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1.
Stud Fam Plann ; 2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731634

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had serious impacts on economic, social, and health systems, and fragile public health systems have become overburdened in many countries, exacerbating existing service delivery challenges. This study describes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on family planning services within a community-based integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health intervention for youth aged 16-24 years being trialled in Zimbabwe (CHIEDZA). It examines the experiences of health providers and clients in relation to how the first year of the pandemic affected access to and use of contraceptives.

2.
Front Glob Womens Health ; 3: 781983, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35663923

RESUMO

Background: People living with HIV have higher unmet family planning needs compared to those without HIV. This is heightened for young people. However, the provision of family planning for young people within HIV programmes is uncommon. We investigated family planning uptake, acceptability of, and engagement with a service offering integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health services for youth in a community-based setting in Zimbabwe. Methods: CHIEDZA, a community-based intervention offering integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health services to young people aged 16-24 years, is being trialed in Zimbabwe. This exploratory qualitative study was nested within an ongoing study process evaluation. Data was collected between March-May 2021 with two sets of interviews conducted: I) twelve semi-structured interviews with young women living with HIV aged 17-25 years and II) fifteen interviews conducted with young women without HIV aged between 20 and 25 years who used a contraceptive method. A thematic analysis approach was used. Results: Before engaging with CHIEDZA, young women had experienced judgmental providers, on account of their age, and received misinformation about contraceptive use and inadequate information about ART-contraceptive interactions. These presented as barriers to uptake and engagement. Upon attending CHIEDZA, all the young women reported receiving non-judgmental care. For those living with HIV, they were able to access integrated HIV and family planning services that supported them having broader sexual and reproductive needs beyond their HIV diagnosis. The family planning preference of young women living with HIV included medium to long-acting contraceptives to minimize adherence challenges, and desired partner involvement in dual protection to prevent HIV transmission. CHIEDZA's ability to meet these preferences shaped uptake, acceptability, and engagement with integrated HIV and family services. Conclusions: Recommendations for an HIV and family planning integrated service for young people living with HIV include: offering a range of services (including method-mix contraceptives) to choose from; supporting their agency to engage with the services which are most acceptable to them; and providing trained, supportive, knowledgeable, and non-judgmental health providers who can provide accurate information and counsel. We recommend youth-friendly, differentiated, person-centered care that recognize the multiple and intersecting needs of young people living with HIV.

3.
IJID Reg ; 3: 37-43, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35755478

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate determinants of drug resistance and treatment outcomes among patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Design: This was a cross-sectional study on patients diagnosed with DR-TB in Bulawayo and Matabeleland South provinces, 2015. Results: A total of 129 participants were identified. DR-TB patients were 3.4 times more likely to have been treated previously for sensitive TB (95% confidence interval 1.3-9.2). Approximately 88.5% of DR-TB patients were diagnosed before completing the sensitive TB course and another 82.1% developed DR-TB within 6 months of completing sensitive TB treatment. The likelihood diminished with increasing time interval, becoming less likely at >12 months post-treatment. Most DR-TB patients (87.5%) were likely to have resided outside Zimbabwe and to have fallen ill there (85.2%). Overall, hearing loss was the most prevalent (70%) medication side effect experienced. Unfavourable interim treatment outcomes were high for patients <6 months on treatment (prevalence odds ratio 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.1), becoming 44% less likely after 18 months (95% CI 1.2-11.4). Conclusions: The majority of DR-TB patients were diagnosed during sensitive TB treatment, suggesting missed DR-TB diagnosis or inadequate treatment. Delays in starting effective TB regimens negatively affect treatment outcomes. Drug sensitivity testing at diagnosis, patient monitoring, and enhanced adherence counselling are recommended.

4.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270298, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35763532

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Young female sex workers (FSW) are disproportionately vulnerable to HIV. Zimbabwe data show higher HIV incidence and lower engagement in services compared to older FSW. Utilizing data from a combination HIV prevention and treatment intervention, we describe engagement in the HIV services over time among FSW 18-24 years, compared to those ≥25 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) surveys in 14 communities in 2013 and 2016, with >2500 FSW per survey. They included blood samples for HIV and viral load testing. As the intervention had no significant impact on HIV care cascade outcomes, data were aggregated across study arms. Analyses used RDS-II estimation. RESULTS: Mean age in 2013 and 2016 was 31 and 33 years, with 27% and 17% aged 18-24 years. Overall HIV prevalence was 59% at each timepoint, and 35% and 36% among younger FSW. From 2013 to 2016 there was an increase in young HIV-positive FSW knowing their status (38% vs 60%, OR = 2.51, p<0.01). Outcomes for all FSW improved significantly over time at all steps of the cascade, and the relative change over time was similar among older versus younger FSW for most cascade variables. DISCUSSION: Young FSW had improvements in care cascade outcomes, and proportionate improvements similar to older FSW, yet they remain less engaged in services overall. This implies that the dedicated FSW services in Zimbabwe are having a comparably positive impact across age groups, however more is likely required to address young FSW's unique vulnerabilities and needs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Prevalência , Carga Viral , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
5.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(2)2022 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) in individuals using oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) who acquire HIV is limited to clinical trials and case studies. More data are needed to understand the risk of HIVDR with oral PrEP during PrEP rollout. Mechanisms to collect these data vary, and are dependent on cost, scale of PrEP distribution, and in-country infrastructure for the identification, collection, and testing of samples from PrEP seroconverters. METHODS: The Global Evaluation of Microbicide Sensitivity (GEMS) project, in collaboration with country stakeholders, initiated HIVDR monitoring among new HIV seroconverters with prior PrEP use in Eswatini, Kenya, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. Standalone protocols were developed to assess HIVDR among a national sample of PrEP users. In addition, HIVDR testing was incorporated into existing demonstration projects for key populations. LESSONS LEARNED: Countries are supportive of conducting a time-limited evaluation of HIVDR during the early stages of PrEP rollout. As PrEP rollout expands, the need for long-term HIVDR monitoring with PrEP will need to be balanced with maintaining national HIV drug resistance surveillance for pretreatment and acquired drug resistance. Laboratory capacity is a common obstacle to setting up a monitoring system. CONCLUSIONS: Establishing HIV resistance monitoring within PrEP programs is feasible. Approaches to drug resistance monitoring may evolve as the PrEP programs mature and expand. The methods and implementation support offered by GEMS assisted countries in developing methods to monitor for drug resistance that best fit their PrEP program needs and resources.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 399, 2022 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are at high risk of acquiring HIV. A growing number of sub-Saharan African countries are beginning to avail pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, but with limited success. Unpacking strategies to overcome barriers to the uptake of PrEP is critical to prevent HIV amongst AGYW. This article explores health professionals' views and recommendations on what is required to increase uptake of PrEP. METHODS: The study draws on interview data from 12 providers of HIV prevention services in eastern Zimbabwe. The healthcare providers were purposefully recruited from a mix of rural and urban health facilities offering PrEP. The interviews were transcribed and imported into NVivo 12 for thematic coding and network analysis. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed six broad strategies and 15 concrete recommendations which detail the range of elements healthcare providers consider central for facilitating engagement with PrEP. The healthcare providers called for: (1) PrEP marketing campaigns; (2) youth-friendly services or corners; (3) improved PrEP delivery mechanisms; (4) improvements in PrEP treatment; (5) greater engagement with key stakeholders, including with young people themselves; and (6) elimination of costs associated with PrEP use. These recommendations exemplify an awareness amongst healthcare providers that PrEP access is contingent on a range of factors both inside and outside of the clinical setting. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare providers are at the frontline of the HIV epidemic response. Their community-embeddedness, coupled with their interactions and encounters with AGYW, make them well positioned to articulate context-specific measures for improving access to PrEP. Importantly, the breadth of their recommendations suggests recognition of PrEP use as a complex social practice that requires integration of a combination of interventions, spanning biomedical, structural, and behavioural domains.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Zimbábue
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(3): 263-269, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reduce HIV incidence among adolescent girls who sell sex (AGSS) in Zimbabwe, we need to better understand how vulnerabilities intersect with HIV infection and how those living with HIV engage in care. METHODS: In 2017, we conducted social mapping in 4 locations in Zimbabwe and recruited girls aged 16-19 years who sell sex, using respondent-driven sampling or census sampling methods. Participants completed a questionnaire and provided finger prick blood samples for HIV antibody testing. RESULTS: Of 605 AGSS recruited, 74.4% considered themselves sex workers, 24.4% reported experiencing violence in the past year, 91.7% were not in school, and 83.8% had less than a complete secondary education. Prevalence of HIV increased steeply from 2.1% among those aged 16 years to 26.9% among those aged 19 years; overall, 20.2% of AGSS were HIV-positive. In the multivariate analysis, age, education, marital status, and violence from a client were associated with HIV. Among the 605 AGSS, 86.3% had ever tested for HIV, with 64.1% having tested in the past 6 months. Among AGSS living with HIV, half (50.8%) were aware of their status, among whom 83.9% reported taking antiretroviral therapy. CONCLUSION: The steep rise in HIV prevalence among those aged between 16 and 19 years suggests the window to engage with AGSS before HIV acquisition is short. To accelerate reductions in incidence among AGSS, intensified combination prevention strategies that address structural factors and tailor services to the needs of AGSS are required, particularly ensuring girls enroll and remain in school.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Adolescente , Adulto , Coito , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
8.
AIDS Behav ; 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304904

RESUMO

Though stigma is a recognized contributor to the disproportionate HIV burden among sexual and gender minorities (SGM) in sub-Saharan Africa, data describing this association among Zimbabwean SGM are limited. We examined relationships between SGM stigma and HIV and the potential for social cohesion to moderate the association among Zimbabwean men who have sex with men, transgender women, and genderqueer individuals. Consenting participants (n = 1511) recruited through respondent-driven sampling for a biobehavioral survey in Harare and Bulawayo completed structured interviews and received HIV testing. Reported SGM stigma was common (68.9% in Harare and 65.3% in Bulawayo) and associated with HIV infection in Harare (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-2.62) and Bulawayo (aPR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.15-2.00) in relative risk regression. Social cohesion did not moderate these relationships. Findings demonstrate stigma's association with HIV vulnerability among Zimbabwean SGM, highlighting the need for stigma-mitigation to reduce HIV transmission in this population.

9.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0261057, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298475

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ulcerative STIs, including syphilis, increase the risk for HIV acquisition and transmission due to the presence of ulcers/chancres that serve as a point-of-entry and exit for HIV. In Zimbabwe, diagnosis of syphilis often occurs in pregnant women who seek ANC services where syphilis testing is offered, and among men and women who seek health care for STIs. Zimbabwe's national syphilis estimates are based on these diagnosed cases, with little information available about the prevalence of untreated syphilis among the general population. This analysis uses data from ZIMPHIA (2015-2016) to describe factors associated with active syphilis among men and women ages 15 years and older. METHODS: ZIMPHIA collected blood specimens for HIV and syphilis testing from 22,501 consenting individuals (ages 15 years and older). Household HIV testing used the national HIV rapid-testing algorithm with HIV-positive results confirmed at satellite laboratories using Geenius HIV-1/2 rapid test (Bio-rad, Hercules, California, USA). Point-of-care non-Treponemal and Treponemal syphilis testing was performed using Chembio's Dual-Path Platform Syphilis Screen & Confirm Assay. Factors associated with active syphilis were explored using multiple variable, weighted logistic regression and were stratified by gender. RESULTS: The likelihood of active syphilis in HIV-positive females was 3.7 times greater in HIV-positive females than HIV-negative females (aOR: 3.7, 95% CI 2.3-5.9). Among males odds of having active syphilis was 5 times higher among those that engaged in transactional sex than those who did not have sex or transactional sex (aOR: 5.3, 95% CI 1.9-14.7), and 6 times higher if HIV positive versus negative (aOR: 5.9, 95% CI 3.0-12.0). Urban residence, province, education (highest attended), marital status, number of sex partners, consistency of condom use, pregnancy status (females), and circumcision status (males) were not significant in the adjusted model for either females or males. CONCULSION: HIV status was found to be the only factor associated with active syphilis in both females and males. Given the persistent link between HIV and active syphilis, it is prudent to link individuals' diagnoses and treatments, as recommended by the WHO. Enhanced integration of STI and HIV services in health delivery points such as ANC, reproductive services, or male circumcision clinics, combined with consistent, targeted outreach to high-risk populations and their partners, may assist the MOHCC to eliminate active syphilis in Zimbabwe.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
10.
Trials ; 23(1): 209, 2022 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSW) in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV and are critical to engage in HIV prevention, testing and care services. We describe the design of our evaluation of the 'AMETHIST' intervention, nested within a nationally-scaled programme for FSW in Zimbabwe. We hypothesise that the implementation of this intervention will result in a reduction in the risk of HIV transmission within sex work. METHODS: The AMETHIST intervention (Adapted Microplanning to Eliminate Transmission of HIV in Sex Transactions) is a risk-differentiated intervention for FSW, centred around the implementation of microplanning and self-help groups. It is designed to support uptake of, and adherence to, HIV prevention, testing and treatment behaviours among FSW. Twenty-two towns in Zimbabwe were randomised to receive either the Sisters programme (usual care) or the Sisters programme plus AMETHIST. The composite primary outcome is defined as the proportion of all FSW who are at risk of either HIV acquisition (HIV-negative and not fully protected by prevention interventions) or of HIV transmission (HIV-positive, not virally suppressed and not practicing consistent condom use). The outcome will be assessed after 2 years of intervention delivery in a respondent-driven sampling survey (total n = 4400; n = 200 FSW recruited at each site). Primary analysis will use the 'RDS-II' method to estimate cluster summaries and will adapt Hayes and Moulton's '2-step' method produce adjusted effect estimates. An in-depth process evaluation guided by our project trajectory will be undertaken. DISCUSSION: Innovative pragmatic trials are needed to generate evidence on effectiveness of combination interventions in HIV prevention and treatment in different contexts. We describe the design and analysis of such a study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR202007818077777 . Registered on 2 July 2020.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sexo Seguro , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(2): e25873, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35148029

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Zimbabwe is scaling up pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for key populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). To assess implementation and inform HIV programming, we evaluated gaps in PrEP awareness, uptake and use, and correlates of awareness and uptake among a sample of MSM, TGW and genderqueer individuals (GQ) in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. METHODS: Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 1194 MSM and 344 TGW/GQ aged ≥18 to participate in a cross-sectional survey assessing HIV-related outcomes in 2019. Consenting participants completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic information, sexual risk practices and engagement in HIV services and underwent HIV testing. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the PrEP cascade. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with PrEP awareness and uptake among HIV-negative participants. Data were unweighted as the sample did not reach convergence on key estimates. RESULTS: Among the 1167 HIV-negative participants, most (79.2%) were MSM compared to TGW/GQ (20.8%). Median age was 24 years. Overall, 45.8% were aware of PrEP and of those, 31.3% had ever taken PrEP. Most (71.1%) reporting never taking PrEP were willing to start PrEP; the main reasons for never starting PrEP included not knowing where to access it (24.8%) and fearing side effects (20.4%). Among those who had ever taken PrEP, 74.9% had taken PrEP in the last 6 months; of these, 42.4% had taken PrEP the day of or day preceding the survey. Side effects represented the most common (59.5%) reason for discontinuing PrEP. MSM (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-3.6) and TGW/GQ in Harare (aOR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.1-4.7), and TGW/GQ in Bulawayo (aOR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.3) had higher awareness of PrEP than MSM in Bulawayo. Overall, TGW/GQ were more likely to have ever taken PrEP compared to MSM (aOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.01-2.4). CONCLUSIONS: Findings emphasize the need for tailored interventions to promote PrEP among key populations. As HIV programs in Zimbabwe continue to expand PrEP services, these data, including barriers to starting and continuing PrEP, can inform strategies to address gaps along the PrEP cascade.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
12.
AIDS ; 2022 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35170527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate HIV incidence among female sex workers (FSW) in Zimbabwe: using HIV prevalence by age and number of years since started selling sex (YSSS). DESIGN: We pooled data from FSW aged 18-39 participating in respondent-driven sampling surveys conducted in Zimbabwe between 2011-2017. METHODS: For each year of age, we estimated: HIV prevalence (Pt) and the change in HIV prevalence from the previous age (Pt-Pt-1). We then estimated the rate of new HIV infections during that year of age: It = Pt-Pt-1/(1-Pt-1), and calculated HIV incidence for 18-24 and 25-39 year-olds separately as the weighted average of It. We estimated HIV incidence for FSW 1-5 years and 6-15 years since first selling sex using the same approach, and compared HIV prevalence among FSW first selling sex at their current age with the general population. RESULTS: Among 9,906 women, 50.2% were HIV positive. Based on HIV prevalence increases by age, we estimated an HIV incidence of 6.3/100 person-years at risk (pyar) (95%CI 5.3,7.6) among 18-24 year-olds, and 3.3/100 pyar (95% CI 1.3,4.2) among 25-39 year-olds. Based on prevalence increases by YSSS, HIV incidence was 5.3/100 pyar (95% CI 4.3,8.5) between 1-5 years since first selling sex, and 2.1/100 pyar (95% CI -1.3, 7.2) between 6-15 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis is consistent with very high HIV incidence among FSW in Zimbabwe, especially among those who are young and recently started selling sex. There is a critical need to engage young entrants into sex work in interventions that reduce their HIV risk.

13.
Lancet HIV ; 9(2): e91-e101, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2020, there were an estimated 1·7 million children younger than 15 years living with HIV worldwide, but there are few data on the proportion of children living with HIV who are undiagnosed. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV among children living with HIV in Eswatini, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of data from the cross-sectional Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) surveys from 2015 to 2017. PHIAs are nationally representative surveys measuring HIV outcomes. HIV rapid test data (with PCR confirmatory testing for children aged <18 months) were used to measure HIV prevalence among children in each country (Eswatini, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe). Mothers or guardians reported previous HIV testing of children and previous results. Detection of antiretroviral medications was done using dried blood spots. Children who tested positive in the PHIA with previous negative or unknown HIV test results and without detectable antiretroviral medication blood concentrations were considered previously undiagnosed; all other children who tested positive were considered previously diagnosed. Survey weights with jackknife variance were used to generate national estimates of HIV prevalence and undiagnosed HIV in children aged 1-14 years. We also report the prevalence (weighted proportions) of antiretroviral therapy coverage and viral load suppression (<400 copies per mL). FINDINGS: Between 2015 and 2017, 42 248 children aged 1-14 years were included in the surveys, of whom 594 were living with HIV. Across the seven countries, the estimated weighted HIV prevalence was 0·9% (probability band 0·7-1·1) and we estimated that there were 425 000 (probability band 365 000-485 000) children living with HIV. Among all children living with HIV, 61·0% (n=259 000 [probability band 216 000-303 000]) were previously diagnosed and 39·0% (n=166 000 [128 000-204 000]) had not been previously diagnosed with HIV. Among previously diagnosed children living with HIV, 88·4% had detectable antiretroviral medication blood concentrations and 48·3% had viral load suppression. Among all children living with HIV (regardless of previous diagnosis status), 54·7% had detectable antiretroviral medication blood concentrations and 32·6% had viral load suppression. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show the uneven coverage of paediatric HIV testing across these seven countries and underscore the urgent need to address gaps in diagnosis and treatment for all children living with HIV. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Essuatíni , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Teste de HIV , Humanos , Lactente , Lesoto/epidemiologia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
14.
Lancet HIV ; 9(3): e182-e201, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women, and genderqueer individuals are at greater risk for HIV than the general population although little data are available from these groups in Zimbabwe, a country with a national adult HIV prevalence of 12·9%. We aimed to examine progress towards the UNAIDS 90-90-90 treatment targets and factors associated with meeting the targets among a sample of MSM, transgender women, and genderqueer individuals in Zimbabwe. METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey in 2019, we used respondent-driven sampling to identify MSM, transgender women, and genderqueer individuals aged at least 18 years to participate in a biobehavioural survey in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Participants were eligible to participate if they were assigned male at birth; had engaged in anal or oral sex with a man in the past 12 months; resided in Harare or Bulawayo for at least 1 month; spoke English, Shona, or Ndebele; provided written informed consent; and were in possession of a valid recruitment coupon if applicable. Enrolled participants completed a questionnaire and underwent HIV testing, and off-site viral load testing was done on all HIV-positive samples. Unweighted bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of sociodemographic, behavioural, and other factors with HIV-positive status awareness among MSM, transgender women, and genderqueer individuals, and with viral load suppression among MSM. Analyses were done firstly using self-reported information and then by classifying those with a viral load of less than 200 copies per mL as being aware of their status and on treatment (viral load recategorisation). FINDINGS: Among MSM, 248 (21%; 95% CI 19-24) of 1176 tested positive for HIV. Of those who tested positive, based on self-report, 119 (48%; 95% CI 42-54) reported knowing their HIV status, of whom 112 (94%; 88-98) reported using antiretroviral therapy (ART), of whom 89 (79%; 71-87) had viral load suppression. Based on viral load recategorisation, 180 (73%; 67-78) of 248 MSM testing HIV positive reported knowing their HIV status, of whom 174 (97%; 93-99) reported using ART, of whom 151 (87%; 81-91) had viral load suppression. 92 (28%; 23-33) of 335 transgender women and genderqueer individuals tested positive for HIV. Based on self-reports from these individuals 34 (37%; 27-48) of 92 participants reported knowing their HIV status, of whom 31 (91%; 76-98) reported using ART, of whom 27 (87%; 70-96%) had viral load suppression. Based on viral load recategorisation of data from transgender women and genderqueer participants, 53 (58%; 47-58) of 92 reported awareness of their HIV status, of whom 50 (94%; 84-99) reported using ART, of whom 46 (92%; 81-98) had viral load suppression. HIV-positive MSM aged 18-24 years had lower odds of being aware of their status than those aged at least 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·34; 95% CI 0·13-0·92), as did HIV-positive MSM aged 25-34 years (aOR 0·26; 0·12-0·56). HIV-positive MSM aged 18-24 years also had a lower odds of having viral load suppression than those aged 35 years and older (aOR 0·35; 0·16-0·78), as did those aged 25-34 years (aOR 0·36; 0·19-0·67). No factors were significantly associated with awareness among transgender women and genderqueer individuals in multivariable models. INTERPRETATION: Our survey showed that HIV prevalence was high and the largest difference between our results and the 90-90-90 treatment targets was in HIV status awareness, indicating the need for improvements in engaging MSM (especially young MSM), transgender women, and genderqueer individuals in HIV testing services. FUNDING: US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS Med ; 19(1): e1003887, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV have poor virological suppression and high prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs). In Zimbabwe, the Zvandiri adolescent peer support programme is effective at improving virological suppression. We assessed the effect of training Zvandiri peer counsellors known as Community Adolescent Treatment Supporters (CATS) in problem-solving therapy (PST) on virological suppression and mental health outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixty clinics were randomised 1:1 to either normal Zvandiri peer counselling or a peer counsellor trained in PST. In January to March 2019, 842 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years and living with HIV who screened positive for CMDs were enrolled (375 (44.5%) male and 418 (49.6%) orphaned of at least one parent). The primary outcome was virological nonsuppression (viral load ≥1,000 copies/mL). Secondary outcomes were symptoms of CMDs measured with the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ ≥8) and depression measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 ≥10) and health utility score using the EQ-5D. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression adjusting for clinic-level clustering. Case reviews and focus group discussions were used to determine feasibility of intervention delivery. At baseline, 35.1% of participants had virological nonsuppression and 70.3% had SSQ≥8. After 48 weeks, follow-up was 89.5% for viral load data and 90.9% for other outcomes. Virological nonsuppression decreased in both arms, but there was no evidence of an intervention effect (prevalence of nonsuppression 14.7% in the Zvandiri-PST arm versus 11.9% in the Zvandiri arm; AOR = 1.29; 95% CI 0.68, 2.48; p = 0.44). There was strong evidence of an apparent effect on common mental health outcomes (SSQ ≥8: 2.4% versus 10.3% [AOR = 0.19; 95% CI 0.08, 0.46; p < 0.001]; PHQ-9 ≥10: 2.9% versus 8.8% [AOR = 0.32; 95% CI 0.14, 0.78; p = 0.01]). Prevalence of EQ-5D index score <1 was 27.6% versus 38.9% (AOR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.31, 1.03; p = 0.06). Qualitative analyses found that CATS-observed participants had limited autonomy or ability to solve problems. In response, the CATS adapted the intervention to focus on empathic problem discussion to fit adolescents' age, capacity, and circumstances, which was beneficial. Limitations include that cost data were not available and that the mental health tools were validated in adult populations, not adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: PST training for CATS did not add to the benefit of peer support in reducing virological nonsuppression but led to improved symptoms of CMD and depression compared to standard Zvandiri care among adolescents living with HIV in Zimbabwe. Active involvement of caregivers and strengthened referral structures could increase feasibility and effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201810756862405.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Carga Viral , Zimbábue
16.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(2): 111-116, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syphilis increases human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition risk and impacts the immunologic and virologic response among people living with HIV (PLHIV). We assessed the prevalence of active or current syphilis and HIV/syphilis and their correlates among men who have sex with men (MSM), transwomen, and genderqueer (TGW/GQ) individuals in Zimbabwe. METHODS: Among a respondent-driven sample of MSM and TGW/GQ who were tested for HIV and syphilis in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe in 2019 (n = 1511), multiple logistic regression was used to assess correlates of active syphilis. Unadjusted logistic regression was used among PLHIV (n = 340) due to small sample size. All analyses were unweighted as data did not reach convergence for HIV. RESULTS: Prevalence of active syphilis overall and among PLHIV was 5.5% and 10.1%, respectively, in Harare, and 5.6% and 11.0%, respectively, in Bulawayo. Participants were more likely to have active syphilis if they were PLHIV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.6), aged 25-34 years (aOR, 2.2 years; 95% CI, 1.3-3.8 years; reference, 18-24 years), or self-report sexually transmitted infection symptoms (aOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.0). Compared with Bulawayo TGW/GQ, MSM in Harare (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.5) and Bulawayo (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.4), and TGW/GQ in Harare (aOR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6) were less likely to have active syphilis. Among PLHIV, coinfection was 13.0% among TGW/GQ and 9.7% among MSM. Odds of coinfection were higher for those aged 25 to 34 years (OR, 3.7 years; 95% CI, 1.2-11.1 years) and lower among Harare MSM (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), Bulawayo MSM (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-0.4), and Harare TGW/GQ (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-0.4) compared with Bulawayo TGW/GQ. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight a high burden of syphilis among MSM and TGW/GQ and underscore the importance of HIV/syphilis detection and improved service delivery for these groups.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Sífilis , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(47): 1629-1634, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818314

RESUMO

Adolescent girls and young women aged 13-24 years are disproportionately affected by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (1), resulting from biologic, behavioral, and structural* factors, including violence. Girls in sub-Saharan Africa also experience sexual violence at higher rates than do boys (2), and women who experience intimate partner violence have 1.3-2.0 times the odds of acquiring HIV infection, compared with those who do not (3). Violence Against Children and Youth Survey (VACS) data during 2007-2018 from nine countries funded by the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) were analyzed to estimate prevalence and assess factors associated with early sexual debut and forced sexual initiation.† Among adolescent girls and young women aged 13-24 years who ever had sex, the prevalence of lifetime sexual violence ranged from 12.5% to 49.3%, and forced sexual initiation ranged from 14.7% to 38.9%; early sexual debut among adolescent girls and young women aged 16-24 years ranged from 14.4% to 40.1%. In multiple logistic regression models, forced sexual initiation was associated with being unmarried, violence victimization, risky sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and poor mental health. Early sexual debut was associated with lower education, marriage, ever witnessing parental intimate partner violence during childhood, risky sexual behaviors, poor mental health, and less HIV testing. Comprehensive violence and HIV prevention programming is needed to delay sexual debut and protect adolescent girls and young women from forced sex.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(8): e25773, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402199

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents are at increased risk of HIV virological non-suppression compared to adults and younger children. Common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression are a barrier to adherence and virological suppression. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with virological non-suppression among adolescents living with HIV (ALWH) in Zimbabwe who had symptoms of common mental disorders. METHODS: We utilized baseline data from a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a problem-solving therapy intervention to improve mental health and HIV viral suppression of ALWH. Sixty clinics within 10 districts were randomized 1:1 to either the intervention or control arm, with the aim to recruit 14 adolescents aged 10 to 19 per clinic. Adolescents were eligible if they scored ≥7 on the Shona Symptom Questionnaire measuring symptoms of common mental disorders. Multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for factors associated with non-suppression, defined as viral load ≥1000 copies/mL. RESULTS: Between 2 January and 21 March 2019 the trial enrolled 842 participants aged 10 to 19 years (55.5% female, 58.8% aged <16). Most participants (N = 613) were taking an NNRTI-based ART regimen (13 PI-based, 216 unknown) and median duration on ART was six years (IQR three to nine years, 240 unknown). Of the 833 with viral load data 292 (35.1%) were non-suppressed. Virological non-suppression was independently associated with male sex (adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.43, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.97), and with not knowing one's own HIV status (aOR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.88), or knowing one's status but not disclosing it to anyone (aOR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.93), compared to adolescents who knew their status and had disclosed it to someone. CONCLUSIONS: ALWH with symptoms of common mental disorders have high prevalence of virological non-suppression in Zimbabwe, especially if they do not know their status or have not disclosed it. In general adolescents should be informed of their HIV status, with encouragement on the beneficial health and social effects of viral suppression, to incentivise adherence. Efforts to strengthen the operationalization of disclosure guidelines for adolescents should now be prioritized.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256291, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407129

RESUMO

Zimbabwe has made large strides in addressing HIV. To ensure a continued robust response, a clear understanding of costs associated with its HIV program is critical. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation in 2017 to estimate the annual average patient cost for accessing Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) services (through antenatal care) and Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) services in Zimbabwe. Twenty sites representing different types of public health facilities in Zimbabwe were included. Data on patient costs were collected through in-person interviews with 414 ART and 424 PMTCT adult patients and through telephone interviews with 38 ART and 47 PMTCT adult patients who had missed their last appointment. The mean and median annual patient costs were examined overall and by service type for all participants and for those who paid any cost. Potential patient costs related to time lost were calculated by multiplying the total time to access services (travel time, waiting time, and clinic visit duration) by potential earnings (US$75 per month assuming 8 hours per day and 5 days per week). Mean annual patient costs for accessing services for the participants was US$20.00 [standard deviation (SD) = US$80.42, median = US$6.00, range = US$0.00-US$12,18.00] for PMTCT and US$18.73 (SD = US$58.54, median = US$8.00, range = US$0.00-US$ 908.00) for ART patients. The mean annual direct medical costs for PMTCT and ART were US$9.78 (SD = US$78.58, median = US$0.00, range = US$0.00-US$ 90) and US$7.49 (SD = US$60.00, median = US$0.00) while mean annual direct non-medical cost for US$10.23 (SD = US$17.35, median = US$4.00) and US$11.23 (SD = US$25.22, median = US$6.00, range = US$0.00-US$ 360.00). The PMTCT and ART costs per visit based on time lost were US$3.53 (US$1.13 to US$8.69) and US$3.43 (US$1.14 to US$8.53), respectively. The mean annual patient costs per person for PMTCT and ART in this evaluation will impact household income since PMTCT and ART services in Zimbabwe are supposed to be free.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Infecções por HIV/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/economia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/economia , Zimbábue
20.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(3): 272-281, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present findings from the nationally representative Zimbabwe Population-based HIV Impact Assessment that characterize Zimbabwe's progress toward the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 90-90-90 targets. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional household survey. METHODS: Consenting adults and children in the household were eligible to participate in Zimbabwe Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (October 2015-August 2016). Participants completed face-to-face interviews and provided blood for HIV, CD4, viral load, and syphilis testing. Viral load suppression (VLS) was defined as HIV RNA <1000 copies/mL. HIV-positive specimens were tested for the presence of selected antiretroviral drugs. Data were weighted. Analysis was restricted to HIV-positive adults aged 15-64 years. RESULTS: We enrolled 11,098 men and 14,033 women aged 15-64 years. HIV prevalence was 14.1%. Of those living with HIV, 76.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.9 to 78.7) were aware of their HIV status or had detectable antiretroviral levels. Of these, 88.4% (95% CI: 87.1 to 89.7) were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), and of these people, 85.3% (95% CI: 83.4 to 87.1) had VLS. Male sex age 15-34 years and having 1 or more sexual partners were associated with being unaware of one's HIV-positive status. Age <50 years and not taking cotrimoxazole were associated with being less likely to be being both aware and taking ART. Male sex, age <50 years, and taking cotrimoxazole were associated with being on ART but not having VLS. CONCLUSIONS: Zimbabwe has made great strides toward epidemic control. Focusing resources on case finding, particularly among men, people aged <35 years, and sexually active individuals can help Zimbabwe attain 90-90-90 targets.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
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