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1.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681871

RESUMO

Biosecurity in poultry farms represents the first line of defense against the entry and spread of pathogens that may have animal health, food safety, and economic consequences. The aim of this study was to assess biosecurity compliance in poultry farms located in a densely populated poultry area in North East Italy. A total of 259 poultry farms (i.e., broilers, turkeys, and layers) were surveyed between 2018 and 2019 using standardized checklists, and differences in biosecurity compliance between the poultry sectors and years (only for turkey farms) were tested for significance. Among the three sectors, turkey farms showed the highest compliance. Farm hygiene, infrastructure condition, cleaning and disinfection tools, and procedures were the biosecurity measures most complied with. Some deficiencies were observed in the cleanliness of the farm hygiene lock in broiler farms, as well as the presence of the house hygiene lock in broiler and layer farms and an adequate coverage of built-up litter in turkey and broiler farms. In conclusion, this study highlighted a generally high level of biosecurity in the visited poultry farms (probably due to the stringent national regulation and the integration of the poultry industry) and identified some measures that still need to be improved.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267243

RESUMO

Numerous source attribution studies for foodborne pathogens based on epidemiological and microbiological methods are available. These studies provide empirical data for modelling frameworks that synthetize the quantitative evidence at our disposal and reduce reliance on expert elicitations. Here, we develop a statistical model within a Bayesian estimation framework to integrate attribution estimates from expert elicitations with estimates from microbial subtyping and case-control studies for sporadic infections with four major bacterial zoonotic pathogens in the Netherlands (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC] O157 and Listeria). For each pathogen, we pooled the published fractions of human cases attributable to each animal reservoir from the microbial subtyping studies, accounting for the uncertainty arising from the different typing methods, attribution models, and year(s) of data collection. We then combined the population attributable fractions (PAFs) from the case-control studies according to five transmission pathways (domestic food, environment, direct animal contact, human-human transmission and travel) and 11 groups within the foodborne pathway (beef/lamb, pork, poultry meat, eggs, dairy, fish/shellfish, fruit/vegetables, beverages, grains, composite foods and food handlers/vermin). The attribution estimates were biologically plausible, allowing the human cases to be attributed in several ways according to reservoirs, transmission pathways and food groups. All pathogens were predominantly foodborne, with Campylobacter being mostly attributable to the chicken reservoir, Salmonella to pigs (albeit closely followed by layers), and Listeria and STEC O157 to cattle. Food-wise, the attributions reflected those at the reservoir level in terms of ranking. We provided a modelling solution to reach consensus attribution estimates reflecting the empirical evidence in the literature that is particularly useful for policy-making and is extensible to other pathogens and domains.

3.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 93, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of infections with tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) other than Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) on public health in Europe remains unclear. Our goal is to evaluate whether the presence of these TBPs in ticks can be associated with self-reported health complaints. METHODS: We enrolled individuals who were bitten by I. ricinus between 2012 and 2015 and collected their relevant demographic and clinical information using a self-administered online questionnaire. A total of 4163 I. ricinus ticks sent by the participants were subject to molecular analyses for detection of specific TBPs. Associations between the presence of TBPs in ticks and self-reported complaints and symptoms were evaluated by means of a stepwise approach using a generalized linear model (GLM). RESULTS: Of 17 self-reported complaints and symptoms significant in the univariate analyses, 3 had a highly significant association (P < 0.01) with at least one TBP in the multivariate analysis. Self-reported Lyme borreliosis was significantly associated (P < 0.001) with B. burgdorferi (s.l.) infection. Facial paralysis was associated (P < 0.01) with infection with B. miyamotoi, N. mikurensis and R. helvetica. Finally, a significant association (P < 0.001) was found between nocturnal sweating and A. phagocytophilum. CONCLUSIONS: We found associations between the presence of TBPs in ticks feeding on humans and self-reported symptoms. Due to the subjective nature of such reports and the fact that infection was determined in the ticks and not in the patient samples, further prospective studies utilizing diagnostic modalities should be performed before any clinical outcome can be causally linked to infection with TBPs.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Animais , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato
4.
Avian Pathol ; 51(2): 120-128, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787031

RESUMO

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSSulfamethoxazole and ampicillin resistance are the highest in E. coli isolates of both broilers and turkeys.Short-term effects of antibiotic use on resistance are seen more often than long-term effects.Historical penicillin use is associated with penicillin resistance in broilers.There is an association between historical use and resistance to trimethoprim in turkeys.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli , Fazendas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Perus
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 823: 151131, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695463

RESUMO

The use of antimicrobials in agricultural, veterinary and medical practice exerts selective pressure on environmental microbiota, promoting the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), a global concern for the One Health Initiative Task Force (OHITF). Honeybees have been studied as bioindicators of AMR in the environment, but little is known about beehive products like honey and pollen. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of AMR genes (ARGs) in beehive products and investigated their origins. Specifically, possible associations between ARGs, microbiota and other characteristics of different honey and pollen samples, including country of origin, flower type, type of commercial distribution and environmental factors, such as land use, weather and composition of the environment surrounding the beehives were investigated. We found that beehive products harboured ARGs conferring resistance to ß-lactams, macrolides, (fluoro)quinolones and polymyxins. Most samples possessed resistance to multiple antimicrobial classes, with honey and pollen showing similar ARG profiles. Even if Lactobacillus and Acinetobacter genera were common in the microbial communities of both honey and pollen, Bacillus, Clostridium, and Bombella defined honey microbiota, while Pseudomonas and Vibrio were enriched in pollen. ErmB and blaTEM-1 co-occurred with Lactobacillus and Fructobacillus, while positive associations between ß-lactams and macrolides and anthropogenic environments (i.e. industrial and commercial areas and non-irrigated arable lands) were found. Altogether, our findings suggest that ARGs in honey and pollen might originate from the honeybee foraging environment, and that the beehive products can be used as bioindicators of the AMR environmental contamination.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Ambientais , Mel , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Abelhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Mel/análise , Pólen
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 199: 105563, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954420

RESUMO

Minimizing antimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock is needed to control antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In the Netherlands, the livestock sector reduced AMU by almost 70 % since 2009, but this reduction stagnated in recent years. With only therapeutic AMU allowed, it is clear that besides socio-economic and behavioral factors, also the farm technical characteristics influence the conditions under which farmers need AMU. These characteristics pertain to farm management, including biosecurity, vaccination schemes, nutrition, micro-climate and husbandry practices. Identifying farm-related risk factors for AMU is needed to control AMR in a sustainable and pragmatic way. This need, often concerns the overall contribution of seemingly related (rather than individualized) factors. Here, risk factors for AMU in pig and calf farms were determined using two approaches: a typical risk factor analysis based on generalized estimating equations (GEEs) or hierarchical mixed-effects models and a multiblock partial least-squares regression analysis. These methods were applied to longitudinal data from two previous studies, i.e. a panel study and an intervention study involving 36 multiplier pig farms and 51 veal calf farms in the Netherlands, respectively. The multiblock analysis allowed us to quantify the importance of each factor and their respective block (i.e. farm management domain). For pigs, factors related to internal biosecurity had the highest impact on AMU, while for calves, these were mainly related to micro-climate. Structural characteristics, such as farm size and production type, followed in importance for both sectors. While both methods provided similar outcomes, the multiblock approach provided further insights by grouping and comparing factors believed to be inter-related.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos , Análise de Dados , Fazendas , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Suínos
7.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 790256, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34956157

RESUMO

The oncogenic potential of viral infections is well established and documented for many years already. However, the contribution of (commensal) bacteria and parasites to the development and progression of cancers has only recently gained momentum, resulting in a rapid growth of publications on the topic. Indeed, various bacteria and parasites have been suggested to play a role in the development of gastrointestinal cancer in particular. Therefore, an overview of the current epidemiological knowledge on the association between infections with bacteria and parasites and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract is needed. In this review, we summarized the methodological characteristics and main results of epidemiological studies investigating the association of 10 different bacteria (Bacteroides fragilis, Campylobacter spp., Clostridium spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, non-typhoidal Salmonella, Salmonella Typhi, and Streptococcus spp.) and three parasites (Cryptosporidium spp., Schistosoma spp., and Strongyloides stercoralis) with gastrointestinal cancer. While the large body of studies based on microbiome sequencing provides valuable insights into the relative abundance of different bacterial taxa in cancer patients as compared to individuals with pre-malignant conditions or healthy controls, more research is needed to fulfill Koch's postulates, possibly making use of follow-up data, to assess the complex role of bacterial and parasitic infections in cancer epidemiology. Studies incorporating follow-up time between detection of the bacterium or parasite and cancer diagnosis remain valuable as these allow for estimation of cause-effect relationships.

8.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 737720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568479

RESUMO

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes colibacillosis, the disease with the highest economic loss for the broiler industry. However, studies focusing on the prevalence and population structure of APEC in the broiler production pyramid are scarce. Here, we used genotyping and serotyping data to elucidate the APEC population structure and its changes in different broiler production stages along with whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in a subset of APEC isolates to determine transmission patterns amongst dominant APEC sequence types (STs) and characterize them in detail. Comparison of genotypes encountered in both APEC and avian fecal E. coli (AFEC) provided further insights. Overall, APEC-related mortality, as the proportion of the total sampled mortality in the broiler production, was high (35%), while phylogroup C and serogroup O78 were predominant amongst APEC isolates. We found a low (34.0%) and high (53.3%) incidence of colibacillosis in chicks and end-cycle broilers, respectively, which may be related to a shift in APEC genotypes, suggesting a trend from commensalism to pathogenicity across different broiler production stages. Despite considerable APEC genotypic diversity, there was substantial genotype overlap (40.9%, overall) over the production stages and convergence of STs to the four clusters. Within these clusters, WGS data provided evidence of clonal transmission events and revealed an enriched virulence and resistance APEC repertoire. More specifically, sequenced APEC were assigned to defined pathotypes based on their virulence gene content while the majority (86%) was genotypically multi-drug resistant. Interestingly, WGS-based phylogeny showed that a subset of APEC, which are cephalosporin-resistant, may originate directly from cephalosporin-resistant AFEC. Finally, exploration of the APEC plasmidome indicated that the small fraction of the APEC virulome carried by IncF plasmids is pivotal for the manifestation of the APEC pathotype; thus, plasmid exchange can promote pathogenicity in strains that are at the edge of the commensal and pathogenic states.

9.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050611, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While colon cancer (CC) risk is associated with several lifestyle-related factors, including physical inactivity, smoking and diet, the contribution of occupation to CC morbidity remains largely unclear. Growing evidence indicates that gastrointestinal infections like salmonellosis could contribute to CC development. We performed a nationwide registry study to assess potential associations between occupation (history) and CC, including also those occupations with known increased exposure to gastrointestinal pathogens like Salmonella. METHODS: Person-level occupational data for all residents in The Netherlands were linked to CC diagnosis data. Differences in the incidence of (overall, proximal and distal) CC among occupational sectors and risk groups were tested for significance by calculating standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% CIs using the general population as reference group. Effects of gender, age, exposure duration and latency were also assessed. RESULTS: Significant differences in CC incidence were observed only for a few occupational sectors, including the manufacturing of rubber and plastics, machinery and leather, the printing sector and the information service sector (SIRs 1.06-1.88). No elevated risk of CC was observed among people with increased salmonellosis risk through occupational exposure to live animals, manure or among those working in the sale of animal-derived food products (SIRs 0.93-0.95, 0.81-0.95 and 0.93-1.09 for overall, proximal and distal CC, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that occupation in itself provides a relatively small contribution to CC incidence. This is consistent with previous studies where a similar degree of variation in risk estimates was observed. The lack of an association with the high-risk occupations for salmonellosis might be due to higher levels of physical activity, a known protective factor for CC and other diseases, of people working in the agricultural sector, which might outweigh the potential Salmonella-associated risk of CC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ocupações , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
10.
Curr Opin Food Sci ; 39: 152-159, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178607

RESUMO

National burden of foodborne disease (FBD) studies are essential to establish food safety as a public health priority, rank diseases, and inform interventions. In recent years, various countries have taken steps to implement them. Despite progress, the current burden of disease landscape remains scattered, and researchers struggle to translate findings to input for policy. We describe the current knowledge base on burden of FBDs, highlight examples of well-established studies, and how results have been used for decision-making. We discuss challenges in estimating burden of FBD in low-resource settings, and the experience and opportunities deriving from a large-scale research project in these settings. Lastly, we highlight the role of international organizations and initiatives in supporting countries to develop capacity and conduct studies.

11.
Vet Microbiol ; 258: 109120, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020175

RESUMO

Salmonella Infantis is a poultry-adapted Salmonella enterica serovar that is increasingly reported in broilers and is also regularly identified among human salmonellosis cases. An emerging S. Infantis mega-plasmid (pESI), carrying fitness, virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, is also increasingly found. We investigated the prevalence, genetic characteristics and risk factors for (pESI-carrying) S. Infantis in broilers. Faecal samples from 379 broiler flocks (in 198 farms with ≥3000 birds) in the Netherlands were tested. A questionnaire about farm characteristics was also administered. Sampling was performed in July 2018-May 2019, three weeks before slaughter. Fourteen flocks (in 10 farms) were S. Infantis-positive, resulting in a 3.7 % flock-level and 5.1 % farm-level prevalence. Based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), all isolates belonged to sequence type 32. All but one isolate carried a pESI-like mega-plasmid. Core-genome MLST showed considerable heterogeneity among the isolates, even within the same farm, with a few small clusters detected. The typical pESI-borne multi-resistance pattern to aminoglycosides, sulphonamide and tetracycline (93 %), as well as trimethoprim (71 %), was found. Additionally, resistance to (fluoro)quinolones based on gyrA gene mutations was detected. S. Infantis was found more often in flocks using salinomycin as coccidiostat, where flock thinning was applied or litter quality was poor, whereas employing external cleaning companies, wheat in feed, and vaccination against infectious bronchitis, were protective. Suggestive evidence for vertical transmission from hatcheries was found. A heterogeneous (pESI-carrying) S. Infantis population has established itself in Dutch broiler flocks, calling for further monitoring of its spread and a comprehensive appraisal of control options.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Salmonella enterica/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e56, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551005

RESUMO

Laboratory data increasingly suggest that Salmonella infection may contribute to colon cancer (CC) development. Here, we examined epidemiologically the potential risk of CC associated with salmonellosis in the human population. We conducted a population-based cohort study using four health registries in Denmark. Person-level demographic data of all residents were linked to laboratory-confirmed non-typhoidal salmonellosis and to CC diagnoses in 1994-2016. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CC (overall/proximal/distal) associated with reported salmonellosis were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Potential effects of serovar, age, sex, inflammatory bowel disease and follow-up time post-infection were also assessed. We found no increased risk of CC ≥1 year post-infection (HR 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.13). When stratifying by serovar, there was a significantly increased risk of proximal CC ≥1 year post-infection with serovars other than Enteritidis and Typhimurium (HR 1.40; 95% CI 1.03-1.90). CC risk was significantly increased in the first year post-infection (HR 2.08; 95% CI 1.48-2.93). The association between salmonellosis and CC in the first year post-infection can be explained by increased stool testing around the time of CC diagnosis. The association between proximal CC and non-Enteritidis/non-Typhimurium serovars is unclear and warrants further investigation. Overall, this study provides epidemiological evidence that notified Salmonella infections do not contribute significantly to CC risk in the studied population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/complicações , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Water Res ; 192: 116852, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517045

RESUMO

Plastic pollution in aquatic environments, particularly microplastics (<5 mm), is an emerging health threat. The buoyancy, hydrophobic hard surfaces, novel polymer carbon sources and long-distance transport make microplastics a unique substrate for biofilms, potentially harbouring pathogens and enabling antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene exchange. Microplastic concentrations, their polymer types and the associated microbial communities were determined in paired, contemporaneous samples from the Dutch portion of the river Rhine. Microplastics were collected through a cascade of 500/100/10 µm sieves; filtrates and surface water were also analysed. Microplastics were characterized with infrared spectroscopy. Microbial communities and selected virulence and AMR genes were determined with 16S rRNA-sequencing and qPCR. Average microplastic concentration was 213,147 particles/m3; polyamide and polyvinylchloride were the most abundant polymers. Microbial composition on 100-500 µm samples differed significantly from surface water and 10-100 µm or smaller samples, with lower microbial diversity compared to surface water. An increasingly 'water-like' microbial community was observed as particles became smaller. Associations amongst specific microbial taxa, polymer types and particle sizes, as well as seasonal and methodological effects, were also observed. Known biofilm-forming and plastic-degrading taxa (e.g. Pseudomonas) and taxa harbouring potential pathogens (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter) were enriched in certain sample types, and other risk-conferring signatures like the sul1 and erm(B) AMR genes were almost ubiquitous. Results were generally compatible with the existence of taxon-selecting mechanisms and reduced microbial diversity in the biofilms of plastic substrates, varying over seasons, polymer types and particle sizes. This study provided updated field data and insights on microplastic pollution in a major riverine environment.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Países Baixos , Plásticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 760: 143404, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199005

RESUMO

Antimicrobials are commonly used in conventional livestock production and manure is widely applied to agricultural lands as fertilizer. This practice raises questions regarding the effects of fertilization on (i) soil microbiota composition and (ii) spread of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment. This study was conducted in a high-density farming area of Northern Italy and aimed at assessing the impact of (dairy cattle, chickens and swine) manure application on soil microbiome, antimicrobial concentrations and antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) abundance. We found the microbial community composition in manure to be different and less diverse than in soil, with manure application altering only marginally the soil microbiome. Exceptions were the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes and Cloacimonetes, which significantly enriched in fertilized soil. Of the antimicrobials investigated, only flumequine concentrations increased after manure application, albeit non-significantly. ARGs were more abundant in manure, with ermA, ermB, blaOXA-1 and oqxA being significantly enriched in fertilized soil. Positive correlations between oqxA and qnrS abundances and flumequine concentrations were observed, together with the co-occurrence of some ARGs and microbial taxa (e.g. oqxA correlated with Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes). This study showed that manure application has little effect on soil microbiome but may contribute to the dissemination of specific ARGs into the environment. Moreover, flumequine residues seem to enhance the emergence of oqxA and qnrS in soil.


Assuntos
Esterco , Microbiota , Agricultura , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fertilização , Genes Bacterianos , Itália , Gado , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Suínos
15.
J Infect ; 82(2): 216-226, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the contributions of several animal and environmental sources of human campylobacteriosis and identify source-specific risk factors. METHODS: 1417 Campylobacter jejuni/coli isolates from the Netherlands in 2017-2019 were whole-genome sequenced, including isolates from human cases (n = 280), chickens/turkeys (n = 238), laying hens (n = 56), cattle (n = 158), veal calves (n = 49), sheep/goats (n = 111), pigs (n = 110), dogs/cats (n = 100), wild birds (n = 62), and surface water (n = 253). Questionnaire-based exposure data was collected. Source attribution was performed using core-genome multilocus sequence typing. Risk factors were determined on the attribution estimates. RESULTS: Cases were mostly attributed to chickens/turkeys (48.2%), dogs/cats (18.0%), cattle (12.1%), and surface water (8.5%). Of the associations identified, never consuming chicken, as well as frequent chicken consumption, and rarely washing hands after touching raw meat, were risk factors for chicken/turkey-attributable infections. Consuming unpasteurized milk or barbecued beef increased the risk for cattle-attributable infections. Risk factors for infections attributable to environmental sources were open water swimming, contact with dog faeces, and consuming non-chicken/turkey avian meat like game birds. CONCLUSIONS: Poultry and cattle are the main livestock sources of campylobacteriosis, while pets and surface water are important non-livestock sources. Foodborne transmission is only partially consistent with the attributions, as frequency and alternative pathways of exposure are significant.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Gatos , Bovinos , Galinhas , Cães , Feminino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Ovinos , Suínos
16.
J Infect ; 82(1): 143-149, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine spatial clustering and risk factors for occurrence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworms in a Venezuelan rural community. METHODS: MIF-fixed faecal samples were individually collected for STH testing. The Getis-Ord statistic was used to determine significant STH clustering within 25/50/100 m radiuses around houses. Individual- and house-level factors associated with STH occurrence and intensity of infection were determined using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Significant clusters of "wormy" houses for one or multiple parasites were found at distances of 25-50 m around 13 houses. Risk factors differed between occurrence and intensity of infection. Overcrowding in the house increased occurrence of S. stercoralis, T. trichiura and hookworm infections, while poor housing conditions increased A. lumbricoides infection risk. Overcrowding, poor faecal disposal system, economic dependency and lack of basic services differentially influenced the STHs. The "wormy" houses were mainly those built with waste materials, under economic dependency and lacking indoor water supply. CONCLUSIONS: STH distribution in a community is clustered, with significant hotspots of STH occurrence and intensity of infection and different associated risk factors. Targeting the "wormy" houses is expected to affect STH morbidity more efficiently.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Helmintos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , População Rural , Solo
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 605, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In dogs, infections with Giardia duodenalis are mainly caused by assemblages C and D, but also by the potentially zoonotic assemblages A and B. The aims of this study were to assess differences in assemblages (i) between dogs living mainly in close proximity to humans (synanthropic dogs) versus dogs living mainly among other dogs, (ii) between samples of dogs with or without loose stool, and (iii) related to the amount of cysts shedding. METHODS: One hundred eighty-nine qPCR Giardia positive fecal samples of dogs originating from four groups (household, sheltered, hunting, and dogs for which a veterinarian sent a fecal sample to a diagnostic laboratory) were used for genotyping. For this, multi-locus genotyping of beta-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, and glutamate dehydrogenase and genotyping of SSU rDNA gene fragments were performed. Fecal consistency was scored (loose or non-loose stool), and cysts per gram of feces were determined with qPCR. RESULTS: Assemblage D was the most prevalent in all groups, followed by the other canid assemblage C. Also, mixed C/D was common. In two (synanthropic) household dogs, the potentially zoonotic assemblage AI was present. Although occurrence of assemblage AI in household dogs was not significantly different from dogs living among other dogs (sheltered and hunting dogs), it was significantly higher compared to dogs for which a sample was sent to a diagnostic laboratory. Dogs with assemblage D shed significantly more cysts than dogs with other assemblages (except for mixed C/D results) or dogs in which no assemblage could be determined. None of the assemblages was significantly associated with loose stool. CONCLUSION: Not only do dogs mainly shed the canid Giardia duodenalis assemblages D and/or C, the numbers of cysts per gram for the canid assemblage D were also higher than for the potential zoonotic assemblage AI. Based on the assemblages shed by dogs, the risk to public health posed by dogs is estimated to be low, even though the dogs that shed AI were synanthropic household dogs. Loose stool in infected dogs was not associated with any particular Giardia assemblage.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/classificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/fisiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Glutamato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Filogenia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/genética , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/metabolismo
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198229

RESUMO

Salmonella spp. infection has shown to have oncogenic transformative effects and thereby increases the risk of certain cancers. For Campylobacter spp., similar effects have been demonstrated. Risk factor identification may allow for timely diagnosis and preventive treatment. To substantiate the oncogenic potential of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp., this study compared the incidence of extrahepatic biliary tract cancer (BTC) in patients with diagnosed Salmonella or Campylobacter spp. infection with BTC incidence in the Netherlands. National infectious diseases surveillance records of patients diagnosed with a laboratory-confirmed Salmonella or Campylobacter spp. infection during 1999-2016 were linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Incidence of BTC in Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. patients was compared to the incidence of BTC in the general population using Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs). In total, 16,252 patients were diagnosed with Salmonella spp. and 27,668 with Campylobacter spp. infection. Nine patients developed BTC at a median of 46 months (13-67) after Salmonella spp. infection and seven at a median of 60 months (18-138) after Campylobacter spp. infection. SIR of BTC in salmonellosis patients was 1.53 (95% CI 0.70-2.91). In patients aged <60 years, the SIR was 1.74 (95% CI 0.36-5.04). For campylobacteriosis patients, the SIR was 0.97 (95% CI 0.39-2.00). Even though Salmonella or Campylobacter spp. infection was not significantly associated with increased BTC risk in this cohort, it remains extremely important to study potential risk factors for cancer to facilitate screening and ultimately improve prognosis of cancer patients.

19.
Water Res ; 187: 116421, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992147

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, the primary agents of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, are widespread in surface water. Several animal sources contribute to surface water contamination with Campylobacter, but their relative contributions thus far remained unclear. Here, the prevalence, genotype diversity, and potential animal sources of C. jejuni and C. coli strains in surface water in the Netherlands were investigated. It was also assessed whether the contribution of the different animal sources varied according to surface water type (i.e. agricultural water, surface water at discharge points of wastewater treatment plants [WWTPs], and official recreational water), season, and local livestock (poultry, pig, ruminant) density. For each surface water type, 30 locations spread over six areas with either high or low density of poultry, ruminants, or pigs, were sampled once every season in 2018-2019. Campylobacter prevalence was highest in agricultural waters (77%), and in autumn and winter (74%), and lowest in recreational waters (46%) and in summer (54%). In total, 76 C. jejuni and 177 C. coli water isolates were whole-genome sequenced. Most C. coli water isolates (78.5%) belonged to hitherto unidentified clones when using the seven-locus sequence type (ST) scheme, while only 11.8% of the C. jejuni isolates had unidentified STs. The origin of these isolates, as defined by core-genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST), was inferred by comparison with Campylobacter strain collections from meat-producing poultry, laying hens, adult cattle, veal calves, small ruminants, pigs, and wild birds. Water isolates were mainly attributed to wild birds (C. jejuni: 60.0%; C. coli: 93.7%) and meat-producing poultry (C. jejuni: 18.9%; C. coli: 5.6%). Wild bird contribution was high among isolates from recreational waters and WWTP discharge points, and in areas with low poultry (C. coli) or high ruminant (C. jejuni) densities. The contribution of meat-producing poultry was high in areas with high density of poultry, springtime, agricultural waters and WWTP discharge points. While wild birds and poultry were the main contributors to Campylobacter contamination in surface water, their contribution differed significantly by water type, season, and local poultry and ruminant densities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter coli , Campylobacter jejuni , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter coli/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Bovinos , Galinhas , Feminino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Países Baixos , Aves Domésticas , Suínos , Água
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 139702, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531510

RESUMO

Observed multiple adverse effects of livestock production have led to increasing calls for more sustainable livestock production. Quantitative analysis of adverse effects, which can guide public debate and policy development in this area, is limited and generally scattered across environmental, human health, and other science domains. The aim of this study was to bring together and, where possible, quantify and aggregate the effects of national-scale livestock production on 17 impact categories, ranging from impacts of particulate matter, emerging infectious diseases and odor annoyance to airborne nitrogen deposition on terrestrial nature areas and greenhouse gas emissions. Effects were estimated and scaled to total Dutch livestock production, with system boundaries including feed production, manure management and transport, but excluding slaughtering, retail and consumption. Effects were expressed using eight indicators that directly express Impact in the sense of the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response framework, while the remaining 14 express Pressures or States. Results show that livestock production may contribute both positively and negatively to human health with a human disease burden (expressed in disability-adjusted life years) of up to 4% for three different health effects: those related to particulate matter, zoonoses, and occupational accidents. The contribution to environmental impact ranges from 2% for consumptive water use in the Netherlands to 95% for phosphorus transfer to soils, and extends beyond Dutch borders. While some aggregation across impact categories was possible, notably for burden of disease estimates, further aggregation of disparate indicators would require normative value judgement. Despite difficulty of aggregation, the assessment shows that impacts receive a different contribution of different animal sectors. While some of our results are country-specific, the overall approach is generic and can be adapted and tuned according to specific contexts and information needs in other regions, to allow informed decision making across a broad range of impact categories.


Assuntos
Gado , Esterco , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Países Baixos , Solo
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