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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527138

RESUMO

Sexual dimorphism in cancer incidence and outcome is widespread. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is fundamental to improve cancer prevention and clinical management. Sex disparities are particularly striking in kidney cancer: across diverse populations, men consistently show unexplained two-fold increased incidence and worse prognosis. We have characterized genome-wide expression and regulatory networks of 609 renal tumors and 256 non-tumor renal tissues. Normal kidney displayed sex-specific transcriptional signatures, including higher expression of X-linked tumor suppressor genes in women. Sex-dependent genotype-phenotype associations unraveled women-specific immune regulation. Sex differences were markedly expanded in tumors, with male-biased expression of key genes implicated in metabolism, non-malignant diseases with male predominance, and carcinogenesis, including markers of tumor infiltrating leukocytes. Analysis of sex-dependent RCC progression and survival uncovered prognostic markers involved in immune response and oxygen homeostasis. In summary, human kidney tissues display remarkable sexual dimorphism at the molecular level. Sex-specific transcriptional signatures further shape renal cancer, with relevance for clinical management.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has the potential to improve disease outcomes. No screening program for sporadic RCC is in place. Given relatively low incidence, screening would need to focus on people at high risk of clinically meaningful disease so as to limit overdiagnosis and screen-detected false positives. METHODS: Among 192,172 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (including 588 incident RCC cases), we evaluated a published RCC risk prediction model (including age, sex, BMI, and smoking status) in terms of discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (observed probability as a function of predicted probability). We used a flexible parametric survival model to develop an expanded model including age, sex, BMI, and smoking status, with the addition of self-reported history of hypertension and measured blood pressure. RESULTS: The previously published model yielded well-calibrated probabilities and good discrimination (C-statistic [95% CI]: 0.699 [0.679-0.721]). Our model had slightly improved discrimination (0.714 [0.694-0.735], bootstrap optimism-corrected C-statistic: 0.709). Despite this good performance, predicted risk was low for the vast majority of participants, with 70% of participants having 10-year risk less than 0.0025. CONCLUSIONS: Although the models performed well for the prediction of incident RCC, they are currently insufficiently powerful to identify individuals at substantial risk of RCC in a general population. IMPACT: Despite the promising performance of the EPIC RCC risk prediction model, further development of the model, possibly including biomarkers of risk, is required to enable risk stratification of RCC.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240413, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity has been positively associated with upper gastrointestinal cancers, but prospective data by subtype/subsite are limited. Obesity influences hormonal factors, which may play a role in these cancers. We examined anthropometry, body fat and reproductive factors in relation to oesophageal and gastric cancer by subtype/subsite in the UK Biobank cohort. METHODS: Among 458,713 UK Biobank participants, 339 oesophageal adenocarcinomas, 124 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 137 gastric cardia and 92 gastric non-cardia cancers were diagnosed during a mean of 6.5 years follow-up. Cox models estimated multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Body mass index (BMI), hip circumference, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, total body fat and trunk fat were positively associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma (highest vs lowest category: HR = 2.33, 95%-CI:1.65-3.28; HR = 1.56, 95%-CI:1.15-2.13; HR = 2.30, 95%-CI:1.47-3.57; HR = 1.71, 95%-CI:1.01-2.90; HR = 2.87, 95%-CI:1.88-4.38; HR = 1.96, 95%-CI:1.30-2.96; HR = 2.34, 95%-CI:1.70-3.22, respectively). Although there were no statistically significant associations in combined sex analyses, BMI (HR = 1.83, 95%-CI:1.00-3.37), waist circumference (HR = 2.21, 95%-CI:1.27-3.84) and waist-to-hip ratio (HR = 1.92, 95%-CI:1.11-3.29) were associated with gastric cardia cancer in men; however, mutual adjustment attenuated the associations for BMI and waist-to-hip ratio. For oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, statistically significant inverse associations were observed among women for BMI, hip circumference, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, total body fat and trunk fat, although they were based on small numbers. In addition, older age at first (HR = 0.44, 95%-CI:0.22-0.88) and last live birth (HR = 0.44, 95%-CI:0.22-0.87) were inversely associated with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and having a stillbirth/miscarriage/termination was positively associated (HR = 1.84, 95%-CI:1.10-3.07). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and abdominal obesity specifically may be a risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma and gastric cardia cancer in men. Some reproductive factors may be associated with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in women.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038275

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for several major cancers. Associations of weight change in middle adulthood with cancer risk, however, are less clear. We examined the association of change in weight and body mass index (BMI) category during middle adulthood with 42 cancers, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Of 241 323 participants (31% men), 20% lost and 32% gained weight (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) during 6.9 years (average). During 8.0 years of follow-up after the second weight assessment, 20 960 incident cancers were ascertained. Independent of baseline BMI, weight gain (per one kg/year increment) was positively associated with cancer of the corpus uteri (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.23). Compared to stable weight (±0.4 kg/year), weight gain (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) was positively associated with cancers of the gallbladder and bile ducts (HR = 1.41; 1.01-1.96), postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.08; 1.00-1.16) and thyroid (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.90). Compared to maintaining normal weight, maintaining overweight or obese BMI (World Health Organisation categories) was positively associated with most obesity-related cancers. Compared to maintaining the baseline BMI category, weight gain to a higher BMI category was positively associated with cancers of the postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.19; 1.06-1.33), ovary (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.91), corpus uteri (HR = 1.42; 1.06-1.91), kidney (HR = 1.80; 1.20-2.68) and pancreas in men (HR = 1.81; 1.11-2.95). Losing weight to a lower BMI category, however, was inversely associated with cancers of the corpus uteri (HR = 0.40; 0.23-0.69) and colon (HR = 0.69; 0.52-0.92). Our findings support avoiding weight gain and encouraging weight loss in middle adulthood.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14541, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883969

RESUMO

Abdominal and general adiposity are independently associated with mortality, but there is no consensus on how best to assess abdominal adiposity. We compared the ability of alternative waist indices to complement body mass index (BMI) when assessing all-cause mortality. We used data from 352,985 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for other risk factors. During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, 38,178 participants died. Combining in one model BMI and a strongly correlated waist index altered the association patterns with mortality, to a predominantly negative association for BMI and a stronger positive association for the waist index, while combining BMI with the uncorrelated A Body Shape Index (ABSI) preserved the association patterns. Sex-specific cohort-wide quartiles of waist indices correlated with BMI could not separate high-risk from low-risk individuals within underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) categories, while the highest quartile of ABSI separated 18-39% of the individuals within each BMI category, which had 22-55% higher risk of death. In conclusion, only a waist index independent of BMI by design, such as ABSI, complements BMI and enables efficient risk stratification, which could facilitate personalisation of screening, treatment and monitoring.

6.
Gut ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) prioritisation to mitigate the impact of delays in the colorectal cancer (CRC) urgent diagnostic (2-week-wait (2WW)) pathway consequent from the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: We modelled the reduction in CRC survival and life years lost resultant from per-patient delays of 2-6 months in the 2WW pathway. We stratified by age group, individual-level benefit in CRC survival versus age-specific nosocomial COVID-19-related fatality per referred patient undergoing colonoscopy. We modelled mitigation strategies using thresholds of FIT triage of 2, 10 and 150 µg Hb/g to prioritise 2WW referrals for colonoscopy. To construct the underlying models, we employed 10-year net CRC survival for England 2008-2017, 2WW pathway CRC case and referral volumes and per-day-delay HRs generated from observational studies of diagnosis-to-treatment interval. RESULTS: Delay of 2/4/6 months across all 11 266 patients with CRC diagnosed per typical year via the 2WW pathway were estimated to result in 653/1419/2250 attributable deaths and loss of 9214/20 315/32 799 life years. Risk-benefit from urgent investigatory referral is particularly sensitive to nosocomial COVID-19 rates for patients aged >60. Prioritisation out of delay for the 18% of symptomatic referrals with FIT >10 µg Hb/g would avoid 89% of these deaths attributable to presentational/diagnostic delay while reducing immediate requirement for colonoscopy by >80%. CONCLUSIONS: Delays in the pathway to CRC diagnosis and treatment have potential to cause significant mortality and loss of life years. FIT triage of symptomatic patients in primary care could streamline access to colonoscopy, reduce delays for true-positive CRC cases and reduce nosocomial COVID-19 mortality in older true-negative 2WW referrals. However, this strategy offers benefit only in short-term rationalisation of limited endoscopy services: the appreciable false-negative rate of FIT in symptomatic patients means most colonoscopies will still be required.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 432-444, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758450

RESUMO

Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano/genética , Medição de Risco , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
8.
Prostate ; 80(13): 1108-1117, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Putative castration-resistant (CR) stem-like cells (CRSC) have been identified based on their ability to initiate and drive prostate cancer (PCa) recurrence following castration in vivo. Yet the relevance of these CRSC in the course of the human disease and particularly for the transition from hormone-naive (HN) to castration-resistance is unclear. In this study, we aimed at deciphering the significance of CRSC markers in PCa progression. METHODS: We constructed a tissue microarray comprising 112 matched HN and CR tissue specimens derived from 55 PCa patients. Expression of eight stemness-associated markers (ALDH1A1, ALDH1A3, ALDH3A1, BMI1, NANOG, NKX3.1, OCT4, SOX2) was assessed by immunohistochemistry and scored as a percentage of positive tumor cells. For each marker, the resulting scores were statistically analyzed and compared to pathological and clinical data associated with the samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis was performed to stratify patients according to the expression of the eight CRSC markers. Publicly-available transcriptional datasets comprising HN and CR PCa samples were interrogated to assess the expression of the factors in silico. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical assessment of paired samples revealed atypical patterns of expression and intra- and intertumor heterogeneity for a subset of CRSC markers. While the expression of particular CRSC markers was dynamic over time in some patients, none of the markers showed significant changes in expression upon the development of castration resistance (CR vs HN). Using unsupervised clustering approaches, we identified phenotypic subtypes based on the expression of specific stem-associated markers. In particular, we found (a) patterns of mutual exclusivity for ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 expression, which was also observed at the transcriptomic level in publicly-available PCa datasets, and (b) a phenotypic cluster associated with more aggressive features. Finally, by comparing HN and CR matched samples, we identified phenotypic cluster switches (ie, change of phenotypic cluster between the HN and CR state), that may be associated with clinical and predictive relevance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate stemness-associated patterns that are associated with the development of castration-resistance. These results pave the way toward a deeper understanding of the relevance of CRSC markers in PCa progression and resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , /genética , Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Progressão da Doença , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Retinal Desidrogenase/genética , Retinal Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Tecidos
9.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(8): 1035-1044, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 lockdown, referrals via the 2-week-wait urgent pathway for suspected cancer in England, UK, are reported to have decreased by up to 84%. We aimed to examine the impact of different scenarios of lockdown-accumulated backlog in cancer referrals on cancer survival, and the impact on survival per referred patient due to delayed referral versus risk of death from nosocomial infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. METHODS: In this modelling study, we used age-stratified and stage-stratified 10-year cancer survival estimates for patients in England, UK, for 20 common tumour types diagnosed in 2008-17 at age 30 years and older from Public Health England. We also used data for cancer diagnoses made via the 2-week-wait referral pathway in 2013-16 from the Cancer Waiting Times system from NHS Digital. We applied per-day hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer progression that we generated from observational studies of delay to treatment. We quantified the annual numbers of cancers at stage I-III diagnosed via the 2-week-wait pathway using 2-week-wait age-specific and stage-specific breakdowns. From these numbers, we estimated the aggregate number of lives and life-years lost in England for per-patient delays of 1-6 months in presentation, diagnosis, or cancer treatment, or a combination of these. We assessed three scenarios of a 3-month period of lockdown during which 25%, 50%, and 75% of the normal monthly volumes of symptomatic patients delayed their presentation until after lockdown. Using referral-to-diagnosis conversion rates and COVID-19 case-fatality rates, we also estimated the survival increment per patient referred. FINDINGS: Across England in 2013-16, an average of 6281 patients with stage I-III cancer were diagnosed via the 2-week-wait pathway per month, of whom 1691 (27%) would be predicted to die within 10 years from their disease. Delays in presentation via the 2-week-wait pathway over a 3-month lockdown period (with an average presentational delay of 2 months per patient) would result in 181 additional lives and 3316 life-years lost as a result of a backlog of referrals of 25%, 361 additional lives and 6632 life-years lost for a 50% backlog of referrals, and 542 additional lives and 9948 life-years lost for a 75% backlog in referrals. Compared with all diagnostics for the backlog being done in month 1 after lockdown, additional capacity across months 1-3 would result in 90 additional lives and 1662 live-years lost due to diagnostic delays for the 25% backlog scenario, 183 additional lives and 3362 life-years lost under the 50% backlog scenario, and 276 additional lives and 5075 life-years lost under the 75% backlog scenario. However, a delay in additional diagnostic capacity with provision spread across months 3-8 after lockdown would result in 401 additional lives and 7332 life-years lost due to diagnostic delays under the 25% backlog scenario, 811 additional lives and 14 873 life-years lost under the 50% backlog scenario, and 1231 additional lives and 22 635 life-years lost under the 75% backlog scenario. A 2-month delay in 2-week-wait investigatory referrals results in an estimated loss of between 0·0 and 0·7 life-years per referred patient, depending on age and tumour type. INTERPRETATION: Prompt provision of additional capacity to address the backlog of diagnostics will minimise deaths as a result of diagnostic delays that could add to those predicted due to expected presentational delays. Prioritisation of patient groups for whom delay would result in most life-years lost warrants consideration as an option for mitigating the aggregate burden of mortality in patients with cancer. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Listas de Espera , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Hypertension ; 76(3): 683-691, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623924

RESUMO

We report on an analysis to explore the association between estimated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (surrogate for sodium intake) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Data were obtained from 398 628 UK Biobank prospective cohort study participants (40-69 years) recruited between 2006 and 2010, with no history of CVD, renal disease, diabetes mellitus or cancer, and cardiovascular events and mortality recorded during follow-up. Hazard ratios between 24-hour sodium excretion were estimated from spot urinary sodium concentrations across incident CVD and its components and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. In restricted cubic splines analyses, there was little evidence for an association between estimated 24-hour sodium excretion and CVD, coronary heart disease, or stroke; hazard ratios for CVD (95% CIs) for the 15th and 85th percentiles (2.5 and 4.2 g/day, respectively) compared with the 50th percentile of estimated sodium excretion (3.2 g/day) were 1.05 (1.01-1.10) and 0.96 (0.92-1.00), respectively. An inverse association was observed with heart failure, but that was no longer apparent in sensitivity analysis. A J-shaped association was observed between estimated sodium excretion and mortality. Our findings do not support a J-shaped association of estimated sodium excretion with CVD, although such an association was apparent for all-cause and cause-specific mortality across a wide range of diseases. Reasons for these differences are unclear; methodological limitations, including the use of estimating equations based on spot urinary data, need to be considered in interpreting our findings.

11.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(8): 3801-3813, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162043

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Little is known about the aetiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Components of one-carbon (1C) metabolism, which are required for nucleotide synthesis and methylation reactions, may be related to risk of RCC but existing evidence is inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and independent exposure-specific meta-analyses of dietary intake and circulating biomarkers of 1C metabolites and RCC risk. METHODS: Medline and Embase databases were searched for observational studies investigating RCC or kidney cancer incidence or mortality in relation to components of 1C metabolism and 12 eligible articles were included in the meta-analyses. We used Bayesian meta-analyses to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% credible intervals (CrIs) comparing the highest versus lowest categories as well as the between-study heterogeneity. RESULTS: We did not find convincing evidence of an association between any exposure (riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, methionine, homocysteine, choline, or betaine) and RCC risk. However, vitamin B6 biomarker status did have a protective (RR = 0.62) but imprecise (95% CrI 0.39-1.14) effect estimate and folate intake had a notable association as well (RR = 0.85, 95% CrI 0.71-1.01). CONCLUSION: There was a lack of precision due largely to the low number of studies. Further investigation is warranted, especially for folate and vitamin B6, which had consistent suggestive evidence of a protective effect for both dietary intake and biomarker status. A unique strength of this review is the use of Bayesian meta-analyses which allowed for robust estimation of between-study heterogeneity.

12.
JAMA ; 323(7): 636-645, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068818

RESUMO

Importance: The incremental value of polygenic risk scores in addition to well-established risk prediction models for coronary artery disease (CAD) is uncertain. Objective: To examine whether a polygenic risk score for CAD improves risk prediction beyond pooled cohort equations. Design, Setting, and Participants: Observational study of UK Biobank participants enrolled from 2006 to 2010. A case-control sample of 15 947 prevalent CAD cases and equal number of age and sex frequency-matched controls was used to optimize the predictive performance of a polygenic risk score for CAD based on summary statistics from published genome-wide association studies. A separate cohort of 352 660 individuals (with follow-up to 2017) was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the polygenic risk score, pooled cohort equations, and both combined for incident CAD. Exposures: Polygenic risk score for CAD, pooled cohort equations, and both combined. Main Outcomes and Measures: CAD (myocardial infarction and its related sequelae). Discrimination, calibration, and reclassification using a risk threshold of 7.5% were assessed. Results: In the cohort of 352 660 participants (mean age, 55.9 years; 205 297 women [58.2%]) used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the examined models, there were 6272 incident CAD events over a median of 8 years of follow-up. CAD discrimination for polygenic risk score, pooled cohort equations, and both combined resulted in C statistics of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.60 to 0.62), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.77), and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.79), respectively. The change in C statistic between the latter 2 models was 0.02 (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.03). Calibration of the models showed overestimation of risk by pooled cohort equations, which was corrected after recalibration. Using a risk threshold of 7.5%, addition of the polygenic risk score to pooled cohort equations resulted in a net reclassification improvement of 4.4% (95% CI, 3.5% to 5.3%) for cases and -0.4% (95% CI, -0.5% to -0.4%) for noncases (overall net reclassification improvement, 4.0% [95% CI, 3.1% to 4.9%]). Conclusions and Relevance: The addition of a polygenic risk score for CAD to pooled cohort equations was associated with a statistically significant, yet modest, improvement in the predictive accuracy for incident CAD and improved risk stratification for only a small proportion of individuals. The use of genetic information over the pooled cohort equations model warrants further investigation before clinical implementation.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Risco
13.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 5, 2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several dietary factors have been reported to be associated with risk of breast cancer, but to date, unequivocal evidence only exists for alcohol consumption. We sought to systematically assess the association between intake of 92 foods and nutrients and breast cancer risk using a nutrient-wide association study. METHODS: Using data from 272,098 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we assessed dietary intake of 92 foods and nutrients estimated by dietary questionnaires. Cox regression was used to quantify the association between each food/nutrient and risk of breast cancer. A false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05 was used to select the set of foods and nutrients to be replicated in the independent Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). RESULTS: Six foods and nutrients were identified as associated with risk of breast cancer in the EPIC study (10,979 cases). Higher intake of alcohol overall was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) for a 1 SD increment in intake = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07), as was beer/cider intake and wine intake (HRs per 1 SD increment = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.06 and 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06, respectively), whereas higher intakes of fibre, apple/pear, and carbohydrates were associated with a lower risk of breast cancer (HRs per 1 SD increment = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98; 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99; and 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98, respectively). When evaluated in the NLCS (2368 cases), estimates for each of these foods and nutrients were similar in magnitude and direction, with the exception of beer/cider intake, which was not associated with risk in the NLCS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association of alcohol consumption and suggest an inverse association of dietary fibre and possibly fruit intake with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/dietoterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/normas , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Nutrientes , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 929-942, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050823

RESUMO

Obesity has been associated with upper gastrointestinal cancers; however, there are limited prospective data on associations by subtype/subsite. Obesity can impact hormonal factors, which have been hypothesized to play a role in these cancers. We investigated anthropometric and reproductive factors in relation to esophageal and gastric cancer by subtype and subsite for 476,160 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox models. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 220 esophageal adenocarcinomas (EA), 195 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 243 gastric cardia (GC) and 373 gastric noncardia (GNC) cancers were diagnosed. Body mass index (BMI) was associated with EA in men (BMI ≥30 vs. 18.5-25 kg/m2 : HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.25-3.03) and women (HR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.15-6.19); however, adjustment for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attenuated these associations. After mutual adjustment for BMI and HC, respectively, WHR and waist circumference (WC) were associated with EA in men (HR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.99-6.06 for WHR >0.96 vs. <0.91; HR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.52-4.72 for WC >98 vs. <90 cm) and women (HR = 4.40, 95% CI: 1.35-14.33 for WHR >0.82 vs. <0.76; HR = 5.67, 95% CI: 1.76-18.26 for WC >84 vs. <74 cm). WHR was also positively associated with GC in women, and WC was positively associated with GC in men. Inverse associations were observed between parity and EA (HR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-0.99; >2 vs. 0) and age at first pregnancy and GNC (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32-0.91; >26 vs. <22 years); whereas bilateral ovariectomy was positively associated with GNC (HR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.04-3.36). These findings support a role for hormonal pathways in upper gastrointestinal cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Esofágicas/classificação , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/classificação
16.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 127(9): 578-585, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations of AT-rich interactive domain 1 (ARID1A) have been associated with a worse outcome after intravesical treatment with bacille Calmette-Guérin in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Loss of ARID1A protein expression in urine cytology may serve as an indication of an ARID1A mutation. Therefore, the authors examined the expression of ARID1A in urine cytology and histological specimens of bladder cancer for correlation with ARID1A mutational status. METHODS: The authors constructed a tissue microarray containing samples from 164 tissue samples from 150 patients with NMIBC and 100 tissue samples from 81 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A second cohort consisted of archived cytological specimens and matched tissue sections from 62 patients with high-grade NMIBC. The authors established immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry (ICC) protocols, respectively, for the analysis of ARID1A protein expression in histological and cytological specimens. Confirmatory next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on tumor specimens using a targeted NGS panel containing all exonic regions of ARID1A. RESULTS: The prevalence of ARID1A loss of expression on the tissue microarray was 3.6% in NMIBC (6 of 164 tissue samples) and 10% in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (10 of 100 tissue samples) (P = .059). Loss of ARID1A expression in cytology was concordantly immunohistochemistry negative in 6 of 8 matched tissue specimens. NGS confirmed an ARID1A mutation on all 6 histology samples with loss of ARID1A expression. When NGS demonstrated an absence of ARID1A mutation, histology was concordantly positive (16 of 16 cases). CONCLUSIONS: The authors have suggest ARID1A ICC as a promising surrogate marker for ARID1A mutational status in patients with urothelial carcinoma. Pitfalls in ICC scoring include benign umbrella cells that often are negative for ARID1A. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of ARID1A ICC in urinary cytology.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/urina , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/urina , Fatores de Transcrição/urina , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/urina , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/urina
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(10): 1589-1598, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231134

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an undisputed genetic component and a stable 2:1 male to female sex ratio in its incidence across populations, suggesting possible sexual dimorphism in its genetic susceptibility. We conducted the first sex-specific genome-wide association analysis of RCC for men (3227 cases, 4916 controls) and women (1992 cases, 3095 controls) of European ancestry from two RCC genome-wide scans and replicated the top findings using an additional series of men (2261 cases, 5852 controls) and women (1399 cases, 1575 controls) from two independent cohorts of European origin. Our study confirmed sex-specific associations for two known RCC risk loci at 14q24.2 (DPF3) and 2p21(EPAS1). We also identified two additional suggestive male-specific loci at 6q24.3 (SAMD5, male odds ratio (ORmale) = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.78-0.89], Pmale = 1.71 × 10-8 compared with female odds ratio (ORfemale) = 0.98 [95% CI = 0.90-1.07], Pfemale = 0.68) and 12q23.3 (intergenic, ORmale = 0.75 [95% CI = 0.68-0.83], Pmale = 1.59 × 10-8 compared with ORfemale = 0.93 [95% CI = 0.82-1.06], Pfemale = 0.21) that attained genome-wide significance in the joint meta-analysis. Herein, we provide evidence of sex-specific associations in RCC genetic susceptibility and advocate the necessity of larger genetic and genomic studies to unravel the endogenous causes of sex bias in sexually dimorphic traits and diseases like RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Environ Res ; 175: 148-155, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is used for radiocommunications among the British police forces. OBJECTIVES: To investigate association of personal radio use and sickness absence among police officers and staff from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study. METHODS: Participant-level sickness absence records for 26 forces were linked with personal radio use for 32,102 participants. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyse TETRA usage in year prior to enrolment and sickness absence (lasting more than 7 or 28 consecutive days) in the following year and a zero-inflated negative binomial model for analyses of number of sickness absence episodes of any duration ('spells') over the same period. In secondary analyses, we looked at an extended period of observation among a sub-cohort with linked data over time, using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Median personal radio use (year prior to enrolment) was 29.7 min per month (interquartile range 7.5, 64.7) among users. In the year following enrolment there were 25,655 sickness absence spells among 15,248 participants. There were similar risks of sickness absence lasting more than seven days among users and non-users, although among users risk was higher with greater use, odds ratio = 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.06) per doubling of radio use. There was no association for sickness absence of more than 28 days. For sickness absence spells, risk was lower among users than non-users (incidence rate ratio = 0.91; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.11), again with higher risk among users for greater radio use. There was no association between radio use and sickness absence in secondary analyses. DISCUSSION: There were similar or lower risks of sickness absence in TETRA radio users compared with non-users. Among users, the higher risk of sickness absence with greater radio use may reflect working pattern differences among police personnel rather than effects of radiofrequency exposure.


Assuntos
Polícia , Rádio , Licença Médica , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Rádio/estatística & dados numéricos , Ondas de Rádio/efeitos adversos , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Oncotarget ; 10(19): 1760-1774, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956756

RESUMO

The development of cancer is driven by the accumulation of many oncogenesis-related genetic alterations and tumorigenesis is triggered by complex networks of involved genes rather than independent actions. To explore the epistasis existing among oncogenesis-related genes in lung cancer development, we conducted pairwise genetic interaction analyses among 35,031 SNPs from 2027 oncogenesis-related genes. The genotypes from three independent genome-wide association studies including a total of 24,037 lung cancer patients and 20,401 healthy controls with Caucasian ancestry were analyzed in the study. Using a two-stage study design including discovery and replication studies, and stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical analysis, we identified significant genetic interactions between SNPs in RGL1:RAD51B (OR=0.44, p value=3.27x10-11 in overall lung cancer and OR=0.41, p value=9.71x10-11 in non-small cell lung cancer), SYNE1:RNF43 (OR=0.73, p value=1.01x10-12 in adenocarcinoma) and FHIT:TSPAN8 (OR=1.82, p value=7.62x10-11 in squamous cell carcinoma) in our analysis. None of these genes have been identified from previous main effect association studies in lung cancer. Further eQTL gene expression analysis in lung tissues provided information supporting the functional role of the identified epistasis in lung tumorigenesis. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed potential pathways and gene networks underlying molecular mechanisms in overall lung cancer as well as histology subtypes development. Our results provide evidence that genetic interactions between oncogenesis-related genes play an important role in lung tumorigenesis and epistasis analysis, combined with functional annotation, provides a valuable tool for uncovering functional novel susceptibility genes that contribute to lung cancer development by interacting with other modifier genes.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700025

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased mortality, but it is unclear whether this is explained by reverse causation, and if there are specific causes of death for which vitamin D might be important. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies investigating associations between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and all-cause or cause-specific mortality in generally healthy populations. Relevant studies were identified using PubMed and EMBASE searches. After screening 722 unique records and removing those that were ineligible, 84 articles were included in this review. The vast majority of studies reported inverse associations between 25(OH)D concentration and all-cause mortality. This association appeared to be non-linear, with progressively lower mortality with increasing 25(OH)D up to a point, beyond which there was no further decrease. There is moderate evidence that vitamin D status is inversely associated with cancer mortality and death due to respiratory diseases, while for cardiovascular mortality, there is weak evidence of an association in observational studies, which is not supported by the data from intervention or Mendelian randomization studies. The relationship between vitamin D status and other causes of death remains uncertain due to limited data. Larger long-term studies are required to clarify these associations.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/mortalidade , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitaminas/sangue , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Vitamina D/sangue
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