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1.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893976

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 2020 outbreak, a large body of data has been provided on general management and outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Yet, relatively little is known on characteristics and outcome of patients managed in Internal Medicine Units (IMU). To address this gap, the Italian Society of Internal Medicine has conducted a nationwide cohort multicentre study on death outcome in adult COVID-19 patients admitted and managed in IMU. This study assessed 3044 COVID-19 patients at 41 referral hospitals across Italy from February 3rd to May 8th 2020. Demographics, comorbidities, organ dysfunction, treatment, and outcomes including death were assessed. During the study period, 697 patients (22.9%) were transferred to intensive care units, and 351 died in IMU (death rate 14.9%). At admission, factors independently associated with in-hospital mortality were age (OR 2.46, p = 0.000), productive cough (OR 2.04, p = 0.000), pre-existing chronic heart failure (OR 1.58, p = 0.017) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 1.17, p = 0.048), the number of comorbidities (OR 1.34, p = 0.000) and polypharmacy (OR 1.20, p = 0.000). Of note, up to 40% of elderly patients did not report fever at admission. Decreasing PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission was strongly inversely associated with survival. The use of conventional oxygen supplementation increased with the number of pre-existing comorbidities, but it did not associate with better survival in patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 100. The latter, significantly benefited by the early use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Our study identified PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission and comorbidity as the main alert signs to inform clinical decisions and resource allocation in non-critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to IMU.

2.
J Nephrol ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia is commonly observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, a better understanding of the relationship among uric acid (UA) values, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria may shed light on the mechanisms underlying the excess of cardiovascular mortality associated with both chronic kidney disease and hyperuricemia and lead to better risk stratification. Our main goal was to study the relationships between serum uric acid and kidney disease measures (namely estimated GFR [eGFR] and albuminuria) in a large cohort of individuals at cardiovascular risk from the URic acid Right for heArt Health (URRAH) Project database. METHODS: Clinical data of 26,971 individuals were analyzed. Factors associated with the presence of hyperuricemia defined on the basis of previously determined URRAH cutoffs for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were evaluated through multivariate analysis. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and/or abnormal urinary albumin excretion diagnosed as: (i) microalbuminuria if urinary albumin concentration was > 30 and ≤ 300 mg/L, or if urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was > 3.4 mg/mmol and ≤ 34 mg/mmol; (ii) macroalbuminuria if urinary albumin concentration was > 300 mg/L, or if ACR was > 34 mg/mmol. RESULTS: Mean age was 58 ± 15 years (51% males, 62% with hypertension and 12% with diabetes), mean eGFR was 81 ml/min per 1.73m22with a prevalence of eGFR < 60 and micro- or macroalbuminuria of 16, 15 and 4%, respectively. Serum uric acid showed a trend towards higher values along with decreasing renal function. Both the prevalence of gout and the frequency of allopurinol use increased significantly with the reduction of eGFR and the increase in albuminuria. Hyperuricemia was independently related to male gender, eGFR strata, and signs of insulin resistance such as body mass index (BMI) and triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: The lower the eGFR the higher the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout. In subjects with eGFR < 60 ml/min the occurrence of hyperuricemia is about 10 times higher than in those with eGFR > 90 ml/min. The percentage of individuals treated with allopurinol was below 2% when GFR was above 60 ml/min, it increased to 20% in the presence of CKD 3b and rose further to 35% in individuals with macroalbuminuria.

3.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 28(2): 151-157, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544372

RESUMO

The approach to hypertensive emergiencies (HE) and urgencies (HU) may be different according to local clinical practice, despite recent guidelines and position papers recommendations. The Italian Society of Hypertension (Società Italiana della Ipertensione Arteriosa, SIIA) developed an online survey, in order to explore the awareness, management and treatment of HU in Italy, sending by e mail a 12 items questionnaire to the members of the SIIA. The results show that the definition of HU was correctly identified by 62% of the responders. Most physicians identified the role of pharmacological therapy or legal/illegal substances abuse as possible cause of BP elevation; the use of a benzodiazepine drugs was considered worthwhile by 65% of responders. The prescription of diagnostic test and drug administration significantly differed from guidelines recommendations and only 57% of the physicians reported to treat HU with oral drug administration. Sub-lingual nifedipine was prescribed by 13% or responders. This survey shows the need to further spread the updated scientific information on the management and treatment of HE and HU, along with the improvement of the interrelationship with the general practitioner health system in Italy.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Geral/tendências , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Emergências , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582757

RESUMO

AIMS : Whether the association between uric acid (UA) and cardiovascular disease is influenced by some facilitating factors is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the risk of cardiovascular mortality (CVM) associated with elevated UA was modulated by the level of resting heart rate (HR). METHODS AND RESULTS : Multivariable Cox analyses were made in 19 128 participants from the multicentre Uric acid Right for heArt Health study. During a median follow-up of 11.2 years, there were 1381 cases of CVM. In multivariable Cox models both UA and HR, either considered as continuous or categorical variables were independent predictors of CVM both improving risk discrimination (P ≤ 0.003) and reclassification (P < 0.0001) over a multivariable model. However, the risk of CVM related to high UA (≥5.5 mg/dL, top tertile) was much lower in the subjects with HR

5.
Hypertens Res ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518714

RESUMO

Left atrial enlargement (LAe) is a subclinical marker of hypertensive-mediated organ damage, which is important to identify in cardiovascular risk stratification. Recently, LA indexing for height was suggested as a more accurate marker of defining LAe. Our aim was to test the difference in LAe prevalence using body surface area (BSA) and height2 definitions in an essential hypertensive population. A total of 441 essential hypertensive patients underwent complete clinical and echocardiographic evaluation. Left atrial volume (LAV), left ventricular morphology, and systolic-diastolic function were evaluated. LAe was twice as prevalent when defined using height2 (LAeh2) indexation rather than BSA (LAeBSA) (51% vs. 23%, p < 0.001). LAeh2, but not LAeBSA, was more prevalent in females (p < 0.001). Males and females also differed in left ventricular hypertrophy (p = 0.046) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) indexes (septal Em/Etdi: p = 0.009; lateral Em/Etdi: p = 0.003; mean Em/Etdi: p < 0.002). All patients presenting LAeBSA also met the criteria for LAeh2. According to the presence/absence of LAe, we created three groups (Norm = BSA-/h2-; DilH = BSA-/h2+; DilHB = BSA+/h2+). The female sex prevalence in the DilH group was higher than that in the other two groups (Norm: p < 0.001; DilHB: p = 0.036). LVH and mean and septal Em/Etdi increased from the Norm to the DilH group and from the DilH to the DilHB group (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). These results show that LAeh2 identified twice as many patients as comparing LAe to LAeBSA, but that both LAeh2 and LAeBSA definitions were associated with LVH and LVDD. In female patients, the LAeh2 definition and its sex-specific threshold seem to be more sensitive than LAeBSA in identifying chamber enlargement.

6.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604722

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Serum uric acid (SUA) has been depicted as a contributory causal factor in metabolic syndrome (MS), which in turn, portends unfavourable prognosis. AIM: We assessed the prognostic role of SUA in patients with and without MS. METHODS: We used data from the multicentre Uric Acid Right for Heart Health study and considered cardiovascular mortality (CVM) as death due to fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden cardiac death, or heart failure. RESULTS: A total of 9589 subjects (median age 58.5 years, 45% males) were included in the analysis, and 5100 (53%) patients had a final diagnosis of MS. After a median follow-up of 142 months, we observed 558 events. Using a previously validated cardiovascular SUA cut-off to predict CVM (> 5.1 mg/dL in women and 5.6 mg/dL in men), elevated SUA levels were significantly associated to a worse outcome in patients with and without MS (all p < 0.0001) and provided a significant net reclassification improvement of 7.1% over the diagnosis of MS for CVM (p = 0.004). Cox regression analyses identified an independent association between SUA and CVM (Hazard Ratio: 1.79 [95% CI, 1.15-2.79]; p < 0.0001) after the adjustment for MS, its single components and renal function. Three specific combinations of the MS components were associated with higher CVM when increasing SUA levels were reported, and systemic hypertension was the only individual component ever-present (all p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Increasing SUA levels are associated with a higher CVM risk irrespective of the presence of MS: a cardiovascular SUA threshold may improve risk stratification.

8.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 28(1): 5-11, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471297

RESUMO

The COVID-19 infection has rapidly spread around the world and a second wave is sweeping in many countries. Different clinical and epidemiological aspects characterize the disease and their understanding is necessary to better face the management of the pandemic in progress. The Italian society of arterial hypertension with the SARS-RAS study has contributed significantly to the knowledge of the interaction between inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system and COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, the study results help to understand some of the main aspects related to mortality and morbidity deriving from the infection through a multicentre analysis throughout the national territory.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , /mortalidade , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although the relationship between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular events has been extensively examined, data on the role of diuretic-related hyperuricemia are still scanty. The present study was designed to collect information on the relationship between diuretic-related hyperuricemia and cardiovascular events. METHODS: The URic acid Right for heArt Health (URRAH) study is a nationwide, multicentre, observational cohort study involving data on individuals recruited from all the Italy territory under the patronage of the Italian Society of Hypertension with an average follow-up period of 122.3 ±â€Š66.9 months. Patients were classified into four groups according to the diuretic use (yes vs. no) and serum uric acid (SUA) levels (higher vs. lower than the median value of 4.8 mg/dl). All-cause death, cardiovascular deaths and first cardiovascular event were considered as outcomes. RESULTS: Seventeen thousand, seven hundred and forty-seven individuals were included in the analysis. Mean age was 57.1 ±â€Š15.2 years, men were 45.3% and SBP and DBP amounted to 144.1 ±â€Š24.6 and 85.2 ±â€Š13.2 mmHg. 17.2% of individuals take diuretics of whom 58% had SUA higher than median value. Patients with hyperuricemia without diuretic use served as reference group. In multivariate adjusted analysis (sex, age, SBP, BMI, glucose, total cholesterol, and glomerular filtration rate) individuals with hyperuricemia and diuretic use exhibit a similar risk for the three outcomes as compared with the reference group. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that diuretic-related hyperuricemia carry a similar risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality when compared with individuals that present hyperuricemia in absence of diuretic therapy.

10.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The burst of COVID-19 epidemics in Italy prompted the Italian Society of Hypertension to start an observational study to explore the characteristics of the hospitalized victims of the disease. The current analysis aimed to investigate the predictors of healing among Italian COVID-19 patients. We also assessed the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers on the outcome. METHODS: We designed a cross-sectional, observational, multicenter, nationwide survey in Italy to explore the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. We analyzed information from 2446 charts of Italian patients admitted for certified COVID-19 in 27 hospitals. Healing from COVID-19 infection, defined as two consecutive negative swabs, was reported in 544 patients (22.2%), 95% of them were hospitalized. RESULTS: Age and Charlson Comorbidity Index were significantly lower in healing compared with nonhealing patients (63 ±â€Š15 vs. 69 ±â€Š15 and 2 ±â€Š2 vs. 3 ±â€Š2, both P < 0.05). In multivariable regression model, predictors of healing were younger age (OR: 0.99; 95% CI 0.98-0.99, P = 0.0001), absence of chronic kidney disease (OR: 0.35; 95% CI 0.17-0.70, P = 0.003) or heart failure (OR: 0.44; 95% CI, 0.28-0.70, P = 0.001). In the subgroup of patients suffering from hypertension and/or heart failure (n = 1498), no differences were observed in the use of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that younger age and absence of comorbidities play a major role in determining healing in patients with COVID-19. No effects of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers on the outcome was reported.

11.
Front Immunol ; 11: 584241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178218

RESUMO

Background: Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a profound hypercoagulable state and often develop coagulopathy which leads to organ failure and death. Because of a prolonged activated partial-thromboplastin time (aPTT), a relationship with anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPLs) has been proposed, but results are controversial. Functional assays for aPL (i.e., lupus anticoagulant) can be influenced by concomitant anticoagulation and/or high levels of C reactive protein. The presence of anti-cardiolipin (aCL), anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-ß2GPI), and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) antibodies was not investigated systematically. Epitope specificity of anti-ß2GPI antibodies was not reported. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and the clinical association of aPL in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients, and to characterize the epitope specificity of anti-ß2GPI antibodies. Methods: ELISA and chemiluminescence assays were used to test 122 sera of patients suffering from severe COVID-19. Of them, 16 displayed major thrombotic events. Results: Anti-ß2GPI IgG/IgA/IgM was the most frequent in 15.6/6.6/9.0% of patients, while aCL IgG/IgM was detected in 5.7/6.6% by ELISA. Comparable values were found by chemiluminescence. aPS/PT IgG/IgM were detectable in 2.5 and 9.8% by ELISA. No association between thrombosis and aPL was found. Reactivity against domain 1 and 4-5 of ß2GPI was limited to 3/58 (5.2%) tested sera for each domain and did not correlate with aCL/anti-ß2GPI nor with thrombosis. Conclusions: aPL show a low prevalence in COVID-19 patients and are not associated with major thrombotic events. aPL in COVID-19 patients are mainly directed against ß2GPI but display an epitope specificity different from antibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome.

12.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160790

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Early risk stratification of septic patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) is challenging. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic role of plasmatic sodium level (PNa+) derangements at ED presentation in septic patients. METHODS: According to PNa+ at ED presentation patients were divided in eunatremic (136-145 mEq/L), hypernatremic (>145 mEq/L) and hyponatremic (<136 mEq/L). Hyponatremic patients were subsequently divided in mild (130-135 mEq/L), moderate (125-129 mEq/L) and severe (<125 mEq/L). 7 and 30-day mortality was evaluated according to PNa+ derangements and the degree of hyponatremia. The same analysis was then performed only in respiratory tract infection-related (RTI-r) sepsis patients. RESULTS: 879 septic patients were included in this analysis, 40.3% had hyponatremia, 5.7% hypernatremia. Hypernatremia showed higher mortality rates at both endpoints compared to eunatremia and hyponatremia (p<0.0001 for both). Eunatremia and mild hyponatremia were compared vs. moderate-to-severe hyponatremia showing a significant difference in terms of 7 and 30-day survival (p = 0.004 and p = 0.007, respectively). The Cox proportional model identified as independent predictors of 7 and 30-day mortality moderate-to-severe hyponatremia (HR 4.89[2.38-10.03] and 1.79[1.07-3.01], respectively) and hypernatremia (HR 3.52[1.58-7.82] and 2.14[1.17-3.92], respectively). The same analysis was performed in patients with respiratory tract infection-related sepsis (n = 549), with similar results. CONCLUSION: Both hypernatremia and moderate-to-severe hyponatremia at ED presentation independently predict mortality in septic patients, allowing early risk stratification and suggesting more aggressive therapeutic strategies.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237297, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission during the COVID-19 pandemic varies within countries and is among the main challenges for health care systems worldwide. Conflicting results have been reported about the response to coronavirus infection and COVID-19 outcomes in men and women. Understanding predictors of intensive care unit admission might be of help for future planning and management of the disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We designed a cross-sectional observational multicenter nationwide survey in Italy to understand gender-related clinical predictors of ICU admission in patients with COVID-19. We analyzed information from 2378 charts of Italian patients certified for COVID-19 admitted in 26 hospitals. Three hundred ninety-five patients (16.6%) required ICU admission due to COVID19 infection, more frequently men (74%), with a higher prevalence of comorbidities (1,78±0,06 vs 1,54±0,03 p<0.05). In multivariable regression model main predictors of admission to ICU are male gender (OR 1,74 95% CI 1,36-2,22 p<0.0001) and presence of obesity (OR 2,88 95% CI 2,03-4,07 p<0.0001), chronic kidney disease (OR: 1,588; 95%, 1,036-2,434 p<0,05) and hypertension (OR: 1,314; 95% 1,039-1,662; p<0,05). In gender specific analysis, obesity, chronic kidney disease and hypertension are associated with higher rate of admission to ICU among men, whereas in women, obesity (OR: 2,564; 95% CI 1,336-4.920 p<0.0001) and heart failure (OR: 1,775 95% CI: 1,030-3,057) are associated with higher rate of ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that gender is the primary determinant of the disease's severity among COVID-19. Obesity is the condition more often observed among those admitted to ICU within both genders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04331574.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Admissão do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipertensão , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 405, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab blocks pro-inflammatory activity of interleukin-6 (IL-6), involved in pathogenesis of pneumonia the most frequent cause of death in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A multicenter, single-arm, hypothesis-driven trial was planned, according to a phase 2 design, to study the effect of tocilizumab on lethality rates at 14 and 30 days (co-primary endpoints, a priori expected rates being 20 and 35%, respectively). A further prospective cohort of patients, consecutively enrolled after the first cohort was accomplished, was used as a secondary validation dataset. The two cohorts were evaluated jointly in an exploratory multivariable logistic regression model to assess prognostic variables on survival. RESULTS: In the primary intention-to-treat (ITT) phase 2 population, 180/301 (59.8%) subjects received tocilizumab, and 67 deaths were observed overall. Lethality rates were equal to 18.4% (97.5% CI: 13.6-24.0, P = 0.52) and 22.4% (97.5% CI: 17.2-28.3, P < 0.001) at 14 and 30 days, respectively. Lethality rates were lower in the validation dataset, that included 920 patients. No signal of specific drug toxicity was reported. In the exploratory multivariable logistic regression analysis, older age and lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio negatively affected survival, while the concurrent use of steroids was associated with greater survival. A statistically significant interaction was found between tocilizumab and respiratory support, suggesting that tocilizumab might be more effective in patients not requiring mechanical respiratory support at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab reduced lethality rate at 30 days compared with null hypothesis, without significant toxicity. Possibly, this effect could be limited to patients not requiring mechanical respiratory support at baseline. Registration EudraCT (2020-001110-38); clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04317092).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Uso Off-Label , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
15.
Cancer ; 126(23): 5069-5076, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are considered highly vulnerable to the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there are still few data on COVID-19 occurring in hematologic patients. METHODS: One hundred two patients with COVID-19 symptoms and a nasopharyngeal swab positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 seen at 2 hematologic departments located in Lombardy, Italy, during March 2020 were studied. Risk factors for acquiring COVID-19 were analyzed by comparisons of patients with COVID-19 and the standard hematologic population managed at the same institutions in 2019. Thirty-day survival was compared with the survival of matched uninfected control patients with similar hematologic disorders and nonhematologic patients affected by COVID-19. RESULTS: Male sex was significantly more prevalent in patients with COVID-19. The infection occurred across all different types of hematologic disease; however, the risk of acquiring a COVID-19 infection was lower for patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including chronic myeloid leukemia, and higher for patients with immune-mediated anemia on immunosuppressive-related treatments. The 30-day mortality rate was 39.2%, which was higher than the rates for nonhematologic patients with COVID-19 (23.5%; P = .02) and uninfected hematologic controls (3%; P < .001). The severity of the respiratory syndrome at presentation and active hematologic treatment were independently associated with a worse prognosis. Neither diagnosis nor disease status affected the prognosis. The worst prognosis was demonstrated among patients on active hematologic treatment and those with more severe respiratory syndrome at COVID-19 presentation. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, patients should be advised to seek medical attention at the earliest signs of dyspnea and/or respiratory infection. Physicians should perform a risk-benefit analysis to determine the impact of temporarily deferring nonlifesaving treatments versus the risk of adverse outcomes associated with COVID-19. LAY SUMMARY: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection occurs across all different types of hematologic disease; however, the risk of acquiring it is lower for patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including chronic myeloid leukemia, and higher for patients with immune-mediated anemia on immunosuppressive treatment. The 30-day mortality rate is 39.2%, which is far higher than the rates for both uninfected hematologic controls (3%; P < .001) and nonhematologic patients with COVID-19 (23.5%; P = .02) despite matching for age, sex, comorbidities, and severity of disease. Variables independently associated with a worse prognosis are the severity of the respiratory syndrome at presentation and any type of active hematologic treatment. Neither diagnosis nor disease status influence the prognosis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/virologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Available data indicate that patients with primary aldosteronism have an increased risk of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risk seems to be, at least in part, independent of blood pressure (BP) values. Patients with primary aldosteronism have a greater prevalence of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and subtle alterations of ventricular function, which might contribute to the increase in cardiovascular risk. Recently, a noninvasive approach for the estimation of LV mechanical efficiency, obtained by echocardiography has been proposed. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the determinants of myocardial mechanoenergetic efficiency index (MEEi), in a large group of patients with primary aldosteronism (n = 99) and in a control group of essential hypertensive patients (n = 99) matched for age, sex and BP values. RESULTS: No differences between groups for age, sex, BMI, BP values, glucose, lipid profile and renal function were observed. LV mass index was greater in primary aldosteronism vs. essential hypertensive patients (46.0 ±â€Š16.7 vs. 36.9 ±â€Š8.6 g/m, P < 0.001); also relative wall thickness was greater in primary aldosteronism (0.36 ±â€Š0.1 vs. 0.32 ±â€Š0.4, P < 0.001). Left atrial dimensions were significantly greater in primary aldosteronism. Ejection fraction was not different between groups, while endocardial and midwall fractional shortening were lower in primary aldosteronism vs. essential hypertensive patients (40 ±â€Š7 vs. 43 ±â€Š6, and 18 ±â€Š3 vs. 21 ±â€Š2, both P < 0.01). MEEi was lower in primary aldosteronism vs. essential hypertensive patients (0.44 ±â€Š0.14 vs. 0.52 ±â€Š0.10 ml/s per g, P < 0.01). A negative correlation was observed between MEEi and aldosterone levels (r = -0.203, P < 0.05) and aldosterone : renin ratio (P = -0.172, P < 0.05); the correlation remained significant after adjustment for possible confounders. CONCLUSION: In patients with primary aldosteronism myocardial MEEi is lower as compared with essential hypertensive patients. A reduced MEEi may reflect an impairment of production and utilization of energy in the myocardium, which could lead to the occurrence of cardiovascular complications and therefore these findings may contribute to explain the increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with primary aldosteronism.

17.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(7)2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698424

RESUMO

The most dreaded thoracic complications in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are acute pulmonary embolism and pulmonary fibrosis. Both the complications are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. While acute pulmonary embolism is not a rare finding in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, the prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis remains unclear. Spontaneous pneumothorax is another possible complication in COVID-19 pneumonia, although its observation is rather uncommon. Herein, we present interesting computed tomography images of the first case of COVID-19 pneumonia that initially developed acute pulmonary embolism and subsequently showed progression toward pulmonary fibrosis and spontaneous pneumothorax.

18.
Bioanalysis ; 12(17): 1223-1230, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573254

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 emergency has created an enormous stress on providers that have been transformed into coronavirus disease hospitals. This article presents the experience of the clinical laboratory of Spedali Civili in Brescia (a teaching hospital in Lombardy with over 1500 beds) in managing the crisis, and to offer practical considerations for laboratory testing for this cohort of patients. Our contribution is threefold: by comparing the demand for tests in two representative period before and within the crisis, we show the change in compositions of the analytes that other labs may expect; we present the new panels of tests that hospital staff can order with different advantage for wards and laboratory; and we show how to reorganize staff on the basis of changes mentioned above.


Assuntos
Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Ferritinas/sangue , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Urinálise
19.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a profound hypercoagulable state and often develop coagulopathy which leads to organ failure and death. Because of a prolonged activated partial-thromboplastin time (aPTT), a relationship with anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) has been proposed, but results are controversial. Functional assays for aPL (i.e., lupus anticoagulant) can be influenced by concomitant anticoagulation and/or high levels of C reactive protein. The presence of anti-cardiolipin (aCL), anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-ß 2 GPI and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) antibodies was not investigated systematically. Epitope specificity of anti-ß 2 GPI antibodies was not reported. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and the clinical association of aPL in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients, and to characterize the epitope specificity of anti-ß 2 GPI antibodies. METHODS: ELISA and chemiluminescence assays were used to test 122 sera of patients suffering from severe COVID-19. Of them, 16 displayed major thrombotic events. RESULTS: Anti-ß 2 GPI IgG/IgA/IgM were the most frequent in 15.6/6.6/9.0% of patients, while aCL IgG/IgM were detected in 5.7/6.6% by ELISA. Comparable values were found by chemiluminescence. aPS/PT IgG/IgM were detectable in 2.5 and 9.8% by ELISA. No association between thrombosis and aPL was found. Reactivity against domain 1 and 4-5 of ß 2 GPI was limited to 3/58 (5.2%) tested sera for each domain and did not correlate with aCL/anti-ß 2 GPI nor with thrombosis. CONCLUSION: aPL show a low prevalence in COVID-19 patients and are not associated with major thrombotic events. aPL in COVID-19 patients are mainly directed against ß 2 GPI but display an epitope specificity different from antibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome.

20.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(7): 102568, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376398

RESUMO

A hyperinflammatory syndrome (HIS) may cause a life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. A prospective series of 100 consecutive patients admitted to the Spedali Civili University Hospital in Brescia (Italy) between March 9th and March 20th with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia and ARDS requiring ventilatory support was analyzed to determine whether intravenous administration of tocilizumab (TCZ), a monoclonal antibody that targets the interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor, was associated with improved outcome. Tocilizumab was administered at a dosage of 8 mg/kg by two consecutive intravenous infusions 12 h apart. A third infusion was optional based on clinical response. The outcome measure was an improvement in acute respiratory failure assessed by means of the Brescia COVID Respiratory Severity Score (BCRSS 0 to 8, with higher scores indicating higher severity) at 24-72 h and 10 days after tocilizumab administration. Out of 100 treated patients (88 M, 12 F; median age: 62 years), 43 received TCZ in the intensive care unit (ICU), while 57 in the general ward as no ICU beds were available. Of these 57 patients, 37 (65%) improved and suspended noninvasive ventilation (NIV) (median BCRSS: 1 [IQR 0-2]), 7 (12%) patients remained stable in NIV, and 13 (23%) patients worsened (10 died, 3 were admitted to ICU). Of the 43 patients treated in the ICU, 32 (74%) improved (17 of them were taken off the ventilator and were discharged to the ward), 1 (2%) remained stable (BCRSS: 5) and 10 (24%) died (all of them had BCRSS≥7 before TCZ). Overall at 10 days, the respiratory condition was improved or stabilized in 77 (77%) patients, of whom 61 showed a significant clearing of diffuse bilateral opacities on chest x-ray and 15 were discharged from the hospital. Respiratory condition worsened in 23 (23%) patients, of whom 20 (20%) died. All the patients presented with lymphopenia and high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, ferritin and IL-6 indicating a HIS. During the 10-day follow-up, three cases of severe adverse events were recorded: two patients developed septic shock and died, one had gastrointestinal perforation requiring urgent surgery and was alive at day 10. In conclusion, our series showed that COVID-19 pneumonia with ARDS was characterized by HIS. The response to TCZ was rapid, sustained, and associated with significant clinical improvement.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , /tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , /virologia
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