during which subliminal inhibition is present; and the second during a late phase, 20-70 ms after target onset, during which the saccade is being prepared. We found no effect of TMS with the early time window of stimulation, whereas a reduction in the benefit of an incompatible subliminal prime stimulus was found when SEF TMS was applied at the late time window. These findings suggest that there is a role for SEF related to the effects of subliminal primes on eye movements, but the results do not support a role in inhibiting the primed tendency. Hum Brain Mapp 38:339-351, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos , Estimulação Subliminar , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Behav Brain Res ; 296: 459-467, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26304720

RESUMO

Although both the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) have been demonstrated to be critical for response inhibition, there is still considerable disagreement over the roles they play in the process. In the present study, we investigated the causal relations of the pre-SMA and the rIFG in a conditional stop-signal task by applying offline theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation. The task introduced a continue condition, which requires the same motor response as in a go trial but captures attention as in a stop trial. We found great individual differences in the amount of slowing on continue trials. Temporary suppression of pre-SMA activity prolonged the continue RT in participants who slowed little in response to continue trials, whereas disruption of the rIFG did not lead to significant changes in performance irrespective of the degree of slowing. Our results contribute to the understanding of the role of the pre-SMA by providing causal evidence that it is involved in response slowing on continue trials during conditional stopping, and it is likely that its efficiency in updating motor planning and reinitiating an inhibited response was associated with the amount of slowing.


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Psychol ; 6: 4, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25653635

RESUMO

The psychological effect of being watched by others has been proven a powerful tool in modulating social behaviors (e.g., charitable giving) and altering cognitive performance (e.g., visual search). Here we tested whether such awareness would affect one of the core elements of human cognition: emotional processing and impulse control. Using an emotion stop-signal paradigm, we found that viewing emotionally-arousing erotic images before attempting to inhibit a motor response impaired participants' inhibition ability, but such an impairing effect was completely eliminated when participants were led to believe that their facial expressions were monitored by a webcam. Furthermore, there was no post-error slowing in any of the conditions, thus these results cannot be explained by a deliberate speed-accuracy tradeoff or other types of conscious shift in strategy. Together, these findings demonstrate that the interaction between emotional arousal and impulse control can be dependent on one's state of self-consciousness. Furthermore, this study also highlights the effect that the mere presence of the experimenter may have on participants' cognitive performance, even if it's only a webcam.

13.
Cortex ; 64: 310-7, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25577719

RESUMO

Brain stimulation studies have previously demonstrated a causal link between general pitch memory processes and activity within the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Building on this evidence, the present study tested the impact of left SMG stimulation on two distinct pitch memory phases, retention and encoding. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was employed during the retention stage (Experiment 1) and the encoding phase (Experiment 2) of a pitch recognition task. Stimulation was applied on a trial-by-trial basis over the left SMG (target site) or the vertex (control site). A block without TMS was also completed. In Experiment 1, rTMS over the left SMG during pitch retention led to significantly increased reaction times compared to control conditions. In Experiment 2 no rTMS modulation effects were found during encoding. Experiment 3 was conducted as a control for non-specific stimulation effects; no effects were found when rTMS was applied over the left SMG at the two different time points during a perceptual task. Taken together, these findings highlight a phase-specific involvement of the left SMG in the retention phase of pitch memory, thereby indicating that the left SMG is involved in the maintenance of pitch information.


Assuntos
Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , /fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
14.
Exp Brain Res ; 233(4): 1069-78, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25537471

RESUMO

While the cognitive benefits of aerobic fitness have been widely investigated, current findings in young adults remain unclear. Specifically, little is known about how these effects are reflected in the time-frequency domain. This study thus assessed the relationship between aerobic fitness and neural oscillations during visuo-spatial attention. A between-subjects design that included 20 participants with higher aerobic fitness (age = 21.95 ± 2.24 years; VO2max = 58.98 ± 6.94 ml/kg/min) and 20 age- and gender-matched lower aerobic fitness participants (age = 23.25 ± 2.07 years; VO2max = 35.87 ± 3.41 ml/kg/min) was used to examine the fitness-related differences in performance and neuroelectric indexes during a Posner visuo-spatial attention paradigm. The results demonstrated that high-fitness participants, in comparison with their low-fitness counterparts, showed faster reaction times as well as greater modulation of oscillatory theta and beta power during target processing, regardless of cue types. Moreover, the neurocognitive correlation showed that higher theta power was related to better task performance. Collectively, these findings suggest that aerobic fitness is associated with general enhanced attentional control in relation to visuo-spatial processing, as evidenced through greater motor preparation and in particular the up-regulation of attentional processing in healthy young adults. The present study may contribute to current knowledge by revealing the relationship between aerobic fitness and modulation of brain oscillations.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Eletroencefalografia , Teste de Esforço , Análise de Fourier , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação , Estatística como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
15.
Brain Cogn ; 92C: 73-83, 2014 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25463141

RESUMO

Physical activity has been shown to benefit brain and cognition in late adulthood. However, this effect is still unexplored in terms of brain signal complexity, which reflects the level of neural adaptability and efficiency during cognitive processing that cannot be acquired via averaged neuroelectric signals. Here we employed multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) of electroencephalography (EEG), a new approach that conveys important information related to the temporal dynamics of brain signal complexity across multiple time scales, to reveal the association of physical activity with neural adaptability and efficiency in elderly adults. A between-subjects design that included 24 participants (aged 66.63±1.31years; female=12) with high physical activity and 24 age- and gender-matched low physical activity participants (aged 67.29±1.20years) was conducted to examine differences related to physical activity in performance and MSE of EEG signals during a visuo-spatial cognition task. We observed that physically active elderly adults had better accuracy on both visuo-spatial attention and working memory conditions relative to their sedentary counterparts. Additionally, these physically active elderly adults displayed greater MSE values at larger time scales at the Fz electrode in both attention and memory conditions. The results suggest that physical activity may be beneficial for adaptability of brain systems in tasks involving visuo-spatial information. MSE thus might be a promising approach to test the effects of the benefits of exercise on cognition.

16.
Neuropsychologia ; 64: 124-33, 2014 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25261612

RESUMO

Emotional faces are often salient cues of threats or other important contexts, and may therefore have a large effect on cognitive processes of the visual environment. Indeed, many behavioral studies have demonstrated that emotional information can modulate visual attention and eye movements. The aim of the present study was to investigate (1) how irrelevant emotional face distractors affect saccadic behaviors and (2) whether such emotional effects reflect a specific neural mechanism or merely biased selective attention. We combined a visual search paradigm that incorporated manipulation of different types of distractor (fearful faces or scrambled faces) and delivered anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the superior temporal sulcus and the frontal eye field to investigate the functional roles of these areas in processing facial expressions and eye movements. Our behavioral data suggest that irrelevant emotional distractors can modulate saccadic behaviors. The tDCS results showed that while rFEF played a more general role in controlling saccadic behavior, rSTS is mainly involved in facial expression processing. Furthermore, rSTS played a critical role in processing facial expressions even when such expressions were not relevant to the task goal, implying that facial expressions and processing may be automatic irrespective of the task goal.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Brain Stimul ; 7(5): 673-9, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25112521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a large body of evidence for the involvement of the parietal cortex in orientation and navigation in space. This has been supplemented by investigation of the contribution of a number of subregions using transcranial magnetic stimulation. OBJECTIVE: The role of the precuneus area, located in the medial plane of posterior parietal cortex (PPC), in visuospatial functions is not well understood. We investigated the contribution of this area using the landmark task. METHODS: Participants were asked to make forced-choice judgments of which side of prebisected line was longer for near and far viewing conditions (70 and 180 cm, respectively). Online 10 Hz, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was delivered for 500 ms over the right precuneus, rPPC and vertex (control), in separate blocks of trials. The rPPC stimulation was used as a positive control, having previously resulted in "neglect like" spatial bias effects in a number of studies. RESULTS: A no-TMS condition showed a leftward spatial bias (pseudoneglect) for near space judgments but not for far space and was used as the baseline. Precuneus stimulation resulted in rightward spatial bias from the midpoint in near space similar to the rPPC neglect-like effect. No significant effects were seen with vertex stimulation. CONCLUSION: This study shows that precuneus, like other parietal areas, is involved in visuospatial functions. Further work is required to clarify how the contribution of this area differs from other parietal regions.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Orientação/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neuroreport ; 25(13): 1024-9, 2014 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25026532

RESUMO

Criminal offenders who show repeated impulsive violent behavior are often described as having impairments in both inhibitory control and error processing. A sample of such offenders was compared with controls using event-related potentials recorded during the performance of a combined flanker and stop-signal task with the aim of investigating the underlying mechanisms that may contribute toward such violent behavior by indexing conflict monitoring, error detection, and post-error processing. The results obtained indicated lower amplitude of the stop-signal N2 component for successfully inhibited trials, reflecting different degrees of inhibition in impulsive violent offenders, as well as a reduced Pe component over the parietal area, an indication of reduced awareness of errors. This is consistent with the behavioral data indicating a lack of post-error slowing compared with the control group. This suggests that these offenders have problems with error awareness, subjective error assessment processes, and the adjustment of future behavior.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criminosos , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Violência , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação
19.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 8: 47, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24567713

RESUMO

Human behavior depends crucially on the ability to interact with others and empathy has a critical role in enabling this to occur effectively. This can be an unconscious process and based on natural instinct and inner imitation (Montag et al., 2008) responding to observed and executed actions (Newman-Norlund et al., 2007). Motor empathy relating to painful stimuli is argued to occur via the mirror system in motor areas (Rizzolatti and Luppino, 2001). Here we investigated the effects of the location of emotional information on the responses of this system. Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes from the right first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle in the hand elicited by single pulses of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivered over the left motor cortex were measured while participants observed a video of a needle entering a hand over the FDI muscle, representing a painful experience for others. To maintain subjects' internal representation across different viewing distances, we used the same size of hand stimuli both in peripersonal and extrapersonal space. We found a reduced MEP response, indicative of inhibition of the corticospinal system, only for stimuli presented in peripersonal space and not in extrapersonal space. This empathy response only occurring for near space stimuli suggests that it may be a consequence of misidentification of sensory information as being directly related to the observer. A follow up experiment confirmed that the effect was not a consequence of the size of the stimuli presented, in agreement with the importance of the near space/far space boundary for misattribution of body related information. This is consistent with the idea that empathy is, at least partially, a consequence of misattribution of perceptual information relating to another to the observer and that pain perception is modulated by the nature of perception of the pain.

20.
Cogn Neurosci ; 5(1): 1-2, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24499407

RESUMO

There is increasing interest in the nature and both environmental and cognitive origins of culturally associated differences in a range of behaviors. This special issue of Cognitive Neuroscience presents six empirical papers investigating diverse categories of potential culturally related effects as well as a review article, all of which provide timely updates of the current state of knowledge in this area.


Assuntos
Cognição , Cultura , Neurociências , Arquitetura , Humanos , Matemática , Dor/psicologia , Religião , Autoimagem
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