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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199492

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene alterations constitute potential cancer therapeutic targets. We explore the prevalence of NER gene alterations across cancers and putative therapeutic strategies targeting these vulnerabilities. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We interrogated our institutional dataset with mutational data from more than 40,000 patients with cancer to assess the frequency of putative deleterious alterations in four key NER genes. Gene-edited isogenic pairs of wildtype and mutant ERCC2 or ERCC3 cell lines were created and used to assess response to several candidate drugs. RESULTS: We found that putative damaging germline and somatic alterations in NER genes are present with frequencies up to 10% across multiple cancer types. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed significantly enhanced sensitivity to the sesquiterpene irofulven in cells harboring specific clinically observed heterozygous mutations in ERCC2 or ERCC3. Sensitivity of NER mutants to irofulven was greater than to a current standard of care agent, cisplatin. Hypomorphic ERCC2/3 mutant cells have impaired ability to repair irofulven induced DNA damage. Transcriptomic profiling of tumor tissues suggested co-dependencies between DNA repair pathways, indicating a potential benefit of combination therapies, which were confirmed by in vitro studies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel insights into a synthetic lethal relationship between clinically observed NER gene deficiencies and sensitivity to irofulven and its potential synergistic combination with other drugs.

2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(12): 1871-1879, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866655

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is its most prevalent subtype. Symptoms are often found in advanced disease in which treatment options are limited. Identifying genetic risk factors will enable better identification of high-risk individuals. METHODS: To identify LUAD risk genes, we performed a case-control association study for gene-level burden of rare, deleterious variants (RDVs) in germline whole-exome sequencing data of 1083 patients with LUAD and 7650 controls, split into discovery and validation cohorts. Of these, we performed whole-exome sequencing on 97 patients and acquired the rest from multiple public databases. We annotated all rare variants for pathogenicity conservatively, using the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and ClinVar curation, and investigated gene-level RDV burden using penalized logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We discovered and replicated the finding that the burden of germline ATM RDVs was significantly higher in patients with LUAD versus controls (combined cohort OR = 4.6; p = 1.7e-04; 95% confidence interval = 2.2-9.5; 1.21% of cases; 0.24% of controls). Germline ATM RDVs were also enriched in an independent clinical cohort of 1594 patients from the MSK-IMPACT study (0.63%). In addition, we observed that an Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) founder ATM variant, rs56009889, was statistically significantly more frequent in AJ cases versus AJ controls in our cohort (combined AJ cohort OR = 2.7, p = 6.9e-03, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-5.3). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that ATM is a moderate-penetrance LUAD risk gene and that LUAD may be a part of the ATM-related cancer syndrome spectrum. Individuals with ATM RDVs are at an elevated LUAD risk and can benefit from increased surveillance (particularly computed tomography scanning), early detection, and chemoprevention programs, improving prognosis.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2220, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393777

RESUMO

Few germline mutations are known to affect lung cancer risk. We performed analyses of rare variants from 39,146 individuals of European ancestry and investigated gene expression levels in 7,773 samples. We find a large-effect association with an ATM L2307F (rs56009889) mutation in adenocarcinoma for discovery (adjusted Odds Ratio = 8.82, P = 1.18 × 10-15) and replication (adjusted OR = 2.93, P = 2.22 × 10-3) that is more pronounced in females (adjusted OR = 6.81 and 3.19 and for discovery and replication). We observe an excess loss of heterozygosity in lung tumors among ATM L2307F allele carriers. L2307F is more frequent (4%) among Ashkenazi Jewish populations. We also observe an association in discovery (adjusted OR = 2.61, P = 7.98 × 10-22) and replication datasets (adjusted OR = 1.55, P = 0.06) with a loss-of-function mutation, Q4X (rs150665432) of an uncharacterized gene, KIAA0930. Our findings implicate germline genetic variants in ATM with lung cancer susceptibility and suggest KIAA0930 as a novel candidate gene for lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Judeus/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Razão de Chances , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Linhagem , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(13): 1389-1397, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922918

RESUMO

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Probands with newly diagnosed cancer-associated pathogenic variants were offered facilitated cascade testing whereby the genetics team identified and contacted ARRs by telephone to disclose the familial pathogenic variant and offer telephone counseling and mailed saliva testing. Results and guideline-based recommendations were reviewed by telephone and shared with the primary care physician. RESULTS: Thirty probands were enrolled, and 114 ARRs were identified. Twelve ARRs were excluded (lived outside of the United States, n = 5; proband did not approve of contact, n = 7). Among 102 ARRs telephoned, contact was established with 95 (93%). Among 114 identified ARRs, 66 (58%) completed genetic testing. Among those completing testing, 27 (41%) carried the familial pathogenic variant. Surveys of ARRs at the time of genetic testing and 6 months later demonstrated low levels of anxiety, depression, distress, and uncertainty and high levels of satisfaction with testing. At 6 months, 7 ARRs with pathogenic variants had undergone cancer surveillance interventions and 4 had undergone cancer risk-reducing surgery. CONCLUSION: Facilitated cascade testing with telephone genetic counseling and mailed saliva kits resulted in high testing uptake among ARRs. Positive genetic testing resulted in utilization of genetically targeted primary disease prevention at short-term follow-up. Facilitated cascade testing is a straightforward, low-cost, easily implemented strategy with significant potential to promote early detection for affected ARRs and reduce cancer mortality and should be evaluated in larger scale clinical trials.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(13): 1398-1408, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite advances in DNA sequencing technology and expanded medical guidelines, the vast majority of individuals carrying pathogenic variants of common cancer susceptibility genes have yet to be identified. An alternative to population-wide genetic screening of healthy individuals would exploit the trend for genetic testing at the time of cancer diagnosis to guide therapy and prevention, combined with augmented familial diffusion or "cascade" of genomic risk information. METHODS: Using a multiple linear regression model, we derived the time interval to detect an estimated 3.9 million individuals in the United States with a pathogenic variant in 1 of 18 cancer susceptibility genes. We analyzed the impact of the proportion of incident patients sequenced, varying observed frequencies of pathogenic germline variants in patients with cancer, differential rates of diffusion of genetic information in families, and family size. RESULTS: The time to detect inherited cancer predisposing variants in the population is affected by the extent of cascade to first-, second-, and third-degree relatives (FDR, SDR, TDR, respectively), family size, prevalence of mutations in patients with cancer, and the proportion of patients with cancer sequenced. In a representative scenario, assuming a 7% prevalence of pathogenic variants across cancer types, an average family size of 3 per generation, and 15% of incident patients with cancer in the United States undergoing germline testing, the time to detect all 3.9 million individuals with pathogenic variants in 18 cancer susceptibility genes would be 46.2, 22.3, 13.6, and 9.9 years if 10%, 25%, 50%, and 70%, respectively, of all FDR, SDR, and TDR were tested for familial mutations. CONCLUSION: Peridiagnostic and cascade cancer genetic testing offers an alternative strategy to achieve population-wide identification of cancer susceptibility mutations.

6.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(5): 406-414, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Urothelial cancers (UCs) have a substantial hereditary component, but, other than their association with Lynch syndrome, the contribution of genetic risk factors to UC pathogenesis has not been systematically defined. We sought to determine the prevalence of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) germline variants in patients with UC and identify associated clinical factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 586 patients with UC underwent prospective, matched tumor-normal DNA sequencing. Seventy-seven genes associated with cancer predisposition were analyzed; allele frequencies were compared with publicly available database. RESULTS: P/LP germline variants were identified in 80 (14%) of 586 individuals with UC. The most common P/LP variants in high- or moderate-penetrance genes were BRCA2 (n = 9; 1.5%), MSH2 (n = 8; 1.4%), BRCA1 (n = 8; 1.4%), CHEK2 (n = 6; 1.0%), ERCC3 (n = 4; 0.7%), and NBN and RAD50 (n = 3; 0.5% each). Sixty-six patients (83%) had germline P/LP variants in DNA-damage repair (DDR) genes, of which 28 (42%) had biallelic inactivation. Patients with P/LP variants were more commonly diagnosed at an early age (22% v 6% in those without variants; P = .01). BRCA2 and MSH2 were significantly associated with an increased risk for UC (odds ratio, 3.7 [P = .004] and 4.6 [P = .001], respectively). Current clinical guidelines for referral for genetic testing failed to identify 6 (26%) patients with high-penetrance variants. CONCLUSION: Clinically significant P/LP germline variants in DDR genes frequently are present in patients with advanced UC. The presence of DDR germline variants could guide cancer screening for patients and their families and serve as predictive biomarkers of response to targeted or immunotherapies. Family history-based criteria to identify patients with hereditary UC susceptibility are insensitive. Broader germline testing in UC, particularly in those of young ages, should be considered.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Urológicas/genética , Hidrolases Anidrido Ácido/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32775946

RESUMO

Purpose: Mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and PTEN, diagnostic of Lynch and Cowden syndromes, respectively, represent the only established inherited predisposition genes in endometrial cancer to date. The prevalence of other cancer predisposition genes remains unclear. We sought the prevalence of pathogenic germline variants in unselected patients with endometrial cancer attending for surgical consultation. Patients and Methods: Patients were prospectively consented (4/2016-5/2017) to an IRB-approved protocol of tumor-normal sequencing via a custom next-generation sequencing panel (MSK-IMPACT) with return of germline results for >75 cancer predisposition genes. Tumors were assessed for microsatellite instability (MSI). Per institutional standards, all tumors underwent Lynch syndrome screening via IHC for MMR proteins. Results: Of 156 patients who consented to germline genetic testing, 118 (76%) had stage I disease. Tumors were endometrioid in 104 (67%), of which 60 (58%) were grade 1. Twenty-four pathogenic germline variants were identified in 22 patients (14%)-7 (4.5%) with highly penetrant cancer syndromes and 15 (9.6%) with variants in moderate-, low-penetrance, or recessive genes. Of these, 5 (21%) were in Lynch syndrome genes (2 MSH6, 2 PMS2, and 1 MLH1). All 5 tumors had concordant IHC staining; 2 (40%) were definitively MSI-high by next-generation sequencing. One patient had a known BRCA1 mutation; 1 had SMARCA4 deletion. The remaining 17 variants (71%) were incremental findings in moderate- and low-penetrance variants or genes associated with recessive disease. Conclusion: In unselected patients with predominantly low-risk, early-stage endometrial cancer, germline multi-gene panel testing identifies cancer predisposition gene variants in 14%. This finding may have implications for future cancer screening and risk-reduction recommendations. Universal IHC screening for Lynch syndrome successfully identifies the majority (71%) of high-penetrance germline mutations.

9.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(4): 286-295, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376427

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or mismatch repair deficiency (MMR-D) testing has traditionally been performed in patients with colorectal (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) to screen for Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated cancer predisposition. The recent success of immunotherapy in high-frequency MSI (MSI-H) and/or MMR-D tumors now supports testing for MSI in all advanced solid tumors. The extent to which LS accounts for MSI-H across heterogeneous tumor types is unknown. Here, we establish the prevalence of LS across solid tumors according to MSI status. METHODS: MSI status was determined using targeted next-generation sequencing, with tumors classified as MSI-H, MSI-indeterminate, or microsatellite-stable. Matched germline DNA was analyzed for mutations in LS-associated mismatch repair genes ( MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM). In patients with LS with MSI-H/I tumors, immunohistochemical staining for MMR-D was assessed. RESULTS: Among 15,045 unique patients (more than 50 cancer types), LS was identified in 16.3% (53 of 326), 1.9% (13 of 699), and 0.3% (37 of 14,020) of patients with MSI-H, MSI-indeterminate, and microsatellite-stable tumors, respectively ( P < .001). Among patients with LS with MSI-H/I tumors, 50% (33 of 66) had tumors other than CRC/EC, including urothelial, prostate, pancreas, adrenocortical, small bowel, sarcoma, mesothelioma, melanoma, gastric, and germ cell tumors. In these patients with non-CRC/EC tumors, 45% (15 of 33) did not meet LS genetic testing criteria on the basis of personal/family history. Immunohistochemical staining of LS-positive MSI-H/I tumors demonstrated MMR-D in 98.2% (56 of 57) of available cases. CONCLUSION: MSI-H/MMR-D is predictive of LS across a much broader tumor spectrum than currently appreciated. Given implications for cancer surveillance and prevention measures in affected families, these data support germline genetic assessment for LS for patients with an MSI-H/MMR-D tumor, regardless of cancer type or family cancer history.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Transcriptoma
10.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(9): 1228-1235, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978187

RESUMO

Importance: Identification of patients with hereditary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is important for cancer screening and, in patients with advanced disease, for guiding treatment. The prevalence of cancer-related germline mutations in patients with advanced RCC and the phenotypes associated with some rare mutations are unknown. Objectives: To examine the prevalence of germline mutations in both known RCC predisposition genes and other cancer-associated genes and to identify clinical and pathologic factors associated with germline mutations. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study conducted from October 1, 2015, to July 31, 2017, 254 of 267 patients with advanced (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III or IV) RCC who were seen in medical oncology or urology clinics agreed to germline sequencing and disclosure of results under an institutional protocol of matched tumor-germline DNA sequencing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mutation prevalence and spectrum in patients with advanced RCC were determined. Clinical characteristics were assessed by mutation status. Results: Of the 254 patients (median age [range], 56 [13-79] years; 179 [70.5%] male; 211 [83.1%] non-Hispanic white), germline mutations were identified in 41 (16.1%); 14 (5.5%) had mutations in syndromic RCC-associated genes (7 in FH, 3 in BAP1, and 1 each in VHL, MET, SDHA, and SDHB). The most frequent mutations were CHEK2 (n = 9) and FH (n = 7). Of genes not previously associated with RCC risk, CHEK2 was overrepresented in patients compared with the general population, with an odds ratio of RCC of 3.0 (95% CI, 1.3-5.8; P = .003). Patients with non-clear cell RCC were significantly more likely to have an RCC-associated gene mutation (9 [11.7%] of 74 vs 3 [1.7%] of 177; P = .001), and 8 (10.0%) had a mutation in a gene that could guide therapy. Of patients with mutations in RCC-associated genes, 5 (35.7%) failed to meet current clinical guidelines for genetic testing. Conclusions and Relevance: Of patients with non-clear cell RCC, more than 20% had a germline mutation, of which half had the potential to direct systemic therapy. Current referral criteria for genetic testing did not identify a substantial portion of patients with mutations, supporting the role of a more inclusive sequencing approach.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(10): 1067-1074, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506128

RESUMO

Background: Identification of pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs) has important clinical and therapeutic implications in pancreas cancer. We performed comprehensive germline testing (GT) in an unselected prospective cohort of patients with exocrine pancreatic neoplasms with genotype and phenotype association to facilitate identification of prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers and examine potential therapeutic implications. Methods: Six hundred fifteen unselected patients with exocrine pancreatic neoplasms were prospectively consented for somatic tumor and matched sample profiling for 410-468 genes. GT for PGAs in 76 genes associated with cancer susceptibility was performed in an "identified" manner in 356 (57.9%) patients and in an "anonymized" manner in 259 (42.1%) patients, using an institutional review board-approved protocol. Detailed clinical and pathological features, response to platinum, and overall survival (OS) were collected for the identified cohort. OS was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: PGAs were present in 122 (19.8%) of 615 patients involving 24 different genes, including BRCA1/2, ATM, PALB2, and multiple additional genes associated with the DNA damage response pathway. Of 122 patients with germline alterations, 41.8% did not meet current guidelines for GT. The difference in median OS was not statistically significant between patients with and without PGA (50.8 months, 95% confidence interval = 34.5 to not reached, two-sided P = .94). Loss of heterozygosity was found in 60.0% of BRCA1/2. Conclusions: PGAs frequently occur in pancreas exocrine neoplasms and involve multiple genes beyond those previously associated with hereditary pancreatic cancer. These PGAs are therapeutically actionable in about 5% to 10% of patients. These data support routinely offering GT in all pancreatic ductal adenocarcimona patients with a broad panel of known hereditary cancer predisposition genes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Pâncreas Exócrino/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia
12.
N Engl J Med ; 378(12): 1096-1106, 2018 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29562163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elucidation of the genetic factors underlying chronic liver disease may reveal new therapeutic targets. METHODS: We used exome sequence data and electronic health records from 46,544 participants in the DiscovEHR human genetics study to identify genetic variants associated with serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Variants that were replicated in three additional cohorts (12,527 persons) were evaluated for association with clinical diagnoses of chronic liver disease in DiscovEHR study participants and two independent cohorts (total of 37,173 persons) and with histopathological severity of liver disease in 2391 human liver samples. RESULTS: A splice variant (rs72613567:TA) in HSD17B13, encoding the hepatic lipid droplet protein hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13, was associated with reduced levels of ALT (P=4.2×10-12) and AST (P=6.2×10-10). Among DiscovEHR study participants, this variant was associated with a reduced risk of alcoholic liver disease (by 42% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 20 to 58] among heterozygotes and by 53% [95% CI, 3 to 77] among homozygotes), nonalcoholic liver disease (by 17% [95% CI, 8 to 25] among heterozygotes and by 30% [95% CI, 13 to 43] among homozygotes), alcoholic cirrhosis (by 42% [95% CI, 14 to 61] among heterozygotes and by 73% [95% CI, 15 to 91] among homozygotes), and nonalcoholic cirrhosis (by 26% [95% CI, 7 to 40] among heterozygotes and by 49% [95% CI, 15 to 69] among homozygotes). Associations were confirmed in two independent cohorts. The rs72613567:TA variant was associated with a reduced risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but not steatosis, in human liver samples. The rs72613567:TA variant mitigated liver injury associated with the risk-increasing PNPLA3 p.I148M allele and resulted in an unstable and truncated protein with reduced enzymatic activity. CONCLUSIONS: A loss-of-function variant in HSD17B13 was associated with a reduced risk of chronic liver disease and of progression from steatosis to steatohepatitis. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and others.).


Assuntos
17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hepatopatias/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 20182018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687805

RESUMO

Purpose: We assessed the usefulness of real-time molecular profiling through next-generation sequencing (NGS) in predicting the tumor biology of advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNETs) and in characterizing genomic evolution. Methods: Patients with metastatic panNETs were recruited in the routine clinical practice setting (between May 2014 and March 2017) for prospective NGS of their tumors as well as for germline analysis using the Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT) sequencing platform. When possible, NGS was performed at multiple time points. Results: NGS was performed in 96 tumor samples from 80 patients. Somatic alterations were identified in 76 of 80 patients (95%). The most commonly altered genes were MEN1 (56%), DAXX (40%), ATRX (25%), and TSC2 (25%). Alterations could be defined in pathways that included chromatin remodeling factors, histone methyltransferases, and mammalian target of rapamycin pathway genes. Somatic loss of heterozygosity was particularly prevalent (50 of 96 samples [52%]), and the presence of loss of heterozygosity resulted in inferior overall survival (P < .01). Sequencing of pre- and post-treatment samples revealed tumor-grade progression; clonal evolution patterns were also seen (molecular resistance mechanisms and chemotherapy-associated mutagenesis). Germline genetic analysis identified clinically actionable pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 14 of 88 patients (16%), including mutations in high-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes (MEN1, TSC2, and VHL). Conclusion: A clinical NGS platform reveals pertubations of biologic pathways in metastatic panNETs that may inform prognosis and direct therapies. Repeat sequencing at disease progression reveals increasing tumor grade and genetic evolution, demonstrating that panNETs adopt a more aggressive behavior through time and therapies. In addition to frequent somatic mutations in MEN1 and TSC2, germline mutations in these same genes underlie susceptibility to panNETs and highlight the need to re-evaluate whether germline genetic analysis should be performed for all patients with panNETs.

14.
JAMA ; 318(9): 825-835, 2017 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873162

RESUMO

Importance: Guidelines for cancer genetic testing based on family history may miss clinically actionable genetic changes with established implications for cancer screening or prevention. Objective: To determine the proportion and potential clinical implications of inherited variants detected using simultaneous sequencing of the tumor and normal tissue ("tumor-normal sequencing") compared with genetic test results based on current guidelines. Design, Setting, and Participants: From January 2014 until May 2016 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 10 336 patients consented to tumor DNA sequencing. Since May 2015, 1040 of these patients with advanced cancer were referred by their oncologists for germline analysis of 76 cancer predisposition genes. Patients with clinically actionable inherited mutations whose genetic test results would not have been predicted by published decision rules were identified. Follow-up for potential clinical implications of mutation detection was through May 2017. Exposure: Tumor and germline sequencing compared with the predicted yield of targeted germline sequencing based on clinical guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of clinically actionable germline mutations detected by universal tumor-normal sequencing that would not have been detected by guideline-directed testing. Results: Of 1040 patients, the median age was 58 years (interquartile range, 50.5-66 years), 65.3% were male, and 81.3% had stage IV disease at the time of genomic analysis, with prostate, renal, pancreatic, breast, and colon cancer as the most common diagnoses. Of the 1040 patients, 182 (17.5%; 95% CI, 15.3%-19.9%) had clinically actionable mutations conferring cancer susceptibility, including 149 with moderate- to high-penetrance mutations; 101 patients tested (9.7%; 95% CI, 8.1%-11.7%) would not have had these mutations detected using clinical guidelines, including 65 with moderate- to high-penetrance mutations. Frequency of inherited mutations was related to case mix, stage, and founder mutations. Germline findings led to discussion or initiation of change to targeted therapy in 38 patients tested (3.7%) and predictive testing in the families of 13 individuals (1.3%), including 6 for whom genetic evaluation would not have been initiated by guideline-based testing. Conclusions and Relevance: In this referral population with selected advanced cancers, universal sequencing of a broad panel of cancer-related genes in paired germline and tumor DNA samples was associated with increased detection of individuals with potentially clinically significant heritable mutations over the predicted yield of targeted germline testing based on current clinical guidelines. Knowledge of these additional mutations can help guide therapeutic and preventive interventions, but whether all of these interventions would improve outcomes for patients with cancer or their family members requires further study. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01775072.


Assuntos
DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Science ; 354(6319)2016 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28008009

RESUMO

The DiscovEHR collaboration between the Regeneron Genetics Center and Geisinger Health System couples high-throughput sequencing to an integrated health care system using longitudinal electronic health records (EHRs). We sequenced the exomes of 50,726 adult participants in the DiscovEHR study to identify ~4.2 million rare single-nucleotide variants and insertion/deletion events, of which ~176,000 are predicted to result in a loss of gene function. Linking these data to EHR-derived clinical phenotypes, we find clinical associations supporting therapeutic targets, including genes encoding drug targets for lipid lowering, and identify previously unidentified rare alleles associated with lipid levels and other blood level traits. About 3.5% of individuals harbor deleterious variants in 76 clinically actionable genes. The DiscovEHR data set provides a blueprint for large-scale precision medicine initiatives and genomics-guided therapeutic discovery.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Doença/genética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Exoma/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Adulto , Desenho de Fármacos , Frequência do Gene , Genômica , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Mutação INDEL , Lipídeos/sangue , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(2): 463, 2016 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27929150

RESUMO

Correction for 'Remote meta C-H bond functionalization of 2-phenethylsulphonic acid and 3-phenylpropanoic acid derivatives' by Atanu Modak et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 13916-13919.

17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(96): 13916-13919, 2016 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27844064

RESUMO

This discovery illustrates selective meta C-H bond activation from multiple non-equivalent C-H bonds present in medicinally relevant arylethanesulfonic acid and the 2-arylpropanoic acid moiety using weakly coordinating nitrile as a directing group. Transformation of the meta olefinated compounds to important organic molecules has been demonstrated. Efforts were made to obtain mechanistic detail of the meta C-H bond functionalization reaction.

18.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 168B(5): 363-73, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25951819

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits and reduced educational achievement are common in psychiatric illness; understanding the genetic basis of cognitive and educational deficits may be informative about the etiology of psychiatric disorders. A recent, large genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported a genome-wide significant locus for years of education, which subsequently demonstrated association to general cognitive ability ("g") in overlapping cohorts. The current study was designed to test whether GWAS hits for educational attainment are involved in general cognitive ability in an independent, large-scale collection of cohorts. Using cohorts in the Cognitive Genomics Consortium (COGENT; up to 20,495 healthy individuals), we examined the relationship between g and variants associated with educational attainment. We next conducted meta-analyses with 24,189 individuals with neurocognitive data from the educational attainment studies, and then with 53,188 largely independent individuals from a recent GWAS of cognition. A SNP (rs1906252) located at chromosome 6q16.1, previously associated with years of schooling, was significantly associated with g (P = 1.47 × 10(-4) ) in COGENT. The first joint analysis of 43,381 non-overlapping individuals for this a priori-designated locus was strongly significant (P = 4.94 × 10(-7) ), and the second joint analysis of 68,159 non-overlapping individuals was even more robust (P = 1.65 × 10(-9) ). These results provide independent replication, in a large-scale dataset, of a genetic locus associated with cognitive function and education. As sample sizes grow, cognitive GWAS will identify increasing numbers of associated loci, as has been accomplished in other polygenic quantitative traits, which may be relevant to psychiatric illness.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4835, 2014 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25203624

RESUMO

The Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population is a genetic isolate close to European and Middle Eastern groups, with genetic diversity patterns conducive to disease mapping. Here we report high-depth sequencing of 128 complete genomes of AJ controls. Compared with European samples, our AJ panel has 47% more novel variants per genome and is eightfold more effective at filtering benign variants out of AJ clinical genomes. Our panel improves imputation accuracy for AJ SNP arrays by 28%, and covers at least one haplotype in ≈ 67% of any AJ genome with long, identical-by-descent segments. Reconstruction of recent AJ history from such segments confirms a recent bottleneck of merely ≈ 350 individuals. Modelling of ancient histories for AJ and European populations using their joint allele frequency spectrum determines AJ to be an even admixture of European and likely Middle Eastern origins. We date the split between the two ancestral populations to ≈ 12-25 Kyr, suggesting a predominantly Near Eastern source for the repopulation of Europe after the Last Glacial Maximum.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Judeus/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genoma , Genômica , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 23(22): 6088-95, 2014 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24943592

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in schizophrenia have focused on additive allelic effects to identify disease risk loci. In order to examine potential recessive effects, we applied a novel approach to identify regions of excess homozygosity in an ethnically homogenous cohort: 904 schizophrenia cases and 1640 controls drawn from the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population. Genome-wide examination of runs of homozygosity identified an excess in cases localized to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). To refine this signal, we used the recently developed GERMLINE algorithm to identify chromosomal segments shared identical-by-descent (IBD) and compared homozygosity at such segments in cases and controls. We found a significant excess of homozygosity in schizophrenia cases compared with controls in the MHC (P-value = 0.003). An independent replication cohort of 548 schizophrenia cases from Japan and 542 matched healthy controls demonstrated similar effects. The strongest case-control recessive effects (P = 8.81 × 10(-8)) were localized to a 53-kb region near HLA-A, in a segment encompassing three poorly annotated genes, TRIM10, TRIM15 and TRIM40. At the same time, an adjacent segment in the Class I MHC demonstrated clear additive effects on schizophrenia risk, demonstrating the complexity of association in the MHC and the ability of our IBD approach to refine localization of broad signals derived from conventional GWAS. In sum, homozygosity in the classical MHC region appears to convey significant risk for schizophrenia, consistent with the ecological literature suggesting that homozygosity at the MHC locus may be associated with vulnerability to disease.


Assuntos
Antígenos HLA-A/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Japão , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
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