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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238339, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278513

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi realizada para explorar a fauna de aranhas do vale Buner, em um estudo taxonômico realizado de fevereiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Para esse fim, foram coletadas amostras, quatro vezes por mês, a partir de 4 subdistritos: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan e Totalai. Foram utilizados dois métodos, coleta manual e rede de varredura, para a obtenção das amostras. Durante o dia e a noite, foram pesquisados ​​três habitats: área árida, área agrícola e área de construção. Foram coletadas 534 amostras de aranha em quatro locais de amostragem, sendo que 379 pertenciam à família Araneidae. Após a confirmação, as espécies identificadas pertenciam a 8 gêneros (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia e Poltys) e a 19 espécies (18 delas foram identificados em seu nível de espécie, enquanto uma única foi identificada em seu nível genérico). O gênero Neoscona foi dominante (26,31%), com 5 espécies, seguido pelos gêneros Argiope (21,05%), com 4 espécies, Cyclosa (15,78%), com 3 espécies, e Cyrtophora e Araneus (10,52%), com 2 espécies. Poltys e Larinia (5,26%) são os gêneros mais raros, representando a mesma espécie. A análise estatística mostrou que a riqueza de espécies (D) foi de 5,77, o índice de Simpson (1-D) foi de 0,87 e o índice de Shannon (H) foi de 2,33. A diversidade de aranhas foi distribuída uniformemente, e o valor calculado da uniformidade foi H / InS = 0,5408. Também existem poucas espécies atípicas, e o alfa de Fisher (Fisher α) estimou o valor de 4,42. Já Chao-1 estimou 22 espécies.

2.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770753

RESUMO

Marine-derived biowaste increment is enormous, yet could be converted into valuable biomaterial, e.g., hydroxyapatite-based bioceramic. Bioceramic material possesses superiority in terms of thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties. Bioceramic material also has a high level of biocompatibility when projected into biological tissues. Tuning the porosity of bioceramic material could also provide benefits for bioseparation application, i.e., ultrafiltration ceramic membrane filtration for food and dairy separation processes. This work presents the investigation of hydroxyapatite conversion from crab-shells marine-based biowaste, by comparing three different methods, i.e., microwave, coprecipitation, and sol-gel. The dried crab-shells were milled and calcinated as calcium precursor, then synthesized into hydroxyapatite with the addition of phosphates precursors via microwave, coprecipitation, or sol-gel. The compound and elemental analysis, degree of crystallinity, and particle shape were compared. The chemical compounds and elements from three different methods were similar, yet the degree of crystallinity was different. Higher Ca/P ratio offer benefit in producing a bioceramic ultrafiltration membrane, due to low sintering temperature. The hydroxyapatite from coprecipitation and sol-gel methods showed a significant degree of crystallinity compared with that of the microwave route. However, due to the presence of Fe and Sr impurities, the secondary phase of Ca9FeH(PO4)7 was found in the sol-gel method. The secondary phase compound has high absorbance capacity, an advantage for bioceramic ultrafiltration membranes. Furthermore, the sol-gel method could produce a snake-like shape, compared to the oval shape of the coprecipitation route, another benefit to fabricate porous bioceramic for a membrane filter.

3.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 27(6): 439-447, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This review addresses important practical questions facing clinicians regarding internet gaming disorder (IGD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and youth (C-Y). The authors investigated data concerning the risk that C-Y who have ADHD will develop IGD, whether effective treatment of ADHD positively influences the course of IGD in C-Y who have both, and other findings that might be of benefit to clinicians who treat C-Y with these conditions. METHODS: We conducted a literature review using 4 databases: PubMed, Scopus, PsychInfo, and Embase. RESULTS: C-Y with ADHD are at greater risk for developing IGD than those without ADHD. A close association exists between the severity of ADHD symptoms and the severity of IGD. It is unknown what proportion of C-Y with ADHD will develop IGD during their developmental trajectory; however, C-Y with IGD are at risk for developing ADHD, and ADHD can also increase the vulnerability of C-Y to IGD. Adolescents with ADHD and IGD have greater deficits in social skills than those with ADHD but no IGD. Lower parental occupational and socioeconomic status and poor family relationships are associated with more severe IGD symptoms. Atomoxetine and methylphenidate are equally effective in alleviating IGD symptoms comorbid with ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: C-Y with ADHD are at increased risk for developing IGD compared with C-Y without ADHD, but it has not been determined at what developmental stage IGD is likely to emerge. Since IGD and ADHD are strongly associated, it is imperative to consider ADHD as a significant risk factor for IGD and vice versa, which can help psychiatrists be alert for early signs of IGD and manage them accordingly.

4.
Pharmacotherapy ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662448

RESUMO

Data regarding the use of corticosteroids for treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are conflicting. As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic progresses, more literature supporting the use of corticosteroids for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS have emerged. Glucocorticoids are proposed to attenuate the inflammatory response and prevent progression to the fibroproliferative phase of ARDS through their multiple mechanisms and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this systematic review was to comprehensively evaluate the literature surrounding corticosteroid use in ARDS (non-COVID-19 and COVID-19) in addition to a narrative review of clinical considerations of corticosteroid use in these patient populations. OVID Medline and EMBASE were searched. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of corticosteroids for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS in adult patients on mortality outcomes were included. Risk of bias was assessed with the Risk of Bias 2.0 tool. There were 388 studies identified, 15 of which met the inclusion criteria that included a total of 8877 patients. The studies included in our review reported a mortality benefit in 6/15 (40%) studies with benefit being seen at varying time points of mortality follow-up (ICU survival, hospital, and 28 and 60 days) in the COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS studies. The two non-COVID19 trials assessing lung injury score improvements found that corticosteroids led to significant improvements with corticosteroid use. The number of mechanical ventilation-free days significantly were found to be increased with the use of corticosteroids in all four studies that assessed this outcome. Corticosteroids are associated with improvements in mortality and ventilator-free days in critically ill patients with both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS, and evidence suggests their use should be encouraged in these settings. However, due to substantial differences in the corticosteroid regimens utilized in these trials, questions still remain regarding the optimal corticosteroid agent, dose, and duration in patients with ARDS.

5.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-12, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546605

RESUMO

With a large number of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) patients being discharged from hospital with negative test results for SARS-CoV-2, it has been reported that several recovered cases tested positive after discharge (re-positive, RP). This finding has raised several important questions for this novel coronavirus and Covid-19 disease. In this review, we have discussed several important questions, including: (1) Can the virus re-infect recovered individuals? (2) What are the possible causes of the re-positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test in recovered patients? (3) What are the implications of these re-positive cases concerning the spread of the virus? Understanding how recovery from Covid-19 confers immunity to decrease the risk of re-infection is needed to inform current efforts to safely scale back population-based interventions, such as physical distancing. We have also described what is currently known about the immune response to Covid-19, highlighted key gaps in knowledge, and identified opportunities for future research. Overall, the quality of the evidence is poor and we describe the features that should be described for future cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Reinfecção/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adulto Jovem
6.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report the impact of burosumab on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and ambulatory function in adults with X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) through 96 weeks. METHODS: Adults diagnosed with XLH were randomised 1:1 in a double-blinded trial to receive subcutaneous burosumab 1 mg/kg or placebo every 4 weeks for 24 weeks (NCT02526160). Thereafter, all subjects received burosumab every 4 weeks until week 96. PROs were measured using the Western Ontario and the McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) and Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), and ambulatory function was measured with the 6 min walk test (6MWT). RESULTS: Subjects (N=134) were randomised to burosumab (n=68) or placebo (n=66) for 24 weeks. At baseline, subjects experienced pain, stiffness, and impaired physical and ambulatory function. At week 24, subjects receiving burosumab achieved statistically significant improvement in some BPI-SF scores, BFI worst fatigue (average and greatest) and WOMAC stiffness. At week 48, all WOMAC and BPI-SF scores achieved statistically significant improvement, with some WOMAC and BFI scores achieving meaningful and significant change from baseline. At week 96, all WOMAC, BPI-SF and BFI achieved statistically significant improvement, with selected scores in all measures also achieving meaningful change. Improvement in 6MWT distance and percent predicted were statistically significant at all time points from 24 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with XLH have substantial burden of disease as assessed by PROs and 6MWT. Burosumab treatment improved phosphate homoeostasis and was associated with a steady and consistent improvement in PROs and ambulatory function. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02526160.


Assuntos
Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
7.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; : 8919887211036188, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prior research suggests that restless leg syndrome (RLS) is prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD) with insufficient evidence to support the relationship between RLS, PD, and pain. This study explored the relationship between pain in PD patients and its association with the prevalence and severity of RLS. METHOD: 127 PD patients were assessed for PD and RLS using the U.K. Brain bank Criteria and the Restless Leg Syndrome diagnostic criteria, respectively. These patients were also assessed for pain perception and interference using the Brief Pain Inventory. RESULTS: The results demonstrated Parkinson's disease patients who reported pain scored 23 more Restless Leg Syndrome prevalence points (p < 0.05), and 8.5 counts higher for Restless Leg Syndrome severity (p < 0.05) compared to the group of Parkinson's disease patients denying pain. DISCUSSION: The presence of pain in PD patients indicated a higher RLS prevalence and an increased RLS severity. This finding suggests patients suffering from pain interference may experience more severe RLS symptoms. This demonstrates an inextricable link and association between pain in PD patients and RLS. Further robust investigations are required to elucidate any potential causative links, which can inform more holistic treatment principles.

9.
J Bone Miner Res ; 36(11): 2162-2176, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342378

RESUMO

The availability of anti-osteoporosis medications with rapid onset and high potency requires tools to identify patients at high imminent fracture risk (IFR). There are few tools that predict a patient's IFR. We aimed to develop and validate tools for patients with a recent fracture and for patients initiating oral bisphosphonate therapy. Models for two separate cohorts, those with incident fragility fracture (IFx) and with incident oral bisphosphonate prescription (OBP), were developed in primary care records from Spain (SIDIAP database), UK (Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD), and Denmark (Danish Health Registries). Separate models were developed for hip, major, and any fracture outcomes. Only variables present in all databases were included in Lasso regression models for the development and logistic regression models for external validation. Discrimination was tested using area under curve (AUC) and calibration was assessed using observed versus predicted risk plots stratified by age, sex, and previous fracture history. The development analyses included 35,526 individuals in the IFx and 41,401 in the OBP cohorts, with 671,094 in IFx and 330,256 in OBP for the validation analyses. Both the IFx and OBP models demonstrated similarly good performance for hip fracture at 1 year (with AUCs of 0.79 [95% CI 0.75 to 0.82] and 0.87 [0.83 to 0.91] in Spain, 0.71 [0.71 to 0.72] and 0.73 [0.72 to 0.74] in the UK, and 0.70 [0.70 to 0.70] and 0.69 [0.68 to 0.70] in Denmark), and lower discrimination for major osteoporotic and any fracture sites. Calibration was good across all three countries. Discrimination and calibration for the 2-year models was similar. The proposed IFR prediction models could be used to identify more precisely patients at high imminent risk of fracture and inform anti-osteoporosis treatment selection. The freely available model parameters permit local validation and implementation. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect with absent or diminutive primum defect is challenging because of atrial septal malposition and abnormal anatomy of the left atrioventricular valve. We sought to define the incidence, anatomy, and surgical outcomes of this entity. METHODS: We identified all patients in our institutional database presenting for complete atrioventricular septal defect repair from 2006 to 2018. Operative reports and echocardiograms were reviewed to determine the presence and size of the primum defect, atrioventricular valve anatomy, degree of atrioventricular valve regurgitation, repair method, and complications, including reoperation for atrioventricular valve regurgitation. Functionally univentricular patients and those receiving repair at an outside institution were excluded. RESULTS: Of 183 patients with complete atrioventricular septal defect, absent/diminutive primum defect occurred in 16 patients (8.7%; 10 absent, 6 diminutive). Six patients (38%) had leftward malposition of the atrium septum on the common atrioventricular valve. The rate of reoperation for left atrioventricular valve regurgitation was 31% (3 early, 2 late), for which preoperative predictors included leftward malposition of the atrial septum onto the common atrioventricular valve (4/6 patients with malposition required reoperation, P = .036, Fisher exact test). One patient exhibiting this risk factor died. The overall rate of moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation on the most recent postoperative echocardiogram was 13% (2/16 patients; median follow-up, 141 days; range, 3-2236 days). CONCLUSIONS: Complete atrioventricular septal defect with absent or diminutive primum defect is a unique variant of complete atrioventricular septal defect for which the risk of reoperation for left atrioventricular valve regurgitation after complete repair is high and risk factors include leftward malposition of the atrial septum on the common atrioventricular valve.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299679

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and cellular micronuclei in snuff dippers (Naswar) compared to healthy control subjects. The case control study was conducted over 9 months at a tertiary care center. Sixty patients were divided into two groups: Snuff dippers (SD) (Naswar) and non-snuff dippers (NSD) (control subjects). The included self-reported SD used Snuff twice daily for more than 12 months. UWS was collected and salivary TNF-α assessment was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For cellular micronuclei, buccal mucosa was brushed to obtain cells in Naswar users, fixed with a dibutylphthalate polystyrene xylene (DPX) mounting to view micronuclei. Means and standard deviations were compared using the t-test and outcomes were related using Pearson correlation, considering p ≤ 0.05 as significant. The mean age of participants was 38.85 ± 11.56 years. The mean duration of snuff use was 20.43 ± 12.79 years and the common site for Naswar placement was the lower vestibule (n = 19, 63.3%). TNF-α levels among SD were 9.6 ± 3.3 pg/mL, which were significantly higher than levels in NSD, 5.2 ± 3 pg/mL (p < 0.05). The number of cellular micronuclei in SD was 30.7 ± 7.8, which was comparatively higher than in NSD, which was 9.2 ± 3.3 (p < 0.05). The duration of snuff use was positively correlated to TNF-α levels (p = 0.048) rather than the micronuclei number (p = 0.97). SD showed higher levels of TNF-α and cellular micronuclei compared with NSD (control subjects); a positive correlation was shown with the duration of snuff use. We conclude that TNF-α and micronuclei are potential salivary biomarkers for an oral biological effect in snuff (Naswar) users.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Bucais , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Adulto , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
12.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238339, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161423

RESUMO

The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Paquistão
13.
Brain Circ ; 7(2): 85-91, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189351

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the young age (≤50 years) is a major cause of disability. The underlying mechanism of AIS in this age group is usually different from elderly. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is used to detect the potential cardiac sources of embolism in AIS patients. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TEE) is superior to detect specific underlying cardio-aortic source of embolism when compared to TTE. We aim to evaluate the diagnostic yield and therapeutic impact of TEE in AIS of young adults. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the consecutive patients with AIS in our comprehensive center in a 5-year period from our prospectively collected registry. We selected patients with age ≤50 years who had acute infarcts on brain magnetic resonance imaging or head computed tomography and underwent TEE as part of their diagnostic workup. Demographic details including, age, gender, body mass index, cardiovascular risk factors profile, and TEE findings were collected. RESULTS: Among a total 7,930 patients, 876 (11.04%) were found to be ≤50 years old. Among those, TEE was done in 113 patients (12.8%) in addition to TTE. Those who underwent TEE had a mean age of 40.4 ± 7.9 years, 60 were male (53%), 7 (6.2%) had a history of coronary artery disease, 38 (33%) had a history of diabetes, and 45 (40%) had a history of smoking. TEE showed new abnormal findings in a total of 15 patients (13.2%) that were not reported in their TTEs. Out of these, left atrial appendage thrombus was found in 5, infective endocarditis in 4, atrial septal aneurysms associated with patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 3, and spontaneous mobile echo density in three patients. Overall, new findings from TEE resulted in change in the secondary stroke prevention strategy in 14 patients of those who underwent TEE (12.3%). TEE also confirmed the presence of PFO, which was present on TTE with bubble study in 20 (17.6%) patients. CONCLUSION: TEE may provide additional information in the evaluation of the AIS in young adults, which could lead to change of the secondary stroke prevention strategy.

14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(10): 3923-3932, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109607

RESUMO

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has potentially conflicting roles in health and disease. COVID-19 coronavirus binds to human cells via ACE2 receptor, which is expressed on almost all body organs. Boosting the ACE2 receptor levels on heart and lung cells may provide more cellular enter to virus thereby worsening the infection. Therefore, among the drug targets, ACE2 is suggested as a vital target of COVID-19 therapy. This hypothesis is based on the protective role of the drugs acting on ACE2. Therefore, this review discusses the impact and challenges of using ACE2 as a target in the current therapy of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Antivirais/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/química , Alanina/metabolismo , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/química , Azitromicina/metabolismo , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/química , Hidroxicloroquina/metabolismo , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Vitamina D/química , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
15.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(7): 862-867, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 restricted student involvement in direct patient care. Virtual learning is an effective education strategy in pharmacy curriculums. This study aimed to evaluate student perceptions of virtual learning advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE) utilizing an electronic 12-question survey. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Virtual learning was developed and implemented, and students were surveyed at the end of the APPE. The survey was comprised of one open-ended and 11 Likert scale questions. It assessed implementation and use of virtual learning in place of a standard on-site APPE. FINDINGS: Responses were attained from 19 students. Questions regarding resources provided and virtual learning enabling autonomous, independent learning had the highest percent of strong agreement. No responses indicated strong disagreement. Three questions solicited >10% response rate of somewhat disagree, 16% associated with virtual learning helping the student become a better member of the healthcare team after graduation. Open-ended responses acknowledged appreciation of the virtual APPE and presented material. One in six students commented on the ability to apply the learned information to direct patient care. Feedback was delivered on consideration for increased utility of patient care-orientated applications to facilitate simulation of real-life patient cases. SUMMARY: Students who completed the virtual APPE were satisfied overall. Virtual teaching modalities may be incorporated into APPEs, particularly when direct patient care access is limited, but should not be used to completely replace the experience gained during direct patient care.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Competência Profissional , Estudantes de Farmácia , Humanos
16.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21257379

RESUMO

ObjectiveMultiple myeloma (MM)-related morbidity has a profound effect on quality of life (QoL), and immune function, but few studies have prospectively examined the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and attendant vaccination on both immunity and QoL of patients with MM. We aimed to characterise these effects in a prospective cohort study. DesignWe initiated a prospective national cohort study of patients with MM from start of the second wave of SARS CoV-2 infections in December 2020 and resultant COVID lockdown in the United Kingdom. We assessed current myeloma status, history of COVID19 symptoms, testing and vaccination including response using the rudystudy.org platform. In addition, healthcare resource use, mental and social well being and loneliness (Lubben scale) from the start of the COVID-19 pandemic were assessed. ParticipantsWe report data from the first one hundred and nine adults with MM who completed the questionnaires and the first round of blood testing in the cohort. ResultsFive patients (4.5%) had COVID-19 infection confirmed by history and/or testing (Nucleocapsid antibody). Up to 98% of patients shielded completely or partially during both waves of the pandemic, with 18% of patients consequently changing antimyeloma therapy in the shielding period. Using the Lubben scale, 21/99 (21.2 %) reported social isolation. Using HADS scale 23.1% of patients reported symptoms of mild to moderate anxiety or mild to moderate depression during this period. Humoral immune response (spike ab) tested 3 weeks after first vaccination was detected in 17/28 (60%) patients. ConclusionMyeloma patients shielded during waves of the pandemic with significant change to therapy, low level natural COVID-19 infection (4%) and social isolation. Humoral response following the first dose of COVID-19 vaccine is lower than that reported in non-myeloma cohorts. What is already known on this topicLimited published data exist on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on myeloma patients. Post first vaccine response in myeloma patients has been reported in a small number of patients from two studies ranging from 25 % to 56%. What this study addsThis study reports myeloma patients shielded during waves of the pandemic and demonstrates consequent significant social isolation and changes to therapy. Low level natural COVID-19 infection (4%) was noted in the study and humoral response following first dose of COVID-19 vaccine was lower than that reported in non-myeloma cohorts.

17.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e049763, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011603

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Substantial variation in the delivery of hip fracture care, and patient outcomes persists between hospitals, despite established UK national standards and guidelines. Patients' outcomes are partly explained by patient-level risk factors, but it is hypothesised that organisational-level factors account for the persistence of unwarranted variation in outcomes. The mixed-methods REducing unwarranted variation in the Delivery of high qUality hip fraCture services in England and Wales (REDUCE) study, aims to determine key organisational factors to target to improve patient care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Quantitative analysis will assess the outcomes of patients treated at 172 hospitals in England and Wales (2016-2019) using National Hip Fracture Database data combined with English Hospital Episodes Statistics; Patient Episode Database for Wales; Civil Registration (deaths) and multiple organisational-level audits to characterise each service provider. Statistical analyses will identify which organisational factors explain variation in patient outcomes, and typify care pathways with high-quality consistent patient outcomes. Documentary analysis of 20 anonymised British Orthopaedic Association hospital-initiated peer-review reports, and qualitative interviews with staff from four diverse UK hospitals providing hip fracture care, will identify barriers and facilitators to care delivery. The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a major challenge to the resilience of services and interviews will explore strategies used to adapt and innovate. This system-wide understanding will inform the development, in partnership with key national stakeholders, of an 'Implementation Toolkit' to inform and improve commissioning and delivery of hip fracture services. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved: quantitative study by London, City and East Research Ethics Committee (20/LO/0101); and qualitative study by Faculty of Health Sciences University of Bristol Research Ethics Committee (Ref: 108284), National Health Service (NHS) Health Research Authority (20/HRA/71) and each NHS Trust provided Research and Development approval. Findings will be disseminated through scientific conferences, peer-reviewed journals and online workshops.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina Estatal , Inglaterra , Humanos , Londres , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , País de Gales
18.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 62(4): 399-407, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time (prolonged CPBT; PCPBT) during operations for adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) may lead to worse postoperative outcomes, which could add a significant burden to hospitals in developing countries. This study aimed to identify risk factors and outcomes of PCPBT in patients undergoing operations for ACHD. METHODS: This retrospective study included all adult patients (≥18 years) who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass for their congenital heart defect from 2011-2016 at a tertiary-care private hospital in Pakistan. Prolonged CPBT was defined as CPBT>120 minutes (65th percentile). RESULTS: This study included 166 patients (53.6% males) with a mean age of 32.05±12.11 years. Comorbid disease was present in 59.0% of patients. Most patients underwent atrial septal defect repair (42.2%). A total of 58 (34.9%) of patients had a PCPBT. Postoperative complications occurred in 38.6% of patients. Multivariable analysis adjusted for age, gender and RACHS-1 Categories showed that mild preoperative left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was associated with PCPBT (OR=3.137 [95% CI: 1.003-9.818]), while obesity was found to be protective (0.346 [0.130-0.923]). PCPBT was also associated with a longer duration of ventilation (1.298 [1.005-1.676]), longer cardiac ICU stay (1.204 [1.061-1.367]) and longer hospital stay (1.120 [1.005-1.247]). CONCLUSIONS: While mild preoperative LV dysfunction was associated with PCPBT, obesity was found to be protective. Postoperatively, PCPBT was associated with longer duration of ventilation, cardiac ICU stay, and hospital stay. Operations with shorter CPBT may help minimize the occurrence and impact of these postoperative adverse outcomes especially in resource-constrained developing countries.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/economia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/economia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Pobreza , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(4): 2131-2145, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660833

RESUMO

The world is currently facing the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to a lack of specific treatment and prophylaxis, protective health measures that can reduce infection severity and COVID-19 mortality are urgently required. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency can be linked to an increased risk of viral infection, including COVID-19. Therefore, in this review, we looked at various possible roles of vitamin D in reducing the risk of COVID-19 infection and severity. We describe in this article that individuals at high risk of vitamin D deficiency should consider taking vitamin D supplements to keep optimal concentrations. Moreover, we discuss different possible mechanisms by which vitamin D can efficiently reduce the risk of infections through modulation of innate and adaptive immunity against various types of infections. It is advisable to perform further studies addressing the observed influence of vitamin D levels to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeito Espectador , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/transmissão , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/imunologia
20.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 4, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with high bone mass (HBM) have a greater odds of prevalent radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA), reflecting an association with bone-forming OA sub-phenotypes (e.g. osteophytosis, subchondral sclerosis). As the role of bone mineral density (BMD) in hip OA progression is unclear, we aimed to determine if individuals with HBM have increased incidence and/or progression of bone-forming OA sub-phenotypes. METHODS: We analysed an adult cohort with and without HBM (L1 and/or total hip BMD Z-score > + 3.2) with pelvic radiographs collected at baseline and 8-year follow-up. Sub-phenotypes were graded using the OARSI atlas. Superior/inferior acetabular/femoral osteophyte and medial/superior joint space narrowing (JSN) grades were summed and Δosteophyte and ΔJSN derived. Pain and functional limitations were quantified using the WOMAC questionnaire. Associations between HBM status and change in OA sub-phenotypes were determined using multivariable linear/logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, height, total body fat mass, follow-up time and baseline sub-phenotype grade. Generalised estimating equations accounted for individual-level clustering. RESULTS: Of 136 individuals, 62% had HBM at baseline, 72% were female and mean (SD) age was 59 (10) years. HBM was positively associated with both Δosteophytes and ΔJSN (adjusted mean grade differences between individuals with and without HBM ßosteophyte = 0.30 [0.01, 0.58], p = 0.019 and ßJSN = 0.10 [0.01, 0.18], p = 0.019). Incident subchondral sclerosis was rare. HBM individuals had higher WOMAC hip functional limitation scores (ß = 8.3 [0.7, 15.98], p = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: HBM is associated with the worsening of hip osteophytes and JSN over an average of 8 years, as well as increased hip pain and functional limitation.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Quadril , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Osteófito , Densidade Óssea , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteófito/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos
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