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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4679, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616000

RESUMO

Postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Here, we present detailed clinical and genetic data for 20 patients with likely gene-disrupting mutations in TANC2-whose protein product interacts with multiple PSD proteins. Pediatric patients with disruptive mutations present with autism, intellectual disability, and delayed language and motor development. In addition to a variable degree of epilepsy and facial dysmorphism, we observe a pattern of more complex psychiatric dysfunction or behavioral problems in adult probands or carrier parents. Although this observation requires replication to establish statistical significance, it also suggests that mutations in this gene are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders consistent with its postsynaptic function. We find that TANC2 is expressed broadly in the human developing brain, especially in excitatory neurons and glial cells, but shows a more restricted pattern in Drosophila glial cells where its disruption affects behavioral outcomes.

2.
Epilepsy Res ; 156: 106181, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394400

RESUMO

Infantile spasms (IS) is a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with heterogeneous etiologies including many genetic causes. Genetic studies have identified pathogenic variants in over 30 genes as causes of IS. Many of these genetic causes are extremely rare, with only one reported incidence in an individual with IS. To better understand the genetic landscape of IS, we used targeted sequencing to screen 42 candidate IS genes and 53 established developmental and epileptic encephalopathy genes in 92 individual with IS. We identified a genetic diagnosis for 7.6% of our cohort, including pathogenic variants in KCNB1 (n = 2), GNAO1 (n = 1), STXBP1 (n = 1), SLC35A2 (n = 1), TBL1XR1 (n = 1), and KIF1A (n = 1). Our data emphasize the genetic heterogeneity of IS and will inform the diagnosis and management of individuals with this devastating disorder.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3094, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300657

RESUMO

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated channels made up of combinations of GluA1-4 subunits encoded by GRIA1-4 genes. GluA2 has an especially important role because, following post-transcriptional editing at the Q607 site, it renders heteromultimeric AMPARs Ca2+-impermeable, with a linear relationship between current and trans-membrane voltage. Here, we report heterozygous de novo GRIA2 mutations in 28 unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID) and neurodevelopmental abnormalities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Rett syndrome-like features, and seizures or developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In functional expression studies, mutations lead to a decrease in agonist-evoked current mediated by mutant subunits compared to wild-type channels. When GluA2 subunits are co-expressed with GluA1, most GRIA2 mutations cause a decreased current amplitude and some also affect voltage rectification. Our results show that de-novo variants in GRIA2 can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, complementing evidence that other genetic causes of ID, ASD and DEE also disrupt glutamatergic synaptic transmission.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Mutação com Perda de Função , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 319-330, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639322

RESUMO

ZMIZ1 is a coactivator of several transcription factors, including p53, the androgen receptor, and NOTCH1. Here, we report 19 subjects with intellectual disability and developmental delay carrying variants in ZMIZ1. The associated features include growth failure, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, and various other congenital malformations. Of these 19, 14 unrelated subjects carried de novo heterozygous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) or single-base insertions/deletions, 3 siblings harbored a heterozygous single-base insertion, and 2 subjects had a balanced translocation disrupting ZMIZ1 or involving a regulatory region of ZMIZ1. In total, we identified 13 point mutations that affect key protein regions, including a SUMO acceptor site, a central disordered alanine-rich motif, a proline-rich domain, and a transactivation domain. All identified variants were absent from all available exome and genome databases. In vitro, ZMIZ1 showed impaired coactivation of the androgen receptor. In vivo, overexpression of ZMIZ1 mutant alleles in developing mouse brains using in utero electroporation resulted in abnormal pyramidal neuron morphology, polarization, and positioning, underscoring the importance of ZMIZ1 in neural development and supporting mutations in ZMIZ1 as the cause of a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome.

6.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245509

RESUMO

PURPOSE: TANGO2-related disorders were first described in 2016 and prior to this publication, only 15 individuals with TANGO2-related disorder were described in the literature. Primary features include metabolic crisis with rhabdomyolysis, encephalopathy, intellectual disability, seizures, and cardiac arrhythmias. We assess whether genotype and phenotype of TANGO2-related disorder has expanded since the initial discovery and determine the efficacy of exome sequencing (ES) as a diagnostic tool for detecting variants. METHODS: We present a series of 14 individuals from 11 unrelated families with complex medical and developmental histories, in whom ES or microarray identified compound heterozygous or homozygous variants in TANGO2. RESULTS: The initial presentation of patients with TANGO2-related disorders can be variable, including primarily neurological presentations. We expand the phenotype and genotype for TANGO2, highlighting the variability of the disorder. CONCLUSION: TANGO2-related disorders can have a more diverse clinical presentation than previously anticipated. We illustrate the utility of routine ES data reanalysis whereby discovery of novel disease genes can lead to a diagnosis in previously unsolved cases and the need for additional copy-number variation analysis when ES is performed.

8.
Brain ; 2018 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29365063

RESUMO

Polymicrogyria is a malformation of cortical development. The aetiology of polymicrogyria remains poorly understood. Using whole-exome sequencing we found de novo heterozygous missense GRIN1 mutations in 2 of 57 parent-offspring trios with polymicrogyria. We found nine further de novo missense GRIN1 mutations in additional cortical malformation patients. Shared features in the patients were extensive bilateral polymicrogyria associated with severe developmental delay, postnatal microcephaly, cortical visual impairment and intractable epilepsy. GRIN1 encodes GluN1, the essential subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. The polymicrogyria-associated GRIN1 mutations tended to cluster in the S2 region (part of the ligand-binding domain of GluN1) or the adjacent M3 helix. These regions are rarely mutated in the normal population or in GRIN1 patients without polymicrogyria. Using two-electrode and whole-cell voltage-clamp analysis, we showed that the polymicrogyria-associated GRIN1 mutations significantly alter the in vitro activity of the receptor. Three of the mutations increased agonist potency while one reduced proton inhibition of the receptor. These results are striking because previous GRIN1 mutations have generally caused loss of function, and because N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonists have been used for many years to generate animal models of polymicrogyria. Overall, our results expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with GRIN1 mutations and highlight the important role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor signalling in the pathogenesis of polymicrogyria.

9.
Cell Rep ; 20(4): 923-934, 2017 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746876

RESUMO

Regulated inter-mitochondrial fusion/fission is essential for maintaining optimal mitochondrial respiration and control of apoptosis and autophagy. In mammals, mitochondrial fusion is controlled by outer membrane GTPases MFN1 and MFN2 and by inner membrane (IM) GTPase OPA1. Disordered mitochondrial fusion/fission contributes to various pathologies, and MFN2 or OPA1 mutations underlie neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show that the WBSCR16 protein is primarily associated with the outer face of the inner mitochondrial membrane and is important for mitochondrial fusion. We provide evidence of a WBSCR16/OPA1 physical interaction in the intact cell and of a WBSCR16 function as an OPA1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Homozygosity for a Wbscr16 mutation causes early embryonic lethality, whereas neurons of mice heterozygous for the mutation have mitochondria with reduced membrane potential and increased susceptibility to fragmentation upon exposure to stress, suggesting roles for WBSCR16 deficits in neuronal pathologies.


Assuntos
Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/fisiologia , Ciclo Celular/genética , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Feminino , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/genética , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
10.
J Med Genet ; 54(7): 460-470, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28377535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed for a comprehensive delineation of genetic, functional and phenotypic aspects of GRIN2B encephalopathy and explored potential prospects of personalised medicine. METHODS: Data of 48 individuals with de novo GRIN2B variants were collected from several diagnostic and research cohorts, as well as from 43 patients from the literature. Functional consequences and response to memantine treatment were investigated in vitro and eventually translated into patient care. RESULTS: Overall, de novo variants in 86 patients were classified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic. Patients presented with neurodevelopmental disorders and a spectrum of hypotonia, movement disorder, cortical visual impairment, cerebral volume loss and epilepsy. Six patients presented with a consistent malformation of cortical development (MCD) intermediate between tubulinopathies and polymicrogyria. Missense variants cluster in transmembrane segments and ligand-binding sites. Functional consequences of variants were diverse, revealing various potential gain-of-function and loss-of-function mechanisms and a retained sensitivity to the use-dependent blocker memantine. However, an objectifiable beneficial treatment response in the respective patients still remains to be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to previously known features of intellectual disability, epilepsy and autism, we found evidence that GRIN2B encephalopathy is also frequently associated with movement disorder, cortical visual impairment and MCD revealing novel phenotypic consequences of channelopathies.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Mutação/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Encefalopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Memantina/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neuroimagem , Fenótipo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
11.
J Endod ; 43(1): 109-115, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27847137

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the proteinase bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP1) were recently identified in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta, which can be associated with type 1 dentinogenesis imperfecta. BMP1 is co-expressed in various tissues and has overlapping activities with the closely related proteinase mammalian tolloid-like 1 (TLL1). In this study we investigated whether removing the overlapping activities of BMP1 and TLL1 affects the mineralization of tooth root dentin. METHODS: Floxed alleles of the BMP1 and TLL1 genes were excised via ubiquitously expressed Cre induced by tamoxifen treatment beginning at 3 days of age (harvested at 3 weeks of age) or beginning at 4 weeks of age (harvested at 8 weeks of age). Multiple techniques, including x-ray analysis, double-labeling with calcein and alizarin red stains for measurement of dentin formation rate, and histologic and immunostaining assays, were used to analyze the dentin phenotype. RESULTS: BMP1/TLL1 double knockout mice displayed short and thin root dentin, defects in dentin mineralization, and delayed tooth eruption. Molecular mechanism studies revealed accumulation of collagens in dentin and a sharp reduction in non-collagenous proteins such as dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein. Furthermore, we found a strong reduction in tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, which is likely caused by defects in bone cells. CONCLUSIONS: BMP1/TLL1 appear to play crucial roles in maintaining extracellular matrix homeostasis essential to root formation and dentin mineralization.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 1/fisiologia , Dentina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metaloproteases Semelhantes a Toloide/fisiologia , Raiz Dentária/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Dentinogênese/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
12.
Matrix Biol ; 56: 114-131, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27363389

RESUMO

Closely related extracellular metalloproteinases bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) and mammalian Tolloid-like 1 (mTLL1) are co-expressed in various tissues and have been suggested to have overlapping roles in the biosynthetic processing of extracellular matrix components. Early lethality of mice null for the BMP1 gene Bmp1 or the mTLL1 gene Tll1 has impaired in vivo studies of these proteinases. To overcome issues of early lethality and functional redundancy we developed the novel BTKO mouse strain, with floxed Bmp1 and Tll1 alleles, for induction of postnatal, simultaneous ablation of the two genes. We previously showed these mice to have a skeletal phenotype that includes elements of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), osteomalacia, and deficient osteocyte maturation, observations validated by the finding of BMP1 mutations in a subset of human patients with OI-like phenotypes. However, the roles of BMP1-like proteinase in non-skeletal tissues have yet to be explored, despite the supposed importance of putative substrates of these proteinases in such tissues. Here, we employ BTKO mice to investigate potential roles for these proteinases in skin. Loss of BMP1-like proteinase activity is shown to result in markedly thinned and fragile skin with unusually densely packed collagen fibrils and delayed wound healing. We demonstrate deficits in the processing of collagens I and III, decorin, biglycan, and laminin 332 in skin, which indicate mechanisms whereby BMP1-like proteinases affect the biology of this tissue. In contrast, lack of effects on collagen VII processing or deposition indicates this putative substrate to be biosynthetically processed by non-BMP1-like proteinases.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 1/genética , Derme/enzimologia , Metaloproteases Semelhantes a Toloide/genética , Animais , Biglicano/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 1/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Decorina/metabolismo , Derme/citologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Reepitelização , Metaloproteases Semelhantes a Toloide/metabolismo
13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 23(12): 3085-101, 2014 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24419319

RESUMO

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), or brittle bone disease, is most often caused by dominant mutations in the collagen I genes COL1A1/COL1A2, whereas rarer recessive OI is often caused by mutations in genes encoding collagen I-interacting proteins. Recently, mutations in the gene for the proteinase bone morphogenetic 1 (BMP1) were reported in two recessive OI families. BMP1 and the closely related proteinase mammalian tolloid-like 1 (mTLL1) are co-expressed in various tissues, including bone, and have overlapping activities that include biosynthetic processing of procollagen precursors into mature collagen monomers. However, early lethality of Bmp1- and Tll1-null mice has precluded use of such models for careful study of in vivo roles of their protein products. Here we employ novel mouse strains with floxed Bmp1 and Tll1 alleles to induce postnatal, simultaneous ablation of the two genes, thus avoiding barriers of Bmp1(-/-) and Tll1(-/-) lethality and issues of functional redundancy. Bones of the conditionally null mice are dramatically weakened and brittle, with spontaneous fractures-defining features of OI. Additional skeletal features include osteomalacia, thinned/porous cortical bone, reduced processing of procollagen and dentin matrix protein 1, remarkably high bone turnover and defective osteocyte maturation that is accompanied by decreased expression of the osteocyte marker and Wnt-signaling inhibitor sclerostin, and by marked induction of canonical Wnt signaling. The novel animal model presented here provides new opportunities for in-depth analyses of in vivo roles of BMP1-like proteinases in bone and other tissues, and for their roles, and for possible therapeutic interventions, in OI.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 1/genética , Fêmur/patologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes/métodos , Osteogênese Imperfeita/patologia , Metaloproteases Semelhantes a Toloide/genética , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 1/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fêmur/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Osteogênese Imperfeita/genética , Metaloproteases Semelhantes a Toloide/metabolismo
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