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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255425

RESUMO

Spontaneous T cell responses to tumor-associated antigens (TAs) in the peripheral blood of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be relevant for postoperative survival. However, the conditions underlying these T cell responses remain unclear. We quantified the levels of 27 cytokines in the peripheral blood and tumor tissues from treatment-naïve patients with NSCLC (n = 36) and analyzed associations between local and systemic cytokine profiles and both TA-specific T cell responses and clinical parameters. We defined T cell responders as patients with circulating T cells that were reactive to TAs and T cell nonresponders as patients without detectable TA-specific T cells. TA-specific T cell responses were correlated with serum cytokine levels, particularly the levels of interleukin(IL)-4 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), but poorly correlated with the cytokine levels in tumor tissues. Nonresponders showed significantly higher serum IL-4 levels than responders (p = 0.03); the predicted probability of being a responder was higher for individuals with low serum IL-4 levels. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, in addition to IL-4 (hazard ratio (HR) 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78-9.9); p = 0.116), the age-adjusted IL-8 level (HR 3.9 (95% CI: 1.05-14.5); p = 0.042) predicted tumor recurrence. However, this study included data for many cytokines without adjustment for multiple testing; thus, the observed differences in IL-4 or IL-8 levels might be incidental findings. Therefore, additional studies are necessary to confirm these results.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256112

RESUMO

Iroquois homeobox (IRX) encodes members of homeodomain containing genes which are involved in development and differentiation. Since it has been reported that the IRX1 gene is localized in a lung cancer susceptibility locus, the epigenetic regulation and function of IRX1 was investigated in lung carcinogenesis. We observed frequent hypermethylation of the IRX1 promoter in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared to small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Aberrant IRX1 methylation was significantly correlated with reduced IRX1 expression. In normal lung samples, the IRX1 promoter showed lower median DNA methylation levels (<10%) compared to primary adenocarcinoma (ADC, 22%) and squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC, 14%). A significant hypermethylation and downregulation of IRX1 was detected in ADC and SQCC compared to matching normal lung samples (p < 0.0001). Low IRX1 expression was significantly correlated with impaired prognosis of ADC patients (p = 0.001). Reduced survival probability was also associated with higher IRX1 promoter methylation (p = 0.02). Inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity reactivated IRX1 expression in human lung cancer cell lines. Induced DNMT3A and EZH2 expression was correlated with downregulation of IRX1. On the cellular level, IRX1 exhibits nuclear localization and expression of IRX1 induced fragmented nuclei in cancer cells. Localization of IRX1 and induction of aberrant nuclei were dependent on the presence of the homeobox of IRX1. By data mining, we showed that IRX1 is negatively correlated with oncogenic pathways and IRX1 expression induces the proapoptotic regulator BAX. In conclusion, we report that IRX1 expression is significantly associated with improved survival probability of ADC patients. IRX1 hypermethylation may serve as molecular biomarker for ADC diagnosis and prognosis. Our data suggest that IRX1 acts as an epigenetically regulated tumor suppressor in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

3.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361096

RESUMO

Fibrosis can affect any organ resulting in the loss of tissue architecture and function with often life-threatening consequences. Pathologically, fibrosis is characterised by expansion of connective tissue due to excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), including the fibrillar forms of collagen. A significant limitation for discovering cures for fibrosis is the availability of suitable human models and techniques to quantify mature fibrillar collagen deposition as close as possible to human physiological conditions. Here we have extensively characterised an ex vivo cultured human lung tissue-derived, precision-cut lung slices model (hPCLS) using label-free second harmonic (SHG) light microscopy to quantify fibrillar collagen deposition and mass spectrometry-based techniques to obtain a proteomic and metabolomic fingerprint of hPCLS in ex vivo culture.We demonstrate that hPCLS are viable and metabolically active with mesenchymal, epithelial, endothelial, and immune cell types surviving for at least 2 weeks in ex vivo culture. Analysis of hPCLS-conditioned supernatants showed a strong induction of pulmonary fibrosis-related ECM proteins upon TGFß1 stimulation. This upregulation of ECM proteins was not translated into an increased deposition of fibrillar collagen. In support of this observation, we revealed the presence of a pro-ECM degradation activity in our ex vivo cultures of hPCLS, inhibition of which by metalloproteinase inhibitor resulted in increased collagen deposition in response to TGFß1 stimulation. Together the data show that an integrated approach of measuring soluble pro-fibrotic markers alongside quantitative SHG-based analysis of fibrillar collagen is a valuable tool for studying pro-fibrotic signalling and testing antifibrotic agents.

4.
EBioMedicine ; 62: 103103, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted therapies (TKI) have improved the prognosis of ALK-rearranged lung cancer (ALK+ NSCLC), but clinical courses vary widely. Early identification and molecular characterisation of treatment failure have key importance for subsequent therapies. We performed copy number variation (CNV) profiling and targeted panel sequencing from cell-free DNA (cfDNA) to monitor ALK+ NSCLC. METHODS: 271 longitudinal plasma DNA samples from 73 patients with TKI-treated metastatic ALK+ NSCLC were analysed by capture-based targeted (average coverage 4,100x), and shallow whole genome sequencing (sWGS, 0.5x). Mutations were called using standard algorithms. CNVs were quantified using the trimmed median absolute deviation from copy number neutrality (t-MAD). FINDINGS: cfDNA mutations were identified in 58% of patients. They included several potentially actionable alterations, e.g. in the genes BRAF, ERBB2, and KIT. sWGS detected CNVs in 18% of samples, compared to 6% using targeted sequencing. Several of the CNVs included potentially druggable targets, such as regions harboring EGFR, ERBB2, and MET. Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) mutations and t-MAD scores increased during treatment, correlated with markers of higher molecular risk, such as the EML4-ALK variant 3 and/or TP53 mutations, and were associated with shorter patient survival. Importantly, t-MAD scores reflected the tumour remission status in serial samples similar to mutant ctDNA allele frequencies, and increased with disease progression in 79% (34/43) of cases, including those without detectable single nucleotide variant (SNV). INTERPRETATION: Combined copy number and targeted mutation profiling could improve monitoring of ALK+ NSCLC. Potential advantages include the identification of treatment failure, in particular for patients without detectable mutations, and broader detection of genomic changes acquired during therapy, especially in later treatment lines and in high-risk patients. FUNDING: This work was supported by the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), by the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), by the Heidelberg Center for Personalized Oncology at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ-HIPO), and by Roche Sequencing Solutions (Pleasanton, CA, USA).

5.
Tumour Biol ; 42(9): 1010428320958603, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964798

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether changes in progastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP) levels correlate with treatment response and can be used to optimize clinical management of patients with small-cell lung cancer. Patients with small-cell lung cancer (any stage) receiving chemotherapy were eligible. ProGRP was measured in serum/plasma at baseline and after each chemotherapy cycle using the Elecsys® ProGRP assay (Roche Diagnostics). Treatment response was assessed by computed tomography scan. The primary objective was to examine whether changes in ProGRP levels correlated with computed tomography scan results after two cycles of chemotherapy. The prognostic value of ProGRP among patients receiving first-line chemotherapy was also assessed. Overall, 261 patients from six centers were eligible. Among patients with elevated baseline ProGRP (>100 pg/mL), a ProGRP decline after Cycle 2 was associated with nonprogression (area under the curve: 84%; 95% confidence interval: 72.8-95.1; n = 141). ProGRP changes from baseline to end of Cycle 1 were predictive of response, as determined by computed tomography scan 3 weeks later (area under the curve: 87%; 95% confidence interval: 74.1-99.2; n = 137). This was enhanced by repeat measurements, with a 92% area under the curve (95% confidence interval: 85.3-97.8) among patients with ProGRP data after both Cycles 1 and 2 (n = 123); if a patient experienced a ≥25% decline in ProGRP after Cycle 1, and ProGRP remained stable or decreased after Cycle 2, the probability of finding progression on the interim computed tomography scan at the end of Cycle 2 was almost zero (sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 71%). Both ProGRP levels at baseline and at the end of first-line chemotherapy were prognostic; the latter provided a moderately improved hazard ratio of 2.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.33-4.46; n = 110) versus 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-3.37; n = 216). In summary, for patients with small-cell lung cancer and elevated baseline ProGRP levels, ProGRP may be a simple, reliable, and repeatable tool for monitoring response to chemotherapy and provide valuable prognostic information.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , China , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas Recombinantes/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967325

RESUMO

Subtyping of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is paramount for therapy stratification. In this study, we analyzed the largest NSCLC cohort by mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) to date. We sought to test different classification algorithms and to validate results obtained in smaller patient cohorts. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) from including adenocarcinoma (ADC, n = 499) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC, n = 440), were analyzed. Linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine, and random forest (RF) were applied using samples randomly assigned for training (66%) and validation (33%). The m/z species most relevant for the classification were identified by on-tissue tandem mass spectrometry and validated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Measurements from multiple TMAs were comparable using standardized protocols. RF yielded the best classification results. The classification accuracy decreased after including less than six of the most relevant m/z species. The sensitivity and specificity of MSI in the validation cohort were 92.9% and 89.3%, comparable to IHC. The most important protein for the discrimination of both tumors was cytokeratin 5. We investigated the largest NSCLC cohort by MSI to date and found that the classification of NSCLC into ADC and SqCC is possible with high accuracy using a limited set of m/z species.

7.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(4): 1000-1014, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953480

RESUMO

Background: Availability of tumor material at baseline and disease progression is increasingly important for patient management in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially for the application of targeted therapies like tyrosine kinase inhibitors and for immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment. Here we report the experience of prospective biomaterial acquisition in advanced NSCLC from a pilot project. Methods: Main objective was the longitudinal collection of high-quality, cryoconserved biopsies in addition to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsies required for routine diagnostics, along with blood samples and detailed clinical annotation using standardized questionnaires. Results: Over five years, 205 patients were enrolled for the project, yielding 387 cryoconserved biopsies and 1,098 serum, plasma and buffy-coat samples. The feasibility of obtaining the cryoconserved biopsies in addition to the FFPE biopsies was 89% for newly diagnosed cases, but dropped down to 56% and 47% at first and second disease progression, respectively. While forceps biopsy was the preferred procedure for tissue acquisition, the highest tissue amounts were received using the cryobiopsy method. Biopsies had a median tumor cellularity of 34% and yielded in median 13.6 µg DNA and 12 µg RNA (median RIN =8). During the five-year project, a maximum of 38 follow-up blood samples per patient were assembled in up to four therapy lines. Conclusions: Despite the poor condition and limited prognosis of most NSCLC patients, this serial biomaterial acquisition including routine collection of cryoconserved biopsies is feasible to support individualized management. The standardized collection of high-quality material has enabled and enriched several translational research studies that can advance therapeutic options.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4527, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913197

RESUMO

Evasion of programmed cell death represents a critical form of oncogene addiction in cancer cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning cancer cell survival despite the oncogenic stress could provide a molecular basis for potential therapeutic interventions. Here we explore the role of pro-survival genes in cancer cell integrity during clonal evolution in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We identify gains of MCL-1 at high frequency in multiple independent NSCLC cohorts, occurring both clonally and subclonally. Clonal loss of functional TP53 is significantly associated with subclonal gains of MCL-1. In mice, tumour progression is delayed upon pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of MCL-1. These findings reveal that MCL-1 gains occur with high frequency in lung adenocarcinoma and can be targeted therapeutically.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Evolução Clonal , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Cultura Primária de Células , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , RNA-Seq , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esferoides Celulares , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Microtomografia por Raio-X
9.
Histopathology ; 77(6): 900-914, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634256

RESUMO

AIMS: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and breast cancer are common entities. Staining for oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), mammaglobin (MAMG) and GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) is frequently performed to confirm a mammary origin in the appropriate diagnostic setting. However, comprehensive data on the immunohistological expression of these markers in NSCLC are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse a large cohort of NSCLCs and correlate the staining results with clinicopathological variables. METHODS AND RESULTS: A tissue microarray was stained for ER, PgR, MAMG, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and GATA3, and included 636 adenocarcinomas (ADCs), 536 squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs), 65 large-cell-carcinomas, 34 pleomorphic carcinomas, and 20 large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. HER2 status was determined for immunohistochemically positive cases with chromogenic in-situ hybridisation. Markers with a proportion of ≥5% positive cases in ADC and SqCC were considered for survival analysis. Among ADCs, 62 (10%), 17 (3%), one (<1%), seven (1%), and 49 (8%) cases were positive for ER, PgR, MAMG, HER2, and GATA3, respectively. Among SqCCs, 10 (2%), 14 (3%), two (<1%) and 109 (20%) cases were positive for ER, PgR, HER2, and GATA3, but none of the samples showed positivity for MAMG. ER positivity was associated with ADC, female sex, smaller tumour size, and lower clinical stage. None of the markers had an impact on survival. CONCLUSION: We report on ER, PgR, MAMG, HER2 and GATA3 expression in a large cohort of NSCLCs. Interpretation of these markers in the differential diagnostic setting should be based on a multimarker panel.

10.
Cells ; 9(8)2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707902

RESUMO

Investigation of the molecular dynamics in lung cancer is crucial for the development of new treatment strategies. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 14 belongs to the FGF family, which might play a crucial role in cancer progression. We analyzed lung adenocarcinoma (LUAC) patients samples and found that FGF14 was downregulated, correlating with reduced survival and oncogenic mutation status. FGF14 overexpression in lung cancer cell lines resulted in decreased proliferation, colony formation, and migration, as well as increased expression of epithelial markers and a decreased expression of mesenchymal markers, indicating a mesenchymal to epithelial transition in vitro. We verified these findings using small interfering RNA against FGF14 and further confirmed the suppressive effect of FGF14 in a NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ immunodeficient xenograft tumor model. Moreover, FGF14 overexpressing tumor cell RNA sequencing data suggests that genes affected by FGF14 were related to the extracellular matrix, playing a role in proliferation and migration. Notably, newly identified FGF14 target genes, adenosine deaminase RNA specific B1 (ADARB1), collagen and calcium-binding epidermal growth factor domain-containing protein 1 (CCBE1), α1 chain of collagen XI (COL11A1), and mucin 16 (MUC16) expression was negatively correlated with overall survival when FGF14 was downregulated in LUAC. These findings led us to suggest that FGF14 regulates proliferation and migration in LUAC.

11.
Cancer Cell ; 37(6): 800-817.e7, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516590

RESUMO

Tumors are influenced by the mechanical properties of their microenvironment. Using patient samples and atomic force microscopy, we found that tissue stiffness is higher in liver metastases than in primary colorectal tumors. Highly activated metastasis-associated fibroblasts increase tissue stiffness, which enhances angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapy resistance. Drugs targeting the renin-angiotensin system, normally prescribed to treat hypertension, inhibit fibroblast contraction and extracellular matrix deposition, thereby reducing liver metastases stiffening and increasing the anti-angiogenic effects of bevacizumab. Patients treated with bevacizumab showed prolonged survival when concomitantly treated with renin-angiotensin inhibitors, highlighting the importance of modulating the mechanical microenvironment for therapeutic regimens.


Assuntos
Bevacizumab/farmacologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/prevenção & controle , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Captopril/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Losartan/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(6)2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560475

RESUMO

Reliable entity subtyping is paramount for therapy stratification in lung cancer. Morphological evaluation remains the basis for entity subtyping and directs the application of additional methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC). The decision of whether to perform IHC for subtyping is subjective, and access to IHC is not available worldwide. Thus, the application of additional methods to support morphological entity subtyping is desirable. Therefore, the ability of convolutional neuronal networks (CNNs) to classify the most common lung cancer subtypes, pulmonary adenocarcinoma (ADC), pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), was evaluated. A cohort of 80 ADC, 80 SqCC, 80 SCLC, and 30 skeletal muscle specimens was assembled; slides were scanned; tumor areas were annotated; image patches were extracted; and cases were randomly assigned to a training, validation or test set. Multiple CNN architectures (VGG16, InceptionV3, and InceptionResNetV2) were trained and optimized to classify the four entities. A quality control (QC) metric was established. An optimized InceptionV3 CNN architecture yielded the highest classification accuracy and was used for the classification of the test set. Image patch and patient-based CNN classification results were 95% and 100% in the test set after the application of strict QC. Misclassified cases mainly included ADC and SqCC. The QC metric identified cases that needed further IHC for definite entity subtyping. The study highlights the potential and limitations of CNN image classification models for tumor differentiation.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340408

RESUMO

Oligoprogression (OPD) of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) occurs in approximately half of patients under targeted compounds (TKI) and facilitates use of regional therapies that can prolong survival. In order to characterize OPD in immunotherapy (IO)-treated NSCLC, we analyzed the failure pattern under PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors (n = 297) or chemoimmunotherapy (n = 75). Under IO monotherapy, OPD was more frequent (20% vs. 10%, p < 0.05), occurred later (median 11 vs. 5 months, p < 0.01), affected fewer sites (mean 1.1 vs. 1.5, p < 0.05), and involved fewer lesions (1.4 vs. 2.3, p < 0.05) in the first compared to later lines. Lymph nodes (42%, mainly mediastinal) and the brain (39%) were mostly affected, followed by the lung (24%) and other organs. Compared to multifocal progression, OPD occurred later (11 vs. 4 months, p < 0.001) and was associated with longer survival (26 vs. 13 months, p < 0.001) and higher tumor PD-L1 expression (p < 0.001). Chemoimmunotherapy showed a similar incidence of OPD as IO monotherapy (13% vs. 11% at 2 years). Local treatments were applied regularly for brain but only in 50% for extracranial lesions. Thus, NSCLC oligoprogression is less common under IO than under TKI, but also favorable. Since its frequency drops later in the disease, regular restaging and multidisciplinary evaluation are essential in order to exploit the full therapeutic potential.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2012, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332792

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive interstitial lung disease characterized by patchy scarring of the distal lung with limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis. Here, we show that conditional deletion of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 (Nedd4l) in lung epithelial cells in adult mice produces chronic lung disease sharing key features with IPF including progressive fibrosis and bronchiolization with increased expression of Muc5b in peripheral airways, honeycombing and characteristic alterations in the lung proteome. NEDD4-2 is implicated in the regulation of the epithelial Na+ channel critical for proper airway surface hydration and mucus clearance and the regulation of TGFß signaling, which promotes fibrotic remodeling. Our data support a role of mucociliary dysfunction and aberrant epithelial pro-fibrotic response in the multifactorial disease pathogenesis. Further, treatment with the anti-fibrotic drug pirfenidone reduced pulmonary fibrosis in this model. This model may therefore aid studies of the pathogenesis and therapy of IPF.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Pulmão/patologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biópsia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Canais Epiteliais de Sódio/metabolismo , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Pulmão/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucina-5B/metabolismo , Proteômica , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Ubiquitinação
15.
EMBO J ; 39(10): e105114, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246845

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic affecting the human respiratory system severely challenges public health and urgently demands for increasing our understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis, especially host factors facilitating virus infection and replication. SARS-CoV-2 was reported to enter cells via binding to ACE2, followed by its priming by TMPRSS2. Here, we investigate ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels and their distribution across cell types in lung tissue (twelve donors, 39,778 cells) and in cells derived from subsegmental bronchial branches (four donors, 17,521 cells) by single nuclei and single cell RNA sequencing, respectively. While TMPRSS2 is strongly expressed in both tissues, in the subsegmental bronchial branches ACE2 is predominantly expressed in a transient secretory cell type. Interestingly, these transiently differentiating cells show an enrichment for pathways related to RHO GTPase function and viral processes suggesting increased vulnerability for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data provide a rich resource for future investigations of COVID-19 infection and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Brônquios/citologia , Expressão Gênica , Pulmão/citologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Brônquios/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Alemanha , Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Caracteres Sexuais , Fumar , Bancos de Tecidos
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290637

RESUMO

Computed tomography (CT) scans are the gold standard to measure treatment success of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapies. Here, we investigated the very early tumor response of patients receiving chemotherapy or targeted therapies using a panel of already established and explorative liquid biomarkers. Blood samples from 50 patients were taken at baseline and at three early time points after therapy initiation. DNA mutations, a panel of 17 microRNAs, glycodelin, glutathione disulfide, glutathione, soluble caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18 (M30 antigen), and soluble cytokeratin 18 (M65 antigen) were measured in serum and plasma samples. Baseline and first follow-up CT scans were evaluated and correlated with biomarker data. The detection rate of the individual biomarkers was between 56% and 100%. While only keratin 18 correlated with the tumor load at baseline, we found several individual markers correlating with the tumor response to treatment for each of the three time points of blood draws. A combination of the five best markers at each time point resulted in highly significant marker panels indicating therapeutic response (R2 = 0.78, R2 = 0.71, and R2 = 0.71). Our study demonstrates that an early measurement of biomarkers immediately after therapy start can assess tumor response to treatment and might support an adaptation of treatment to improve patients' outcome.

17.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(3): 782-793, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274145

RESUMO

Background: Etoposide-/platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard first-line treatment for extensive-disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC), but responses are short-lived and subsequent options limited. Here, we present our experience with paclitaxel in advanced treatment lines. Methods: We retrospectively studied the clinical course of all paclitaxel-treated SCLC patients between 2005 and 2015 in our institution. Prognostic and predictive factors were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results: A total of 185 patients [119 men, median age 65 years, median ECOG performance status (PS) 1] were identified. One hundred and sixty-eight patients had extensive disease (ED) at the time of paclitaxel therapy. Paclitaxel was mainly given as third- or fourth-line therapy (93%). The response rate (RR) was 17% and disease control rate (DCR) 28%. Patients reached a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4-1.8) months and median overall survival (OS) of 3.3 (95% CI: 2.8-3.9) months. Main toxicities were fatigue (25%) and polyneuropathy (17%). Dose reduction of ≥25% was associated with shorter PFS [1.9 (95% CI: 1.5-2.3) vs. 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3-1.5) months; P=0.004]. Further independent predictive factors for PFS were gender, age, and hepatic/brain metastases (P<0.05). Tumor response to paclitaxel, PS, number and location of metastases, dose reduction, and smoking history were significant factors for OS in univariable analyses (P<0.05), while PS, dose reduction, status of cerebral/hepatic metastases, tumor response, and smoking history were retained as independent prognostic factors in multivariable testing. Notably, ECOG PS 2 patients had toxicity rates similar to ECOG PS 0-1 patients (63% vs. 62%), as well as a comparable DCR (29% vs. 28%), which was associated with prolonged survival (4.5 vs. 3.2 months for refractory cases, P=0.034). Conclusions: Paclitaxel has clinically relevant activity in heavily pretreated SCLC. While patients with good PS and no cerebral/hepatic metastases derive the greatest benefit, ECOG PS 2 per se should not be used as a criterion to exclude patients.

18.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(8): 1338-1350, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272161

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgical procedure is the treatment of choice in early stage I lung adenocarcinoma. However, a considerable number of patients experience recurrence within the first 2 years after complete resection. Suitable prognostic biomarkers that identify patients at high risk of recurrence (who may probably benefit from adjuvant treatment) are still not available. This study aimed at identifying methylation markers for early recurrence that may become important tools for the development of new treatment modalities. METHODS: Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling was performed on 30 stage I lung adenocarcinomas, comparing 14 patients with early metastatic recurrence with 16 patients with a long-term relapse-free survival period using methylated-CpG-immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput next-generation sequencing. The differentially methylated regions between the two subgroups were validated for their prognostic value in two independent cohorts using the MassCLEAVE assay, a high-resolution quantitative methylation analysis. RESULTS: Unsupervised clustering of patients in the discovery cohort on the basis of differentially methylated regions identified patients with shorter relapse-free survival (hazard ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 0.66-7.53; p = 0.03). In two validation cohorts, promoter hypermethylation of the long noncoding RNA PLUT was significantly associated with shorter relapse-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.54; 95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.93; p < 0.026) and could be reported as an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Promoter hypermethylation of the long noncoding RNA PLUT is predictive in patients with early stage I adenocarcinoma at high risk for early recurrence. Further studies are needed to validate its role in carcinogenesis and its use as a biomarker to facilitate patient selection and risk stratification.

19.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 28(1): 67-73, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640754

RESUMO

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) can show areas closely mimicking reactive mesothelial proliferations or recapitulating benign adenomatoid tumors (ATs) making distinction on occasion impossible on morphologic ground alone, particularly in limited biopsy material. Recently, loss of BAP1 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been suggested as a potential marker for identifying MM, but data is still limited. We studied 264 MM cases (257 using tissue microarrays; 7 on conventional slides) and 42 genital ATs for BAP1 immunohistochemical expression. Loss of BAP1 protein expression was observed in 119/211 of MM cases (56.4%). Taken by histologic type, 64.3% of biphasic, 55.4% of epithelioid, and 41.7% of sarcomatoid MM were BAP1-deficient. In contrast, all 42 ATs showed retained BAP1 immunoreactivity. Notably, all 4 MM cases with variable adenomatoid-like features were BAP1-deficient. Surface components of MM of the pleura showed concordant loss as the invasive tumor suggesting a potential role for BAP1 loss for recognizing so-called early mesothelioma. In conclusion, BAP1 loss demonstrated by IHC is seen in more than half of MM cases but none of ATs. Thus, BAP1 IHC represents a potential adjunct for distinguishing MM from benign mesothelial proliferations including in particular "MM with bland adenomatoid-like pattern versus benign ATs" on biopsy material and early mesothelioma with limited invasion.


Assuntos
Tumor Adenomatoide , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/biossíntese , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/biossíntese , Tumor Adenomatoide/diagnóstico , Tumor Adenomatoide/metabolismo , Tumor Adenomatoide/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/metabolismo , Mesotelioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica
20.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 28(3): 237-242, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recognition of neuroendocrine differentiation is important for tumor classification and treatment stratification. To detect and confirm neuroendocrine differentiation, a combination of morphology and immunohistochemistry is often required. In this regard, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and CD56 are established immunohistochemical markers. Insulinoma-associated protein 1 (INSM1) has been suggested as a novel stand-alone marker with the potential to replace the current standard panel. In this study, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of INSM1 and established markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 493 lung tumors including 112 typical, 39 atypical carcinoids, 77 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 144 small cell lung cancers, 30 thoracic paragangliomas, 47 adenocarcinomas, and 44 squamous cell carcinomas were selected and tissue microarrays were constructed. Synaptophysin, chromogranin A, CD56, and INSM1 were stained on all cases and evaluated manually as well as with an analysis software. Positivity was defined as ≥1% stained tumor cells in at least 1 of 2 cores per patient. RESULTS: INSM1 was positive in 305 of 402 tumors with expected neuroendocrine differentiation (typical and atypical carcinoids, large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, small cell lung cancers, and paraganglioma; sensitivity: 76%). INSM1 was negative in all but 1 of 91 analyzed non-neuroendocrine tumors (adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas; specificity: 99%). All conventional markers, as well as their combination, had a higher sensitivity (97%) and a lower specificity (78%) for neuroendocrine differentiation compared with INSM1. CONCLUSIONS: Although INSM1 might be a meaningful adjunct in the differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasias, a general uncritical vote for replacing the traditional markers by INSM1 may not be justified.

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