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1.
NAR Genom Bioinform ; 2(2): lqaa021, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363341

RESUMO

The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the way of reaching a genome sequence, with the promise of potentially providing a comprehensive characterization of DNA variations. Nevertheless, detecting somatic mutations is still a difficult problem, in particular when trying to identify low abundance mutations, such as subclonal mutations, tumour-derived alterations in body fluids or somatic mutations from histological normal tissue. The main challenge is to precisely distinguish between sequencing artefacts and true mutations, particularly when the latter are so rare they reach similar abundance levels as artefacts. Here, we present needlestack, a highly sensitive variant caller, which directly learns from the data the level of systematic sequencing errors to accurately call mutations. Needlestack is based on the idea that the sequencing error rate can be dynamically estimated from analysing multiple samples together. We show that the sequencing error rate varies across alterations, illustrating the need to precisely estimate it. We evaluate the performance of needlestack for various types of variations, and we show that needlestack is robust among positions and outperforms existing state-of-the-art method for low abundance mutations. Needlestack, along with its source code is freely available on the GitHub platform: https://github.com/IARCbioinfo/needlestack.

2.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002724, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several obesity-related factors have been associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but it is unclear which individual factors directly influence risk. We addressed this question using genetic markers as proxies for putative risk factors and evaluated their relation to RCC risk in a mendelian randomization (MR) framework. This methodology limits bias due to confounding and is not affected by reverse causation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genetic markers associated with obesity measures, blood pressure, lipids, type 2 diabetes, insulin, and glucose were initially identified as instrumental variables, and their association with RCC risk was subsequently evaluated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 10,784 RCC patients and 20,406 control participants in a 2-sample MR framework. The effect on RCC risk was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORSD) for a standard deviation (SD) increment in each risk factor. The MR analysis indicated that higher body mass index increases the risk of RCC (ORSD: 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-1.70), with comparable results for waist-to-hip ratio (ORSD: 1.63, 95% CI 1.40-1.90) and body fat percentage (ORSD: 1.66, 95% CI 1.44-1.90). This analysis further indicated that higher fasting insulin (ORSD: 1.82, 95% CI 1.30-2.55) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; ORSD: 1.28, 95% CI 1.11-1.47), but not systolic blood pressure (ORSD: 0.98, 95% CI 0.84-1.14), increase the risk for RCC. No association with RCC risk was seen for lipids, overall type 2 diabetes, or fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence for an etiological role of insulin in RCC, as well as confirmatory evidence that obesity and DBP influence RCC risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Risco
3.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3927, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254314

RESUMO

Lung cancer has several genetic associations identified within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); although the basis for these associations remains elusive. Here, we analyze MHC genetic variation among 26,044 lung cancer patients and 20,836 controls densely genotyped across the MHC, using the Illumina Illumina OncoArray or Illumina 660W SNP microarray. We impute sequence variation in classical HLA genes, fine-map MHC associations for lung cancer risk with major histologies and compare results between ethnicities. Independent and novel associations within HLA genes are identified in Europeans including amino acids in the HLA-B*0801 peptide binding groove and an independent HLA-DQB1*06 loci group. In Asians, associations are driven by two independent HLA allele sets that both increase risk in HLA-DQB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0701; the latter better represented by the amino acid Ala-104. These results implicate several HLA-tumor peptide interactions as the major MHC factor modulating lung cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
4.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(10): 1483-1495, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies are widely used to map genomic regions contributing to lung cancer (LC) susceptibility, but they typically do not identify the precise disease-causing genes/variants. To unveil the inherited genetic variants that cause LC, we performed focused exome-sequencing analyses on genes located in 121 genome-wide association study-identified loci previously implicated in the risk of LC, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function level, and smoking behavior. METHODS: Germline DNA from 260 case patients with LC and 318 controls were sequenced by utilizing VCRome 2.1 exome capture. Filtering was based on enrichment of rare and potential deleterious variants in cases (risk alleles) or controls (protective alleles). Allelic association analyses of single-variant and gene-based burden tests of multiple variants were performed. Promising candidates were tested in two independent validation studies with a total of 1773 case patients and 1123 controls. RESULTS: We identified 48 rare variants with deleterious effects in the discovery analysis and validated 12 of the 43 candidates that were covered in the validation platforms. The top validated candidates included one well-established truncating variant, namely, BRCA2, DNA repair associated gene (BRCA2) K3326X (OR = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-3.99), and three newly identified variations, namely, lymphotoxin beta gene (LTB) p.Leu87Phe (OR = 7.52, 95% CI: 1.01-16.56), prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2 gene (P3H2) p.Gln185His (OR = 5.39, 95% CI: 0.75-15.43), and dishevelled associated activator of morphogenesis 2 gene (DAAM2) p.Asp762Gly (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.10-0.79). Burden tests revealed strong associations between zinc finger protein 93 gene (ZNF93), DAAM2, bromodomain containing 9 gene (BRD9), and the gene LTB and LC susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results extend the catalogue of regions associated with LC and highlight the importance of germline rare coding variants in LC susceptibility.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
5.
Int J Cancer ; 141(9): 1730-1740, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28639257

RESUMO

Circulating miRNAs have shown great promises as noninvasive diagnostic and predictive biomarkers in several solid tumors. While the miRNA profiles of renal tumors have been extensively explored, knowledge of their circulating counterparts is limited. Our study aimed to provide a large-scale genome-wide profiling of plasma circulating miRNA in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Plasma samples from 94 ccRCC cases and 100 controls were screened for 754 circulating micro-RNAs (miRNA) by TaqMan arrays. Analyses including known risk factors for renal cancer-namely, age, sex, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption-highlighted that circulating miRNA profiles were tightly correlated with the stage of the disease. Advanced tumors, characterized as stage III and IV, were associated with specific miRNA signatures that significantly differ from both controls and earlier stage ccRCC cases. Molecular pathway enrichment analyses of their gene targets showed high similarities with alterations observed in renal tumors. Plasma circulating levels of miR-150 were significantly associated with RCC-specific survival and could marginally improve the predictive accuracy of clinical parameters in our series, including age at diagnosis, sex and conventional staging. In summary, our results suggest that circulating miRNAs may provide insights into renal cell carcinoma progression.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Renais/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico
6.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15724, 2017 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598434

RESUMO

Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified six risk loci for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We conducted a meta-analysis of two new scans of 5,198 cases and 7,331 controls together with four existing scans, totalling 10,784 cases and 20,406 controls of European ancestry. Twenty-four loci were tested in an additional 3,182 cases and 6,301 controls. We confirm the six known RCC risk loci and identify seven new loci at 1p32.3 (rs4381241, P=3.1 × 10-10), 3p22.1 (rs67311347, P=2.5 × 10-8), 3q26.2 (rs10936602, P=8.8 × 10-9), 8p21.3 (rs2241261, P=5.8 × 10-9), 10q24.33-q25.1 (rs11813268, P=3.9 × 10-8), 11q22.3 (rs74911261, P=2.1 × 10-10) and 14q24.2 (rs4903064, P=2.2 × 10-24). Expression quantitative trait analyses suggest plausible candidate genes at these regions that may contribute to RCC susceptibility.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0177875, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing the relationship between lung cancer and metabolic conditions is challenging because of the confounding effect of tobacco. Mendelian randomization (MR), or the use of genetic instrumental variables to assess causality, may help to identify the metabolic drivers of lung cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified genetic instruments for potential metabolic risk factors and evaluated these in relation to risk using 29,266 lung cancer cases (including 11,273 adenocarcinomas, 7,426 squamous cell and 2,664 small cell cases) and 56,450 controls. The MR risk analysis suggested a causal effect of body mass index (BMI) on lung cancer risk for two of the three major histological subtypes, with evidence of a risk increase for squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.20 [1.01-1.43] and for small cell lung cancer (OR [95%CI] = 1.52 [1.15-2.00]) for each standard deviation (SD) increase in BMI [4.6 kg/m2]), but not for adenocarcinoma (OR [95%CI] = 0.93 [0.79-1.08]) (Pheterogeneity = 4.3x10-3). Additional analysis using a genetic instrument for BMI showed that each SD increase in BMI increased cigarette consumption by 1.27 cigarettes per day (P = 2.1x10-3), providing novel evidence that a genetic susceptibility to obesity influences smoking patterns. There was also evidence that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely associated with lung cancer overall risk (OR [95%CI] = 0.90 [0.84-0.97] per SD of 38 mg/dl), while fasting insulin was positively associated (OR [95%CI] = 1.63 [1.25-2.13] per SD of 44.4 pmol/l). Sensitivity analyses including a weighted-median approach and MR-Egger test did not detect other pleiotropic effects biasing the main results. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with a causal role of fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in lung cancer etiology, as well as for BMI in squamous cell and small cell carcinoma. The latter relation may be mediated by a previously unrecognized effect of obesity on smoking behavior.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Jejum , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Funções Verossimilhança , Lipídeos/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Obesidade/sangue , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
8.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 41(5): 467-77, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26153779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Working in mines and quarries has been associated with an elevated lung cancer risk but with inconsistent results for coal miners. This study aimed to estimate the smoking-adjusted lung cancer risk among coal miners and compare the risk pattern with lung cancer risks among ore miners and quarrymen. METHODS: We estimated lung cancer risks of coal and ore miners and quarrymen among 14 251 lung cancer cases and 17 267 controls from the SYNERGY pooled case-control study, controlling for smoking and employment in other at-risk occupations. RESULTS: Ever working as miner or quarryman (690 cases, 436 controls) was associated with an elevated odds ratio (OR) of 1.55 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.34-1.79] for lung cancer. Ore miners (53 cases, 24 controls) had a higher OR (2.34, 95% CI 1.36-4.03) than quarrymen (67 cases, 39 controls; OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.21-3.05) and coal miners (442 cases, 297 controls; OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18-1.67), but CI overlapped. We did not observe trends by duration of exposure or time since last exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This pooled analysis of population-based studies demonstrated an excess lung cancer risk among miners and quarrymen that remained increased after adjustment for detailed smoking history and working in other at-risk occupations. The increase in risk among coal miners were less pronounced than for ore miners or quarrymen.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mineradores/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineração/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Minas de Carvão/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Front Oncol ; 2: 16, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22645715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have among the highest worldwide rates of renal cell cancer (RCC). Few studies have examined whether genetic variation in xenobiotic metabolic pathway genes may modify risk for this cancer. METHODS: The Central and Eastern Europe Renal Cell Cancer study was a hospital-based case-control study conducted between 1998 and 2003 across seven centers in Central and Eastern Europe. Detailed data were collected from 874 cases and 2053 controls on demographics, work history, and occupational exposure to chemical agents. Genes [cytochrome P-450 family, N-acetyltransferases, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase I (NQO1), microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] were selected for the present analysis based on their putative role in xenobiotic metabolism. Haplotypes were calculated using fastPhase. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for country of residence, age, sex, smoking, alcohol intake, obesity, and hypertension. RESULTS: We observed an increased risk of RCC with one SNP. After adjustment for multiple comparisons it did not remain significant. Neither NAT1 nor NAT2 slow acetylation was associated with disease. CONCLUSION: We observed no association between this pathway and renal cell cancer.

10.
J Occup Environ Med ; 53(11): 1262-7, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22068130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the lung cancer risk attributable to occupational lung carcinogens. METHODS: Information was collected through interviews from 2624 newly diagnosed lung cancer cases and 2690 frequency-matched controls in Central and Eastern Europe. Industrial hygiene experts evaluated exposure to 70 occupational agents. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression and attributable fractions (AF) by Miettinen's formula. RESULTS: Exposure to at least one occupational lung carcinogen resulted in an AF of 7.9% in men and 1.4% in women. Metals and silica contributed the most to the AF. The AF was highest for squamous cell carcinoma among men (11.4%) and for small cell carcinoma among women (7.1%); the effect of occupational lung carcinogens was stronger overall among current smokers. CONCLUSION: This estimation of the AF of occupational lung carcinogens is comparable to that estimated in other European studies, and cannot alone explain the high lung cancer rates in Central and Eastern Europe.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Razão de Chances , Medição de Risco
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