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Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 25: 237-250, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458008


Gene editing via homology-directed repair (HDR) currently comprises the best strategy to obtain perfect corrections for pathogenic mutations of monogenic diseases, such as the severe recessive dystrophic form of the blistering skin disease epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). Limitations of this strategy, in particular low efficiencies and off-target effects, hinder progress toward clinical applications. However, the severity of RDEB necessitates the development of efficient and safe gene-editing therapies based on perfect repair. To this end, we sought to assess the corrective efficiencies following optimal Cas9 nuclease and nickase-based COL7A1-targeting strategies in combination with single- or double-stranded donor templates for HDR at the COL7A1 mutation site. We achieved HDR-mediated correction efficiencies of up to 21% and 10% in primary RDEB keratinocytes and fibroblasts, respectively, as analyzed by next-generation sequencing, leading to full-length type VII collagen restoration and accurate deposition within engineered three-dimensional (3D) skin equivalents (SEs). Extensive on- and off-target analyses confirmed that the combined treatment of paired nicking and single-stranded oligonucleotides constituted a highly efficient COL7A1-editing strategy, associated with a significantly improved safety profile. Our findings, therefore, represent a further advancement in the field of traceless genome editing for genodermatoses.

Theranostics ; 11(17): 8430-8447, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373751


Self-assembly of solid organs from single cells would greatly expand applicability of regenerative medicine. Stem/progenitor cells can self-organize into micro-sized organ units, termed organoids, partially modelling tissue function and regeneration. Here we demonstrated 3D self-assembly of adult and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived fibroblasts, keratinocytes and endothelial progenitors into both, planar human skin in vivo and a novel type of spheroid-shaped skin organoids in vitro, under the aegis of human platelet lysate. Methods: Primary endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), skin fibroblasts (FBs) and keratinocytes (KCs) were isolated from human tissues and polyclonally propagated under 2D xeno-free conditions. Human tissue-derived iPSCs were differentiated into endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs), fibroblasts (hiPSC-FBs) and keratinocytes (hiPSC-KCs) according to efficiency-optimized protocols. Cell identity and purity were confirmed by flow cytometry and clonogenicity indicated their stem/progenitor potential. Triple cell type floating spheroids formation was promoted by human platelet-derived growth factors containing culture conditions, using nanoparticle cell labelling for monitoring the organization process. Planar human skin regeneration was assessed in full-thickness wounds of immune-deficient mice upon transplantation of hiPSC-derived single cell suspensions. Results: Organoids displayed a distinct architecture with surface-anchored keratinocytes surrounding a stromal core, and specific signaling patterns in response to inflammatory stimuli. FGF-7 mRNA transfection was required to accelerate keratinocyte long-term fitness. Stratified human skin also self-assembled within two weeks after either adult- or iPSC-derived skin cell-suspension liquid-transplantation, healing deep wounds of mice. Transplant vascularization significantly accelerated in the presence of co-transplanted endothelial progenitors. Mechanistically, extracellular vesicles mediated the multifactorial platelet-derived trophic effects. No tumorigenesis occurred upon xenografting. Conclusion: This illustrates the superordinate progenitor self-organization principle and permits novel rapid 3D skin-related pharmaceutical high-content testing opportunities with floating spheroid skin organoids. Multi-cell transplant self-organization facilitates development of iPSC-based organ regeneration strategies using cell suspension transplantation supported by human platelet factors.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(16): 4158-4163, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618609


Current strategies used to quantitatively describe the biological diversity of lipids by mass spectrometry are often limited in assessing the exact structural variability of individual molecular species in detail. A major challenge is represented by the extensive isobaric overlap present among lipids, hampering their accurate identification. This is especially true for cardiolipins, a mitochondria-specific class of phospholipids, which are functionally involved in many cellular functions, including energy metabolism, cristae structure, and apoptosis. Substituted with four fatty acyl side chains, cardiolipins offer a particularly high potential to achieve complex mixtures of molecular species. Here, we demonstrate how systematically generated high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectral data can be utilized in a mathematical structural modeling approach, to comprehensively analyze and characterize the molecular diversity of mitochondrial cardiolipin compositions in cell culture and disease models, cardiolipin modulation experiments, and a broad variety of frequently studied model organisms.

Cardiolipinas/química , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Membranas Mitocondriais/química , Animais , Bactérias/química , Síndrome de Barth/metabolismo , Cardiolipinas/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fibroblastos/química , Fungos/química , Humanos , Lipídeos de Membrana/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Plantas/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vertebrados/metabolismo