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2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 136-143, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, while published data are scarce. This study determined HPV prevalence and risk factors in MSM in Vietnam to inform HPV prevention strategies in this key population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 799 MSM aged 16-50 years was conducted in Vietnam in 2017-2018. Information was collected on risk behaviours, and knowledge of HPV and anal cancer; rectal swabs were taken to detect anal HPV infection. An in-house polymerase chain reaction and Genoflow HPV array test kit were used for HPV detection and genotyping. RESULTS: The median age of the study participants was 25 years (range 18-52). Overall prevalence of any HPV and HPV16/18 infection was 32.3% and 11.0%, respectively. A higher prevalence of high-risk HPV infection to all 14 types tested was found in Ho Chi Minh City (30.9%) than in Hanoi (18.4%). High-risk HPV infection was associated with inconsistent condom use and history of engaging in sex under the influence of drugs (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 2.27; 95% CI, 1.48-10.67), as well as having multiple sexual partners (aOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02). CONCLUSIONS: High-risk anal HPV infections in Vietnamese MSM were significantly associated with risky sexual behaviours. A targeted HPV vaccination strategy would have substantial benefit for MSM in Vietnam.

3.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 16: 100273, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590071

RESUMO

Background: This study investigated the immunogenicity and impact on nasopharyngeal carriage of a single dose of PCV10 given to 18-month-old Vietnamese children. This information is important for countries considering catch-up vaccination during PCV introduction and in the context of vaccination during humanitarian crises. Methods: Two groups of PCV-naïve children within the Vietnam Pneumococcal Project received PCV10 (n=197) or no PCV (unvaccinated; n=199) at 18 months of age. Blood samples were collected at 18, 19, and 24 months of age, and nasopharyngeal swabs at 18 and 24 months of age. Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring serotype-specific IgG, opsonophagocytosis (OPA) and memory B cells (Bmem). Pneumococci were detected and quantified using real-time PCR and serotyped by microarray. Findings: At 19 months of age, IgG and OPA responses were higher in the PCV10 group compared with the unvaccinated group for all PCV10 serotypes and cross-reactive serotypes 6A and 19A. This was sustained out to 24 months of age, at which point PCV10-type carriage was 60% lower in the PCV10 group than the unvaccinated group. Bmem levels increased between 18 and 24 months of age in the vaccinated group. Interpretation: We demonstrate strong protective immune responses in vaccinees following a single dose of PCV10 at 18 months of age, and a potential impact on herd protection through a substantial reduction in vaccine-type carriage. A single dose of PCV10 in the second year of life could be considered as part of catch-up campaigns or in humanitarian crises to protect children at high-risk of pneumococcal disease.

4.
Arch Dis Child ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early recognition of children at risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection is important as it informs management decisions. We aimed to evaluate factors associated with severe disease among young children hospitalised with RSV infection. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children <2 years of age hospitalised for RSV lower respiratory tract infection at a single tertiary paediatric hospital over three RSV seasons (January 2017-December 2019). We classified children as having 'moderate' or 'severe' disease based on the level of respiratory intervention and used univariable and multivariable regression models to determine factors associated with severe disease. RESULTS: Of 970 hospitalised children, 386 (40%) were classified as having 'severe' and 584 (60%) as having 'moderate' RSV disease. On multivariable analyses, age <2 months (OR: 2.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.3, p<0.0001), prematurity (OR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.4, p=0.02) and RSV-parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) codetection (OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.05 to 6.5, p=0.04) were independently associated with severe disease. CONCLUSION: Younger age, prematurity and PIV3 codetection were associated with severe RSV disease in children <2 years of age hospitalised with RSV infection. The association between PIV3 and severe RSV disease is a novel finding and warrants further investigation.

5.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; : 1-9, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are effective in reducing pneumococcal disease. We measured 13-valent PCV (PCV13) effect on different pneumococcal outcomes using diverse studies in Lao People's Democratic Republic. METHODS: Studies included: pre-PCV13 population-based record review of hospitalized childhood pneumonia cases; acute respiratory infection (ARI) study post-PCV13 to demonstrate effectiveness (VE) against hypoxic pneumonia; invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) surveillance in all ages (2004-2018); carriage studies in children hospitalized with ARI (2013-2019); community carriage surveys pre- and post-PCV13. RESULTS: Annual pneumonia incidence rate in children pre-PCV13 was 1,530 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1,477-1,584) per 100,000. Adjusted VE against hypoxic pneumonia was 37% (95% CI 6-57%). For IPD, 85% (11/13) of cases were due to vaccine-types pre-PCV13, and 43% (3/7) post-PCV13 in children aged <5 years; for ≥5 years, 61% (27/44) and 42% (17/40), respectively. For ARI cases, adjusted VE for vaccine-type carriage was 39% (95% CI 4-60) in <5 year olds; slightly higher than community surveys (23% [95% CI 4-39%] in 12-23 month olds). CONCLUSIONS: Despite limited baseline data, we found evidence of PCV13 impact on disease and carriage. Our approach could be used in similar settings to augment existing WHO PCV evaluation guidelines.

6.
PLoS Med ; 18(8): e1003733, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited empiric evidence on the coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) required to generate substantial indirect protection. We investigate the association between population PCV coverage and indirect protection against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia hospitalisations among undervaccinated Australian children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Birth and vaccination records, IPD notifications, and hospitalisations were individually linked for children aged <5 years, born between 2001 and 2012 in 2 Australian states (New South Wales and Western Australia; 1.37 million children). Using Poisson regression models, we examined the association between PCV coverage, in small geographical units, and the incidence of (1) 7-valent PCV (PCV7)-type IPD; (2) all-cause pneumonia; and (3) pneumococcal and lobar pneumonia hospitalisation in undervaccinated children. Undervaccinated children received <2 doses of PCV at <12 months of age and no doses at ≥12 months of age. Potential confounding variables were selected for adjustment a priori with the assistance of a directed acyclic graph. There were strong inverse associations between PCV coverage and the incidence of PCV7-type IPD (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.967, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.958 to 0.975, p-value < 0.001), and pneumonia hospitalisations (all-cause pneumonia: aIRR 0.991 95% CI 0.990 to 0.994, p-value < 0.001) among undervaccinated children. Subgroup analyses for children <4 months old, urban, rural, and Indigenous populations showed similar trends, although effects were smaller for rural and Indigenous populations. Approximately 50% coverage of PCV7 among children <5 years of age was estimated to prevent up to 72.5% (95% CI 51.6 to 84.4) of PCV7-type IPD among undervaccinated children, while 90% coverage was estimated to prevent 95.2% (95% CI 89.4 to 97.8). The main limitations of this study include the potential for differential loss to follow-up, geographical misclassification of children (based on residential address at birth only), and unmeasured confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed substantial indirect protection at lower levels of PCV coverage than previously described-challenging assumptions that high levels of PCV coverage (i.e., greater than 90%) are required. Understanding the association between PCV coverage and indirect protection is a priority since the control of vaccine-type pneumococcal disease is a prerequisite for reducing the number of PCV doses (from 3 to 2). Reduced dose schedules have the potential to substantially reduce program costs while maintaining vaccine impact.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452046

RESUMO

Australian researchers have made substantial contributions to the field of vaccinology over many decades. Two examples of this contribution relate to pneumococcal vaccines and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, with a focus on improving access to these vaccines in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs). Many LLMICs considering introducing one or both of these vaccines into their National Immunisation Programs face significant barriers such as cost, logistics associated with vaccine delivery. These countries also often lack the resources and expertise to undertake the necessary studies to evaluate vaccine performance. This review summarizes the role of Australia in the development and/or evaluation of pneumococcal vaccines and the HPV vaccine, including the use of alternative vaccine strategies among countries situated in the Asia-Pacific region. The outcomes of these research programs have had significant global health impacts, highlighting the importance of these vaccines in preventing pneumococcal disease as well as HPV-associated diseases.

8.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(9): 1293-1302, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Gambia introduced seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in August 2009, followed by PCV13 in May, 2011, using a schedule of three primary doses without a booster dose or catch-up immunisation. We aimed to assess the long-term impact of PCV on disease incidence. METHODS: We did 10 years of population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and WHO defined radiological pneumonia with consolidation in rural Gambia. The surveillance population included all Basse Health and Demographic Surveillance System residents aged 2 months or older. Nurses screened all outpatients and inpatients at all health facilities using standardised criteria for referral. Clinicians then applied criteria for patient investigation. We defined IPD as a compatible illness with isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from a normally sterile site (cerebrospinal fluid, blood, or pleural fluid). We compared disease incidence between baseline (May 12, 2008-May 11, 2010) and post-vaccine years (2016-2017), in children aged 2 months to 14 years, adjusting for changes in case ascertainment over time. FINDINGS: We identified 22 728 patients for investigation and detected 342 cases of IPD and 2623 cases of radiological pneumonia. Among children aged 2-59 months, IPD incidence declined from 184 cases per 100 000 person-years to 38 cases per 100 000 person-years, an 80% reduction (95% CI 69-87). Non-pneumococcal bacteraemia incidence did not change significantly over time (incidence rate ratio 0·88; 95% CI, 0·64-1·21). We detected zero cases of vaccine-type IPD in the 2-11 month age group in 2016-17. Incidence of radiological pneumonia decreased by 33% (95% CI 24-40), from 10·5 to 7·0 per 1000 person-years in the 2-59 month age group, while pneumonia hospitalisations declined by 27% (95% CI 22-31). In the 5-14 year age group, IPD incidence declined by 69% (95% CI -28 to 91) and radiological pneumonia by 27% (95% CI -5 to 49). INTERPRETATION: Routine introduction of PCV13 substantially reduced the incidence of childhood IPD and pneumonia in rural Gambia, including elimination of vaccine-type IPD in infants. Other low-income countries can expect substantial impact from the introduction of PCV13 using a schedule of three primary doses. FUNDING: Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; UK Medical Research Council; Pfizer Ltd.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas/psicologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gâmbia , Humanos , Imunização , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vigilância da População
9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203030

RESUMO

Encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis cause significant morbidity and mortality in young children despite the availability of vaccines. Highly specific antibodies are the primary mechanism of protection against invasive disease. Robust and standardised assays that measure functional antibodies are also necessary for vaccine evaluation and allow for the accurate comparison of data between clinical studies. This mini review describes the current state of functional antibody assays and their importance in measuring protective immunity.

10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(10): 1415-1428, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are scarce from low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) to support the choice of vaccination schedule for the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). We aimed to compare the immunogenicity of four different infant PCV10 schedules in infants in Vietnam. METHODS: In this single-blind, parallel-group, open-label, randomised controlled trial, infants aged 2 months were recruited by community health staff in districts 4 and 7 of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Eligible infants had no clinically significant maternal or prenatal history and were born at or after 36 weeks' gestation. Participants were randomly assigned (3:3:5:4:5:4) using block randomisation, stratified by district, to one of six PCV10 or PCV13 vaccination schedules. Here we report results for four groups: group A, who were given PCV10 at ages 2, 3, 4, and 9 months (a 3 + 1 schedule); group B, who were vaccinated at ages 2, 3, and 4 months (3 + 0 schedule); group C, who were vaccinated at ages 2, 4, and 9·5 months (2 + 1 schedule); and group D, who were vaccinated at ages 2 and 6 months (two-dose schedule). Laboratory-based assessors were masked to group allocation. Blood samples were collected at different prespecified timepoints between ages 3-18 months depending on group allocation, within 27-43 days after vaccination, and these were analysed for serotype-specific IgG and opsonophagocytic responses. Participants were followed-up until age 24 months. The primary outcome was the proportion of infants with serotype-specific IgG levels of 0·35 µg/mL or higher at age 5 months, analysed as a non-inferiority comparison (10% margin) of the two-dose and three-dose primary series (group C vs groups A and B combined). We also compared responses 4 weeks after two doses administered at either ages 2 and 4 months (group C) or at ages 2 and 6 months (group D). The primary endpoint was analysed in the per-protocol population. Reactogenicity has been reported previously. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01953510, and is now closed to accrual. FINDINGS: Between Sept 30, 2013, and Jan 9, 2015, 1201 infants were enrolled and randomly assigned to group A (n=152), group B (n=149), group C (n=250), group D (n=202), or groups E (n=251) and F (n=197). In groups A-D, 388 (52%) of 753 participants were female and 365 (48%) were male. 286 (95%) participants in groups A and B combined (three-dose primary series) and 237 (95%) in group C (two-dose primary series) completed the primary vaccination series and had blood samples taken within the specified time window at age 5 months (per-protocol population). At this timepoint, a two-dose primary series was non-inferior to a three-dose primary series for eight of ten vaccine serotypes; exceptions were 6B (84·6% [95% CI 79·9-88·6] of infants had protective IgG concentrations after three doses [groups A and B combined] vs 76·8% [70·9-82·0] of infants after two doses [group C]; risk difference 7·8% [90% CI 2·1-13·6]) and 23F (90·6% [95% CI 86·6-93·7] vs 77·6% [71·8-82·2]; 12·9% [90% CI 7·7-18·3]). Two doses at ages 2 and 6 months produced higher antibody levels than two doses at ages 2 and 4 months for all serotypes except 5 and 7F. INTERPRETATION: A two-dose primary vaccination series was non-inferior to a three-dose primary vaccination series while two doses given with a wider interval between doses increased immunogenicity. The use of a two-dose primary vaccination schedule using a wider interval could be considered in LMIC settings to extend protection in the second year of life. FUNDING: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, and The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108146

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Empiric data on indirect (herd) effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in settings with low or heterogeneous PCV coverage are limited. The indirect effects of PCV, which benefits both vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals, are mediated by reductions in vaccine-type (VT) carriage (a prerequisite for disease). The aim of this study among hospitalised children in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is to determine the effectiveness of a 13-valent PCV (PCV13) against VT pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage (direct effects) and the association between village-level PCV13 coverage and VT carriage (indirect effects). METHODS: Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage surveillance commenced in December 2013, shortly after PCV13 introduction (October 2013). We recruited and swabbed children aged 2-59 months admitted to hospital with acute respiratory infection. Pneumococci were detected using lytA quantitative real-time PCR and serotyped using microarray. PCV13 status and village-level PCV13 coverage were determined using written immunisation records. Associations between both PCV13 status and village-level PCV13 coverage and VT carriage were calculated using generalised estimating equations, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: We enrolled 1423 participants and determined PCV13 coverage for 368 villages (269 863 children aged under 5 years). By 2017, median village-level vaccine coverage reached 37.5%, however, the IQR indicated wide variation among villages (24.1-56.4). Both receipt of PCV13 and the level of PCV13 coverage were independently associated with a reduced odds of VT carriage: adjusted PCV13 effectiveness was 38.1% (95% CI 4.1% to 60.0%; p=0.032); and for each per cent increase in PCV13 coverage, the estimated odds of VT carriage decreased by 1.1% (95% CI 0.0% to 2.2%; p=0.056). After adjustment, VT carriage decreased from 20.0% to 12.8% as PCV13 coverage increased from zero to 60% among under 5. CONCLUSIONS: Despite marked heterogeneity in PCV13 coverage, we found evidence of indirect effects in Lao PDR. Individual vaccination with PCV13 was effective against VT carriage.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Criança , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Sorotipagem , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vacinas Conjugadas
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2233-2235, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016252

RESUMO

The duration of the humoral immune response in children infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is unknown. We detected specific IgG 6 months after infection in children who were asymptomatic or had mild symptoms of coronavirus disease. These findings will inform vaccination strategies and other prevention measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G
14.
Vaccine ; 39(16): 2303-2310, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) generate herd protection by reducing nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage. Two PCVs, PCV10 and PCV13, have been in use for over a decade, yet there are few data comparing their impact on carriage. Here we report their effect on carriage in a 2+1 schedule, compared with each other and with unvaccinated controls. METHODS: Data from four groups within a parallel, open-label randomised controlled trial in Ho Chi Minh City contribute to this article. Three groups were randomised to receive a 2+1 schedule of PCV10 (n = 250), a 2+1 schedule of PCV13 (n = 251), or two doses of PCV10 at 18 and 24 months (controls, n = 197). An additional group (n = 199) was recruited at 18 months to serve as controls from 18 to 24 months. NP swabs collected at 2, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months were analysed (blinded) for pneumococcal carriage. This study aimed to determine if PCV10 and PCV13 have a differential effect on pneumococcal carriage, a secondary outcome of the trial. We also describe the serotype distribution among unvaccinated participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01953510. FINDINGS: Compared with unvaccinated controls, a 2+1 schedule of PCV10 reduced PCV10-type carriage by 45-62% from pre-booster through to 24 months of age, and a 2+1 schedule of PCV13 reduced PCV13-type carriage by 36-49% at 12 and 18 months of age. Compared directly with each other, there were few differences between the vaccines in their impact on carriage. Vaccine serotypes accounted for the majority of carriage in unvaccinated participants. INTERPRETATION: Both PCV10 and PCV13 reduce the carriage of pneumococcal vaccine serotypes. The introduction of either vaccine would have the potential to generate significant herd protection in this population. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Austrália , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Lactente , Nasofaringe , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Sorogrupo , Vacinas Conjugadas , Vietnã/epidemiologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1084, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597531

RESUMO

Children have mild severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) confirmed disease (COVID-19) compared to adults and the immunological mechanisms underlying this difference remain unclear. Here, we report acute and convalescent innate immune responses in 48 children and 70 adults infected with, or exposed to, SARS-CoV-2. We find clinically mild SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is characterised by reduced circulating subsets of monocytes (classical, intermediate, non-classical), dendritic cells and natural killer cells during the acute phase. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2-infected adults show reduced proportions of non-classical monocytes only. We also observe increased proportions of CD63+ activated neutrophils during the acute phase to SARS-CoV-2 in infected children. Children and adults exposed to SARS-CoV-2 but negative on PCR testing display increased proportions of low-density neutrophils that we observe up to 7 weeks post exposure. This study characterises the innate immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection and household exposure in children.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine if dried blood spot specimens (DBS) can reliably detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies, we compared the SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody response in paired serum and eluates from DBS specimens. METHODS: A total of 95 paired DBS and serum samples were collected from 74 participants (aged 1-63 years) as part of a household cohort study in Melbourne, Australia. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies specific for the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and S1 proteins between serum and eluates from DBS specimens were compared using an FDA-approved ELISA method. RESULTS: Among the 74 participants, 42% (31/74) were children and the rest were adults. A total of 16 children and 13 adults were SARS-CoV-2 positive by polymerase chain reaction. The IgG seropositivity rate was similar between serum and DBS specimens (18.9% (18/95) versus 16.8% (16/95)), respectively. Similar RBD and S1-specific IgG levels were detected between serum and DBS specimens. Serum IgG levels strongly correlated with DBS IgG levels (r = 0.99, P < 0.0001) for both SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Furthermore, antibodies remained stable in DBS specimens for >3 months. CONCLUSIONS: DBS specimens can be reliably used as an alternative to serum samples for SARS-CoV-2 antibody measurement. The use of DBS specimens would facilitate serosurveillance efforts particularly in hard-to-reach populations and inform public health responses including COVID-19 vaccination strategies.

18.
Thorax ; 76(9): 942-950, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574121

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral pathogen associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children under 5 years of age. Severe RSV disease is associated with the development of chronic respiratory complications such as recurrent wheezing and asthma. A common risk factor for developing severe RSV disease is premature gestation and this is largely due to an immature innate immune system. This increases susceptibility to RSV since the innate immune system is less able to protect against pathogens at a time when adaptive immunity has not fully developed. This review focuses on comparing different aspects of innate immunity between preterm and term infants to better understand why preterm infants are more susceptible to severe RSV disease. Identifying early life innate immune biomarkers associated with the development of severe RSV disease, and understanding how these compare between preterm and term infants, remains a critically important question that would aid the development of interventions to reduce the burden of disease in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 337, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431887

RESUMO

Conjunctival pneumococcal serotypes among members of a community have not been investigated well. We determined the prevalence and association of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx and conjunctiva among children in a community before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. In October 2016, conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children (< 24 months old) and nasopharyngeal swabs from mothers in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Quantitative lytA PCR and DNA microarray were performed to detect and serotype S. pneumoniae. The association between S. pneumoniae in the nasopharynx and conjunctiva was evaluated using multivariable logistic regression model. Among 698 children, 62 (8.9%, 95% CI 6.9-11.2%) were positive for S. pneumoniae in the conjunctiva. Non-encapsulated S. pneumoniae were most commonly identified, followed by serotypes 6A, 6B, and 14. Nasopharyngeal and conjunctival detection were positively associated (aOR 47.30, 95% CI 24.07-92.97). Low birth-weight, day-care attendance, and recent eye symptoms were independently associated with S. pneumoniae detection in the conjunctiva (aOR 11.14, 95% CI 3.76-32.98, aOR 2.19, 95% CI 1.45-3.31, and aOR 3.59, 95% CI 2.21-5.84, respectively). Serotypes and genotypes in the conjunctiva and nasopharynx matched in 87% of the children. Three mothers' nasopharyngeal pneumococcal samples had matched serotype and genotype with their child's in the conjunctiva and nasopharynx. S. pneumoniae presence in nasopharynx and conjunctiva were strongly associated. The high concordance of serotypes suggests nasopharyngeal carriage may be a source of transmission to the conjunctiva.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Vietnã
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5703, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177504

RESUMO

Compared to adults, children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have predominantly mild or asymptomatic infections, but the underlying immunological differences remain unclear. Here, we describe clinical features, virology, longitudinal cellular, and cytokine immune profile, SARS-CoV-2-specific serology and salivary antibody responses in a family of two parents with PCR-confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and their three children, who tested repeatedly SARS-CoV-2 PCR negative. Cellular immune profiles and cytokine responses of all children are similar to their parents at all timepoints. All family members have salivary anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detected, predominantly IgA, that coincide with symptom resolution in 3 of 4 symptomatic members. Plasma from both parents and one child have IgG antibody against the S1 protein and virus-neutralizing activity detected. Using a systems serology approach, we demonstrate higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody features of these family members compared to healthy controls. These data indicate that children can mount an immune response to SARS-CoV-2 without virological confirmation of infection, raising the possibility that immunity in children can prevent the establishment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Relying on routine virological and serological testing may not identify exposed children, with implications for epidemiological and clinical studies across the life-span.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Citocinas/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saliva/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Austrália , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Pandemias , Pais , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Testes Sorológicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
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