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1.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 765252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776936

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein ε4 (APOE)4 is a strong risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and aberrant sphingolipid levels have been implicated in AD. We tested the hypothesis that the APOE4 genotype affects brain sphingolipid levels in AD. Seven ceramides and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) were quantified by LC-MSMS in hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum, and plasma of <3 months and >5 months old human APOE3 and APOE4-targeted replacement mice with or without the familial AD (FAD) background of both sexes (145 animals). APOE4 mice had higher Cer(d18:1/24:0) levels in the cortex (1.7-fold, p = 0.002) than APOE3 mice. Mice with AD background showed higher levels of Cer(d18:1/24:1) in the cortex than mice without (1.4-fold, p = 0.003). S1P levels were higher in all three brain regions of older mice than of young mice (1.7-1.8-fold, all p ≤ 0.001). In female mice, S1P levels in hippocampus (r = -0.54 [-0.70, -0.35], p < 0.001) and in cortex correlated with those in plasma (r = -0.53 [-0.71, -0.32], p < 0.001). Ceramide levels were lower in the hippocampus (3.7-10.7-fold, all p < 0.001), but higher in the cortex (2.3-12.8-fold, p < 0.001) of female than male mice. In cerebellum and plasma, sex effects on individual ceramides depended on acyl chain length (9.5-fold lower to 11.5-fold higher, p ≤ 0.001). In conclusion, sex is a stronger determinant of brain ceramide levels in mice than APOE genotype, AD background, or age. Whether these differences impact AD neuropathology in men and women remains to be investigated.

2.
Clin Nutr ; 40(11): 5587-5594, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microalbuminuria is an early sign of vascular complications of type 2 diabetes and predicts cardiovascular disease and mortality. Monomeric and oligomeric flavanols (MOFs) are linked to improved vascular health. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 3 months MOFs on albuminuria and endothelial function markers in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. Patients with type 2 diabetes received either 200 mg MOFs or placebo daily on top of their habitual diet and medication. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference of the change in 24-h Albumin Excretion Rate (AER) over three months. Secondary endpoints were the between-group differences of the change in plasma levels of different markers of endothelial dysfunction. Mixed-modelling was applied for the longitudinal analyses. RESULTS: Participants (n = 97) were 63.0 ± 9.5 years old; diabetes-duration was 15.7 ± 8.5 years. Median baseline AER was 60 (IQR 20-120) mg/24 h. There was no within-group difference in median change of AER from baseline to 3 months in the intervention (0 (-35-21) mg/24 h, p = 0.41) or the control group (0 (-20-10) mg/24 h, p = 0.91). There was no between-group difference in the course of AER over three months (log-transformed data: ß = -0.02 (95%CI -0.23-0.20), p = 0.88), nor in the plasma levels of the endothelial dysfunction markers. CONCLUSION: Daily 200 mg MOFs for three months on top of habitual diet and usual care did not reduce AER and plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction compared to placebo, in patients with long-term type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NTR4669, www.trialregister.nl.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479994

RESUMO

Patterned degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs) can be observed in a wide range of neuropathologies, but mechanisms behind nonrandom cerebellar neurodegeneration remain unclear. Sphingolipid metabolism dyshomeostasis typically leads to PC neurodegeneration; hence, we questioned whether local sphingolipid balance underlies regional sensitivity to pathological insults. Here, we investigated the regional compartmentalization of sphingolipids and their related enzymes in the cerebellar cortex in healthy and pathological conditions. Analysis in wild-type animals revealed higher sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) levels in the flocculonodular cerebellum, while sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels were higher in the anterior cerebellum. Next, we investigated a model for spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) driven by the transgenic expression of the expanded Ataxin 1 protein with 82 glutamine (82Q), exhibiting severe PC degeneration in the anterior cerebellum while the flocculonodular region is preserved. In Atxn1[82Q]/+ mice, we found that levels of Sphk1 and Sphk2 were region-specific decreased and S1P levels increased, particularly in the anterior cerebellum. To determine if there is a causal link between sphingolipid levels and neurodegeneration, we deleted the Sphk1 gene in Atxn1[82Q]/+ mice. Analysis of Atxn1[82Q]/+; Sphk1 -/- mice confirmed a neuroprotective effect, rescuing a subset of PCs in the anterior cerebellum, in domains reminiscent of the modules defined by AldolaseC expression. Finally, we showed that Sphk1 deletion acts on the ATXN1[82Q] protein expression and prevents PC degeneration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that there are regional differences in sphingolipid metabolism and that this metabolism is directly involved in PC degeneration in Atxn1[82Q]/+ mice.

4.
J Autoimmun ; 124: 102723, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481107

RESUMO

The initiation and progression of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is linked to aberrant cholesterol metabolism and overt inflammation. Liver X receptors (LXR) are nuclear receptors that function at the crossroads of cholesterol metabolism and immunity, and their activation is considered a promising therapeutic strategy to attenuate autoimmunity. However, despite clear functional heterogeneity and cell-specific expression profiles, the impact of the individual LXR isoforms on autoimmunity remains poorly understood. Here, we show that LXRα and LXRß have an opposite impact on immune cell function and disease severity in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, an experimental MS model. While Lxrα deficiency aggravated disease pathology and severity, absence of Lxrß was protective. Guided by flow cytometry and by using cell-specific knockout models, reduced disease severity in Lxrß-deficient mice was primarily attributed to changes in peripheral T cell physiology and occurred independent from alterations in microglia function. Collectively, our findings indicate that LXR isoforms play functionally non-redundant roles in autoimmunity, potentially having broad implications for the development of LXR-based therapeutic strategies aimed at dampening autoimmunity and neuroinflammation.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444774

RESUMO

Multiple health benefits have been ascribed to brown seaweeds that are used traditionally as dietary component mostly in Asia. This systematic review summarizes information on the impact of brown seaweeds or components on inflammation, and inflammation-related pathologies, such as allergies, diabetes mellitus and obesity. We focus on oral supplementation thus intending the use of brown seaweeds as food additives. Despite the great diversity of experimental systems in which distinct species and compounds were tested for their effects on inflammation and immunity, a remarkably homogeneous picture arises. The predominant effects of consumption of brown seaweeds or compounds can be classified into three categories: (1) inhibition of reactive oxygen species, known to be important drivers of inflammation; (2) regulation, i.e., in most cases inhibition of proinflammatory NF-κB signaling; (3) modulation of adaptive immune responses, in particular by interfering with T-helper cell polarization. Over the last decades, several inflammation-related diseases have increased substantially. These include allergies and autoimmune diseases as well as morbidities associated with lifestyle and aging. In this light, further development of brown seaweeds and seaweed compounds as functional foods and nutriceuticals might contribute to combat these challenges.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipersensibilidade/dietoterapia , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Alga Marinha , Verduras , Imunidade Adaptativa , Ásia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dieta , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Obesidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
6.
Atherosclerosis ; 329: 22-29, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lipoprotein(a) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and recurrent ischemic stroke. Lipoprotein(a) levels are known to be associated with carotid artery stenosis, but the relation of lipoprotein(a) levels to carotid atherosclerotic plaque composition and morphology is less known. We hypothesize that higher lipoprotein(a) levels and lipoprotein(a)-related SNPs are associated with a more vulnerable carotid plaque and that this effect is sex-specific. METHODS: In 182 patients of the Plaque At RISK study we determined lipoprotein(a) concentrations, apo(a) KIV-2 repeats and LPA SNPs. Imaging characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis were determined by MDCTA (n = 161) and/or MRI (n = 171). Regressions analyses were used to investigate sex-stratified associations between lipoprotein(a) levels, apo(a) KIV-2 repeats, and LPA SNPs and imaging characteristics. RESULTS: Lipoprotein(a) was associated with presence of lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) (aOR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00; 1.15), thin-or-ruptured fibrous cap (TRFC) (aOR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01; 1.14), and degree of stenosis (ß = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.00; 0.88). In women, lipoprotein(a) was associated with presence of intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06; 1.61). In men, lipoprotein(a) was associated with degree of stenosis (ß = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.04; 1.12). Rs10455872 was significantly associated with increased calcification volume (ß = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.25; 1.89) and absence of plaque ulceration (aOR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.04; 0.93). T3888P was associated with absence of LRNC (aOR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.16; 0.78) and smaller maximum vessel wall area (ß = -10.24, 95%CI: -19.03; -1.44). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis, increased lipoprotein(a) levels were associated with degree of stenosis, and IPH, LRNC, and TRFC, known as vulnerable plaque characteristics, in the carotid artery. T3888P was associated with lower LRNC prevalence and smaller maximum vessel wall area. Further research in larger study populations is needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas , Placa Aterosclerótica , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteína(a) , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 212: 105942, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144153

RESUMO

Enhancing the cholesterol turnover in the brain via activation of liver x receptors can restore memory in a mouse model for Alzheimer's disease. The edible Asian brown alga Sargassum fusiforme (Hijiki) contains high amounts of oxysterols such as (3ß, 24ξ)-stigmasta-5, 28-dien-3, 24-diol (24[R, S]-saringosterol) that are a potent liver x receptor agonists. We aimed to find native European seaweed species with contents of 24(R, S)-saringosterol that are comparable to those found in Sargassum fusiforme. Additionally, we hypothesize that seasonal variations modify the amount of 24(R, S)-saringosterol in seaweeds. Sterols and oxysterols were extracted with chloroform/methanol from various seaweed species harvested in the Eastern Scheldt in different seasons between October 2016 and September 2017. Identification and quantification of the lipids was performed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry and gas chromatography- flame ionization detection. We confirmed that brown algae Undaria pinnatifida harvested in February and Sargassum muticum harvested in October contained the highest amounts of 24(R, S)-saringosterol (32.4 ± 15.25 µg/g, mean ± S.D. and 32.95 ± 2.91 µg/g, respectively) and its precursor fucosterol (1.48 ± 0.11 mg/g), higher than Sargassum fusiforme (20.94 ± 3.00 µg/g, mean ± S.D.), while Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus contained amounts of 24(R, S)-saringosterol (22.09 ± 3.45 µg/g, 18.04 ± 0.52 µg/g and 19.47 ± 9.01 µg/g, mean ± S.D., respectively) comparable to Sargassum fusiforme. In other algae only minor amounts of these sterols were observed. The green algae Ulva lactuca contained only 0.29 mg/g fucosterol and 10.3 µg/g 24 (R, S)-saringosterol, while all investigated red algae did not contain any 24(R, S)-saringosterol or fucosterol. In the Eastern Scheldt algae harvested in September/October delivered the highest yield for 24(R, S)-saringosterol, with the exception of Undaria pinnatifida that showed the highest levels in February. We showed that exposure of lipid extracts of Ulva lactuca to sunlight at room temperature or in the presence of oxygen to UV-C light lead to the quantitative conversion of fucosterol into 24(R, S)-saringosterol. Exposing pure fucosterol to UV-light did not convert any fucosterol into 24(R, S)-saringosterol underscoring the requirement of seaweed constituents in the conversion of fucosterol into 24(R, S)-saringosterol. In conclusion, we showed that brown seaweeds harvested from the Eastern Scheldt contain amounts of 24(R, S)-saringosterol comparable to Sargassum fusiforme, varying per season and showing the highest amounts in spring. In accordance with these observations the amount of 24(R, S)-saringosterol in the brown seaweeds can be modulated by light.


Assuntos
Feófitas/metabolismo , Alga Marinha/metabolismo , Estigmasterol/análogos & derivados , Artefatos , Fatores Biológicos/química , Fatores Biológicos/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Isomerismo , Estigmasterol/química , Estigmasterol/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Ulva/metabolismo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933650

RESUMO

Plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) exhibits many functions that render it an effective endothelial protective agent and may underlie its potential role in protecting the maternal vascular endothelium during pregnancy. In non-pregnant individuals, the HDL lipidome is altered in metabolic disease compared to healthy individuals and is linked to reduced cholesterol efflux, an effect that can be reversed by lifestyle management. Specific sphingolipids such as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) have been shown to mediate the vaso-dilatory effects of plasma HDL via interaction with the endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway. This review describes the relationship between plasma HDL and vascular function during healthy pregnancy and details how this is lost in pre-eclampsia, a disorder of pregnancy associated with widespread endothelial dysfunction. Evidence of a role for HDL sphingolipids, in particular S1P and ceramide, in cardiovascular disease and in healthy pregnancy and pre-eclampsia is discussed. Available data suggest that HDL-S1P and HDL-ceramide can mediate vascular protection in healthy pregnancy but not in preeclampsia. HDL sphingolipids thus are of potential importance in the healthy maternal adaptation to pregnancy.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Esfingolipídeos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
9.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1828): 20200057, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993769

RESUMO

Phylogenetic analyses increasingly take centre-stage in our understanding of the processes shaping patterns of cultural diversity and cultural evolution over time. Just as biologists explain the origins and maintenance of trait differences among organisms using phylogenetic methods, so anthropologists studying cultural macroevolutionary processes use phylogenetic methods to uncover the history of human populations and the dynamics of culturally transmitted traits. In this paper, we revisit concerns with the validity of these methods. Specifically, we use simulations to reveal how properties of the sample (size, missing data), properties of the tree (shape) and properties of the traits (rate of change, number of variants, transmission mode) might influence the inferences that can be drawn about trait distributions across a given phylogeny and the power to discern alternative histories. Our approach shows that in two example datasets specific combinations of properties of the sample, of the tree and of the trait can lead to potentially high rates of Type I and Type II errors. We offer this simulation tool to help assess the potential impact of this list of persistent perils in future cultural macroevolutionary work. This article is part of the theme issue 'Foundations of cultural evolution'.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Evolução Cultural , Filogenia , Humanos
10.
Mar Drugs ; 19(4)2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801706

RESUMO

We recently found that dietary supplementation with the seaweed Sargassum fusiforme, containing the preferential LXRß-agonist 24(S)-saringosterol, prevented memory decline and reduced amyloid-ß (Aß) deposition in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model without inducing hepatic steatosis. Here, we examined the effects of 24(S)-saringosterol as a food additive on cognition and neuropathology in AD mice. Six-month-old male APPswePS1ΔE9 mice and wildtype C57BL/6J littermates received 24(S)-saringosterol (0.5 mg/25 g body weight/day) (APPswePS1ΔE9 n = 20; C57BL/6J n = 19) or vehicle (APPswePS1ΔE9 n = 17; C57BL/6J n = 19) for 10 weeks. Cognition was assessed using object recognition and object location tasks. Sterols were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, Aß and inflammatory markers by immunohistochemistry, and gene expression by quantitative real-time PCR. Hepatic lipids were quantified after Oil-Red-O staining. Administration of 24(S)-saringosterol prevented cognitive decline in APPswePS1ΔE9 mice without affecting the Aß plaque load. Moreover, 24(S)-saringosterol prevented the increase in the inflammatory marker Iba1 in the cortex of APPswePS1ΔE9 mice (p < 0.001). Furthermore, 24(S)-saringosterol did not affect the expression of lipid metabolism-related LXR-response genes in the hippocampus nor the hepatic neutral lipid content. Thus, administration of 24(S)-saringosterol prevented cognitive decline in APPswePS1ΔE9 mice independent of effects on Aß load and without adverse effects on liver fat content. The anti-inflammatory effects of 24(S)-saringosterol may contribute to the prevention of cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Estigmasterol/análogos & derivados , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Reconhecimento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estigmasterol/farmacologia
11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(17): 6423-6433, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885283

RESUMO

Terminal unactivated alkynes are nowadays considered the golden standard for cysteine-reactive warheads in activity-based probes (ABPs) targeting cysteine deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). In this work, we study the versatility of the thiol-alkyne addition reaction in more depth. Contrary to previous findings with UCHL3, we now show that covalent adduct formation can progress with substituents on the terminal or internal alkyne position. Strikingly, acceptance of alkyne substituents is strictly DUB-specific as this is not conserved among members of the same subfamily. Covalent adduct formation with the catalytic cysteine residue was validated by gel analysis and mass spectrometry of intact ABP-treated USP16CDWT and catalytically inactive mutant USP16CDC205A. Bottom-up mass spectrometric analysis of the covalent adduct with a deuterated propargyl ABP provides mechanistic understanding of the in situ thiol-alkyne reaction, identifying the alkyne rather than an allenic intermediate as the reactive species. Furthermore, kinetic analysis revealed that introduction of (bulky/electron-donating) methyl substituents on the propargyl moiety decreases the rate of covalent adduct formation, thus providing a rational explanation for the commonly lower level of observed covalent adduct compared to unmodified alkynes. Altogether, our work extends the scope of possible propargyl derivatives in cysteine targeting ABPs from unmodified terminal alkynes to internal and substituted alkynes, which we anticipate will have great value in the development of ABPs with improved selectivity profiles.


Assuntos
Alcinos/química , Cisteína Proteases/química , Pargilina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Pargilina/química , Propilaminas/química , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/química
12.
Neurobiol Aging ; 102: 178-187, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773368

RESUMO

Sphingolipids (SLs) are bioactive lipids involved in various important physiological functions. The SL pathway has been shown to be affected in several brain-related disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic dysregulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD as well. Here, we use an integrative approach to better understand the relationship between epigenetic and transcriptomic processes in regulating SL function in the middle temporal gyrus of AD patients. Transcriptomic analysis of 252 SL-related genes, selected based on GO term annotations, from 46 AD patients and 32 healthy age-matched controls, revealed 103 differentially expressed SL-related genes in AD patients. Additionally, methylomic analysis of the same subjects revealed parallel hydroxymethylation changes in PTGIS, GBA, and ITGB2 in AD. Subsequent gene regulatory network-based analysis identified 3 candidate genes, that is, SELPLG, SPHK1 and CAV1 whose alteration holds the potential to revert the gene expression program from a diseased towards a healthy state. Together, this epigenomic and transcriptomic approach highlights the importance of SL-related genes in AD, and may provide novel biomarkers and therapeutic alternatives to traditionally investigated biological pathways in AD.

13.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(7): 3717-3725, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first 6 months of life are a critical window for adiposity programming. Appetite-regulating hormones (ARH) are involved in food intake regulation and might, therefore, play a role in adiposity programming. Studies examining ARH in early life are limited. PURPOSE: To investigate ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and leptin until 6 months and associations with fat mass percentage (FM%), infant feeding and human milk macronutrients. PROCEDURES: In 297 term-born infants (Sophia Pluto Cohort), ghrelin (acylated), PYY and leptin were determined at 3 and 6 months, with FM% measurement by PEAPOD. Exclusive breastfeeding (BF) was classified as BF ≥ 3 months. Human milk macronutrients were analyzed (MIRIS Human Milk Analyzer). MAIN FINDINGS: Ghrelin increased from 3 to 6 months (p < 0.001), while PYY decreased (p < 0.001), resulting in increasing ghrelin/PYY ratio. Leptin decreased. Leptin at 3 months was higher in girls, other ARH were similar between sexes. Leptin at 3 and 6 months correlated with FM% at both ages(R ≥ 0.321, p ≤ 0.001) and gain in FM% from 1 to 6 months(R ≥ 0.204, p = 0.001). In BF infants, also ghrelin and ghrelin/PYY ratio correlated with this gain in FM%. Exclusively BF infants had lower ghrelin and higher PYY compared to formula fed infants at 3 months (p ≤ 0.039). ARH did not correlate with macronutrients. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing ghrelin and decreasing PYY, thus increasing ghrelin/PYY ratio, suggests an increasing orexigenic drive until 6 months. ARH were different between BF and FF infants at 3 months, but did not correlate with human milk macronutrients. Ghrelin and leptin, but not PYY, correlated with more FM development during the first 6 months, suggesting that they might be involved in adiposity programming.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Apetite , Grelina , Leptina , Feminino , Grelina/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leptina/fisiologia , Leite Humano , Peptídeo YY
14.
Biomolecules ; 11(2)2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578803

RESUMO

Post-translational modification with Ubiquitin-like proteins represents a complex signaling language regulating virtually every cellular process. Among these post-translational modifiers is Ubiquitin-fold modifier (UFM1), which is covalently attached to its substrates through the orchestrated action of a dedicated enzymatic cascade. Originally identified to be involved embryonic development, its biological function remains enigmatic. Recent research reveals that UFM1 regulates a variety of cellular events ranging from DNA repair to autophagy and ER stress response implicating its involvement in a variety of diseases. Given the contribution of UFM1 to numerous pathologies, the enzymes of the UFM1 cascade represent attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Here we discuss the current understanding of this cryptic post-translational modification especially its contribution to disease as well as expand on the unmet needs of developing chemical and biochemical tools to dissect its role.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/química , Animais , Autofagia , Sobrevivência Celular , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Humanos , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Transdução de Sinais , Especificidade por Substrato , Enzimas Ativadoras de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/química , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/química
15.
Nature ; 590(7847): 671-676, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536622

RESUMO

E3 ligases are typically classified by hallmark domains such as RING and RBR, which are thought to specify unique catalytic mechanisms of ubiquitin transfer to recruited substrates1,2. However, rather than functioning individually, many neddylated cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) and RBR-type E3 ligases in the ARIH family-which together account for nearly half of all ubiquitin ligases in humans-form E3-E3 super-assemblies3-7. Here, by studying CRLs in the SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF) family, we show how neddylated SCF ligases and ARIH1 (an RBR-type E3 ligase) co-evolved to ubiquitylate diverse substrates presented on various F-box proteins. We developed activity-based chemical probes that enabled cryo-electron microscopy visualization of steps in E3-E3 ubiquitylation, initiating with ubiquitin linked to the E2 enzyme UBE2L3, then transferred to the catalytic cysteine of ARIH1, and culminating in ubiquitin linkage to a substrate bound to the SCF E3 ligase. The E3-E3 mechanism places the ubiquitin-linked active site of ARIH1 adjacent to substrates bound to F-box proteins (for example, substrates with folded structures or limited length) that are incompatible with previously described conventional RING E3-only mechanisms. The versatile E3-E3 super-assembly may therefore underlie widespread ubiquitylation.


Assuntos
Proteínas F-Box/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligases SKP Culina F-Box/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Regulação Alostérica , Biocatálise , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Ciclina E/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosforilação , Especificidade por Substrato , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
16.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 45, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of ceramide and sphingomyelin levels have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ceramide transfer proteins (CERTs) are ceramide carriers which are crucial for ceramide and sphingomyelin balance in cells. Extracellular forms of CERTs co-localize with amyloid-ß (Aß) plaques in AD brains. To date, the significance of these observations for the pathophysiology of AD remains uncertain. METHODS: A plasmid expressing CERTL, the long isoform of CERTs, was used to study the interaction of CERTL with amyloid precursor protein (APP) by co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence in HEK cells. The recombinant CERTL protein was employed to study interaction of CERTL with amyloid-ß (Aß), Aß aggregation process in presence of CERTL, and the resulting changes in Aß toxicity in neuroblastoma cells. CERTL was overexpressed in neurons by adeno-associated virus (AAV) in a mouse model of familial AD (5xFAD). Ten weeks after transduction, animals were challenged with behavior tests for memory, anxiety, and locomotion. At week 12, brains were investigated for sphingolipid levels by mass spectrometry, plaques, and neuroinflammation by immunohistochemistry, gene expression, and/or immunoassay. RESULTS: Here, we report that CERTL binds to APP, modifies Aß aggregation, and reduces Aß neurotoxicity in vitro. Furthermore, we show that intracortical injection of AAV, mediating the expression of CERTL, decreases levels of ceramide d18:1/16:0 and increases sphingomyelin levels in the brain of male 5xFAD mice. CERTL in vivo over-expression has a mild effect on animal locomotion, decreases Aß formation, and modulates microglia by decreasing their pro-inflammatory phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate a crucial role of CERTL in regulating ceramide levels in the brain, in amyloid plaque formation and neuroinflammation, thereby opening research avenues for therapeutic targets of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ceramidas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Placa Amiloide
17.
Chembiochem ; 22(12): 2011-2031, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482040

RESUMO

The ubiquitylation machinery regulates several fundamental biological processes from protein homeostasis to a wide variety of cellular signaling pathways. As a consequence, its dysregulation is linked to diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, and autoimmunity. With this review, we aim to highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting E3 ligases, with a special focus on an emerging class of RING ligases, named tri-partite motif (TRIM) proteins, whose role as targets for drug development is currently gaining pharmaceutical attention. TRIM proteins exert their catalytic activity as scaffolds involved in many protein-protein interactions, whose multidomains and adapter-like nature make their druggability very challenging. Herein, we give an overview of the current understanding of this class of single polypeptide RING E3 ligases and discuss potential targeting options.

19.
J Clin Lipidol ; 15(1): 134-141, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduction of the aortic valve area (AVA) may lead to aortic valve stenosis with considerable impact on morbidity and mortality if not identified and treated. Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and also inflammatory biomarkers, including platelet derived biomarkers, have been considered risk factor for aortic stenosis; however, the association between Lp(a), inflammatory biomarkers and AVA among patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is not clear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the relation between concentration of Lp(a), measurements of the aortic valve including velocities and valve area and circulating inflammatory biomarkers in adult FH subjects and controls. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study aortic valve measures were examined by cardiac ultrasound and inflammatory markers were analyzed in non-fasting blood samples. The study participants were 64 FH subjects with high (n = 29) or low (n = 35) Lp(a), and 14 healthy controls. RESULTS: Aortic valve peak velocity was higher (p = 0.02), and AVA was lower (p = 0.04) in the FH patients compared to controls; however, when performing multivariable linear regression, there were no significant differences. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the high and low FH Lp(a) groups regarding the aortic valve. FH subjects had higher levels of platelet-derived markers CD40L, PF4, NAP2 and RANTES compared to controls (0.003 ≤ P ≤ 0.03). This result persisted after multiple linear regression. CONCLUSIONS: Middle-aged, intensively treated FH subjects have higher aortic valve velocity, lower AVA, and higher levels of the platelet-derived markers CD40L, PF4, NAP2 and RANTES compared to healthy control subjects. The aortic valve findings were not significant after multiple linear regression, whereas the higher levels of platelet-derived markers were maintained.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 394, 2020 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In pregnancy lipid levels increase with gestation resembling an atherogenic lipid profile. Currently it is unclear whether gestational lipid levels are associated with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile later in life. The aim of this study is to assess the association between gestational lipid levels and lipid levels and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) six years after pregnancy. METHODS: In plasma of 3510 women from the Generation R Study; a prospective population-based cohort, we measured lipid levels (total cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c]), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), remnant cholesterol and non-HDL-c were calculated in early pregnancy (median 13.2 weeks, 90% range [10.5 to 17.1]) and six years after pregnancy (median 6.5 years, 90% range [6.2 to 7.8]). MS was assessed six years after pregnancy according to the NCEP/ATP3 criteria. We also examined the influence of pregnancy complications on these associations. RESULTS: Gestational lipid levels were positively associated with corresponding lipid levels six years after pregnancy, independent of pregnancy complications. Six years after pregnancy the prevalence of MS was 10.0%; the prevalence was higher for women with a previous placental syndrome (13.5%). Gestational triglycerides and remnant cholesterol in the highest quartile and HDL-c in the lowest quartile were associated with the highest risk for future MS, independent of smoking and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational lipid levels provide an insight in the future cardiovascular risk profile of women in later life. Monitoring and lifestyle intervention could be indicated in women with an unfavorable gestational lipid profile to optimize timely cardiovascular risk prevention.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Idade de Início , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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