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1.
BJOG ; 2020 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the intra-uterine fetal growth pattern and feto-placental circulation in pregnancies following bariatric surgery. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Maternity Unit, UK. POPULATION: 162 pregnant women; 54 with previous bariatric surgery and 108 with no surgery but similar booking body mass index. METHODS: Participants were seen at 11-14, 20-24, 30-33 and 35-37 weeks of gestation and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 27-30 weeks. Fetal head and abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL), estimated fetal weight (EFW) and feto-placental Dopplers were measured at three time points in pregnancy. Birthweight (BW) was recorded. Variables were modelled after adjustment for maternal/pregnancy characteristics. Model estimates are reported as posterior means and quantile-based 90% credible intervals (CrI). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fetal biometry, feto-placental Dopplers, BW. RESULTS: Compared to the no surgery group, the post-bariatric surgery group had lower EFW during gestation; up to -120g (-189, -51) lighter at 35-37 weeks, with smaller AC and FL. Similarly, infants of mothers with previous bariatric surgery had lower average BW; -202g (-330, -72) lighter. Overall, there was no difference in the feto-placental Doppler indices between groups but maternal glucose levels at OGTT were positively correlated with third trimester EFW and BW. CONCLUSIONS: Fetuses of women with previous bariatric surgery are smaller during pregnancy and at birth, compared to those of women without such surgery, and this may be related to the lower maternal glucose levels seen in the former population. The feto-placental circulation appears not to be altered by maternal weight loss surgery.

2.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 5, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several dietary factors have been reported to be associated with risk of breast cancer, but to date, unequivocal evidence only exists for alcohol consumption. We sought to systematically assess the association between intake of 92 foods and nutrients and breast cancer risk using a nutrient-wide association study. METHODS: Using data from 272,098 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we assessed dietary intake of 92 foods and nutrients estimated by dietary questionnaires. Cox regression was used to quantify the association between each food/nutrient and risk of breast cancer. A false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05 was used to select the set of foods and nutrients to be replicated in the independent Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). RESULTS: Six foods and nutrients were identified as associated with risk of breast cancer in the EPIC study (10,979 cases). Higher intake of alcohol overall was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio (HR) for a 1 SD increment in intake = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07), as was beer/cider intake and wine intake (HRs per 1 SD increment = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.06 and 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06, respectively), whereas higher intakes of fibre, apple/pear, and carbohydrates were associated with a lower risk of breast cancer (HRs per 1 SD increment = 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98; 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99; and 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98, respectively). When evaluated in the NLCS (2368 cases), estimates for each of these foods and nutrients were similar in magnitude and direction, with the exception of beer/cider intake, which was not associated with risk in the NLCS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association of alcohol consumption and suggest an inverse association of dietary fibre and possibly fruit intake with breast cancer risk.

3.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 127(9): 578-585, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations of AT-rich interactive domain 1 (ARID1A) have been associated with a worse outcome after intravesical treatment with bacille Calmette-Guérin in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Loss of ARID1A protein expression in urine cytology may serve as an indication of an ARID1A mutation. Therefore, the authors examined the expression of ARID1A in urine cytology and histological specimens of bladder cancer for correlation with ARID1A mutational status. METHODS: The authors constructed a tissue microarray containing samples from 164 tissue samples from 150 patients with NMIBC and 100 tissue samples from 81 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A second cohort consisted of archived cytological specimens and matched tissue sections from 62 patients with high-grade NMIBC. The authors established immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry (ICC) protocols, respectively, for the analysis of ARID1A protein expression in histological and cytological specimens. Confirmatory next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on tumor specimens using a targeted NGS panel containing all exonic regions of ARID1A. RESULTS: The prevalence of ARID1A loss of expression on the tissue microarray was 3.6% in NMIBC (6 of 164 tissue samples) and 10% in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (10 of 100 tissue samples) (P = .059). Loss of ARID1A expression in cytology was concordantly immunohistochemistry negative in 6 of 8 matched tissue specimens. NGS confirmed an ARID1A mutation on all 6 histology samples with loss of ARID1A expression. When NGS demonstrated an absence of ARID1A mutation, histology was concordantly positive (16 of 16 cases). CONCLUSIONS: The authors have suggest ARID1A ICC as a promising surrogate marker for ARID1A mutational status in patients with urothelial carcinoma. Pitfalls in ICC scoring include benign umbrella cells that often are negative for ARID1A. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of ARID1A ICC in urinary cytology.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(10): 1589-1598, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231134

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an undisputed genetic component and a stable 2:1 male to female sex ratio in its incidence across populations, suggesting possible sexual dimorphism in its genetic susceptibility. We conducted the first sex-specific genome-wide association analysis of RCC for men (3227 cases, 4916 controls) and women (1992 cases, 3095 controls) of European ancestry from two RCC genome-wide scans and replicated the top findings using an additional series of men (2261 cases, 5852 controls) and women (1399 cases, 1575 controls) from two independent cohorts of European origin. Our study confirmed sex-specific associations for two known RCC risk loci at 14q24.2 (DPF3) and 2p21(EPAS1). We also identified two additional suggestive male-specific loci at 6q24.3 (SAMD5, male odds ratio (ORmale) = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.78-0.89], Pmale = 1.71 × 10-8 compared with female odds ratio (ORfemale) = 0.98 [95% CI = 0.90-1.07], Pfemale = 0.68) and 12q23.3 (intergenic, ORmale = 0.75 [95% CI = 0.68-0.83], Pmale = 1.59 × 10-8 compared with ORfemale = 0.93 [95% CI = 0.82-1.06], Pfemale = 0.21) that attained genome-wide significance in the joint meta-analysis. Herein, we provide evidence of sex-specific associations in RCC genetic susceptibility and advocate the necessity of larger genetic and genomic studies to unravel the endogenous causes of sex bias in sexually dimorphic traits and diseases like RCC.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050823

RESUMO

Obesity has been associated with upper gastrointestinal cancers; however, there are limited prospective data on associations by subtype/subsite. Obesity can impact hormonal factors, which have been hypothesized to play a role in these cancers. We investigated anthropometric and reproductive factors in relation to esophageal and gastric cancer by subtype and subsite for 476,160 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox models. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 220 esophageal adenocarcinomas (EA), 195 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 243 gastric cardia (GC) and 373 gastric noncardia (GNC) cancers were diagnosed. Body mass index (BMI) was associated with EA in men (BMI ≥30 vs. 18.5-25 kg/m2 : HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.25-3.03) and women (HR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.15-6.19); however, adjustment for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attenuated these associations. After mutual adjustment for BMI and HC, respectively, WHR and waist circumference (WC) were associated with EA in men (HR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.99-6.06 for WHR >0.96 vs. <0.91; HR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.52-4.72 for WC >98 vs. <90 cm) and women (HR = 4.40, 95% CI: 1.35-14.33 for WHR >0.82 vs. <0.76; HR = 5.67, 95% CI: 1.76-18.26 for WC >84 vs. <74 cm). WHR was also positively associated with GC in women, and WC was positively associated with GC in men. Inverse associations were observed between parity and EA (HR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-0.99; >2 vs. 0) and age at first pregnancy and GNC (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32-0.91; >26 vs. <22 years); whereas bilateral ovariectomy was positively associated with GNC (HR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.04-3.36). These findings support a role for hormonal pathways in upper gastrointestinal cancers.

7.
Environ Res ; 175: 148-155, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is used for radiocommunications among the British police forces. OBJECTIVES: To investigate association of personal radio use and sickness absence among police officers and staff from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study. METHODS: Participant-level sickness absence records for 26 forces were linked with personal radio use for 32,102 participants. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyse TETRA usage in year prior to enrolment and sickness absence (lasting more than 7 or 28 consecutive days) in the following year and a zero-inflated negative binomial model for analyses of number of sickness absence episodes of any duration ('spells') over the same period. In secondary analyses, we looked at an extended period of observation among a sub-cohort with linked data over time, using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Median personal radio use (year prior to enrolment) was 29.7 min per month (interquartile range 7.5, 64.7) among users. In the year following enrolment there were 25,655 sickness absence spells among 15,248 participants. There were similar risks of sickness absence lasting more than seven days among users and non-users, although among users risk was higher with greater use, odds ratio = 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.06) per doubling of radio use. There was no association for sickness absence of more than 28 days. For sickness absence spells, risk was lower among users than non-users (incidence rate ratio = 0.91; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.11), again with higher risk among users for greater radio use. There was no association between radio use and sickness absence in secondary analyses. DISCUSSION: There were similar or lower risks of sickness absence in TETRA radio users compared with non-users. Among users, the higher risk of sickness absence with greater radio use may reflect working pattern differences among police personnel rather than effects of radiofrequency exposure.

8.
Oncotarget ; 10(19): 1760-1774, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956756

RESUMO

The development of cancer is driven by the accumulation of many oncogenesis-related genetic alterations and tumorigenesis is triggered by complex networks of involved genes rather than independent actions. To explore the epistasis existing among oncogenesis-related genes in lung cancer development, we conducted pairwise genetic interaction analyses among 35,031 SNPs from 2027 oncogenesis-related genes. The genotypes from three independent genome-wide association studies including a total of 24,037 lung cancer patients and 20,401 healthy controls with Caucasian ancestry were analyzed in the study. Using a two-stage study design including discovery and replication studies, and stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical analysis, we identified significant genetic interactions between SNPs in RGL1:RAD51B (OR=0.44, p value=3.27x10-11 in overall lung cancer and OR=0.41, p value=9.71x10-11 in non-small cell lung cancer), SYNE1:RNF43 (OR=0.73, p value=1.01x10-12 in adenocarcinoma) and FHIT:TSPAN8 (OR=1.82, p value=7.62x10-11 in squamous cell carcinoma) in our analysis. None of these genes have been identified from previous main effect association studies in lung cancer. Further eQTL gene expression analysis in lung tissues provided information supporting the functional role of the identified epistasis in lung tumorigenesis. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed potential pathways and gene networks underlying molecular mechanisms in overall lung cancer as well as histology subtypes development. Our results provide evidence that genetic interactions between oncogenesis-related genes play an important role in lung tumorigenesis and epistasis analysis, combined with functional annotation, provides a valuable tool for uncovering functional novel susceptibility genes that contribute to lung cancer development by interacting with other modifier genes.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700025

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased mortality, but it is unclear whether this is explained by reverse causation, and if there are specific causes of death for which vitamin D might be important. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies investigating associations between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and all-cause or cause-specific mortality in generally healthy populations. Relevant studies were identified using PubMed and EMBASE searches. After screening 722 unique records and removing those that were ineligible, 84 articles were included in this review. The vast majority of studies reported inverse associations between 25(OH)D concentration and all-cause mortality. This association appeared to be non-linear, with progressively lower mortality with increasing 25(OH)D up to a point, beyond which there was no further decrease. There is moderate evidence that vitamin D status is inversely associated with cancer mortality and death due to respiratory diseases, while for cardiovascular mortality, there is weak evidence of an association in observational studies, which is not supported by the data from intervention or Mendelian randomization studies. The relationship between vitamin D status and other causes of death remains uncertain due to limited data. Larger long-term studies are required to clarify these associations.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/mortalidade , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitaminas/sangue , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Vitamina D/sangue
10.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002724, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several obesity-related factors have been associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but it is unclear which individual factors directly influence risk. We addressed this question using genetic markers as proxies for putative risk factors and evaluated their relation to RCC risk in a mendelian randomization (MR) framework. This methodology limits bias due to confounding and is not affected by reverse causation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genetic markers associated with obesity measures, blood pressure, lipids, type 2 diabetes, insulin, and glucose were initially identified as instrumental variables, and their association with RCC risk was subsequently evaluated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 10,784 RCC patients and 20,406 control participants in a 2-sample MR framework. The effect on RCC risk was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORSD) for a standard deviation (SD) increment in each risk factor. The MR analysis indicated that higher body mass index increases the risk of RCC (ORSD: 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-1.70), with comparable results for waist-to-hip ratio (ORSD: 1.63, 95% CI 1.40-1.90) and body fat percentage (ORSD: 1.66, 95% CI 1.44-1.90). This analysis further indicated that higher fasting insulin (ORSD: 1.82, 95% CI 1.30-2.55) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; ORSD: 1.28, 95% CI 1.11-1.47), but not systolic blood pressure (ORSD: 0.98, 95% CI 0.84-1.14), increase the risk for RCC. No association with RCC risk was seen for lipids, overall type 2 diabetes, or fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence for an etiological role of insulin in RCC, as well as confirmatory evidence that obesity and DBP influence RCC risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMJ ; 364: k4981, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls. EXPOSURE: Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Pathol ; 247(2): 199-213, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350422

RESUMO

Variable tumor cellularity can limit sensitivity and precision in comparative genomics because differences in tumor content can result in misclassifying truncal mutations as region-specific private mutations in stroma-rich regions, especially when studying tissue specimens of mediocre tumor cellularity such as lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs). To address this issue, we refined a nuclei flow-sorting approach by sorting nuclei based on ploidy and the LUAD lineage marker thyroid transcription factor 1 and applied this method to investigate genome-wide somatic copy number aberrations (SCNAs) and mutations of 409 cancer genes in 39 tumor populations obtained from 16 primary tumors and 21 matched metastases. This approach increased the mean tumor purity from 54% (range 7-89%) of unsorted material to 92% (range 79-99%) after sorting. Despite this rise in tumor purity, we detected limited genetic heterogeneity between primary tumors and their metastases. In fact, 88% of SCNAs and 80% of mutations were propagated from primary tumors to metastases and low allele frequency mutations accounted for much of the mutational heterogeneity. Even though the presence of SCNAs indicated a history of chromosomal instability (CIN) in all tumors, metastases did not have more SCNAs than primary tumors. Moreover, tumors with biallelic TP53 or ATM mutations had high numbers of SCNAs, yet they were associated with a low interlesional genetic heterogeneity. The results of our study thus provide evidence that most macroevolutionary events occur in primary tumors before metastatic dissemination and advocate for a limited degree of CIN over time and space in this cohort of LUADs. Sampling of primary tumors thus may suffice to detect most mutations and SCNAs. In addition, metastases but not primary tumors had seeded additional metastases in three of four patients; this provides a genomic rational for surgical treatment of such oligometastatic LUADs. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

13.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 73(8): 1122-1132, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that haem iron, which is found predominantly in red meat and increases endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, may be positively associated with lung cancer. The objective was to examine the relationship between haem iron intake and lung cancer risk using detailed smoking history data and serum cotinine to control for potential confounding. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 416,746 individuals from 10 countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident lung cancer (n = 3731) risk relative to haem iron, non-haem iron, and total dietary iron intake. A corresponding analysis was conducted among a nested subset of 800 lung cancer cases and 1489 matched controls for whom serum cotinine was available. RESULTS: Haem iron was associated with lung cancer risk, including after adjustment for details of smoking history (time since quitting, number of cigarettes per day): as a continuous variable (HR per 0.3 mg/1000 kcal 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.07), and in the highest versus lowest quintile (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.32; trend across quintiles: P = 0.035). In contrast, non-haem iron intake was related inversely with lung cancer risk; however, this association attenuated after adjustment for smoking history. Additional adjustment for serum cotinine did not considerably alter the associations detected in the nested case-control subset. CONCLUSIONS: Greater haem iron intake may be modestly associated with lung cancer risk.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 144(2): 240-250, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943826

RESUMO

The epidemiological evidence regarding the association of coffee and tea consumption with prostate cancer risk is inconclusive, and few cohort studies have assessed these associations by disease stage and grade. We examined the associations of coffee (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) and tea intake with prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 142,196 men, 7,036 incident prostate cancer cases were diagnosed over 14 years of follow-up. Data on coffee and tea consumption were collected through validated country-specific food questionnaires at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models were stratified by center and age, and adjusted for anthropometric, lifestyle and dietary factors. Median coffee and tea intake were 375 and 106 mL/day, respectively, but large variations existed by country. Comparing the highest (median of 855 mL/day) versus lowest (median of 103 mL/day) consumers of coffee and tea (450 vs. 12 mL/day) the HRs were 1.02 (95% CI, 0.94-1.09) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.90-1.07) for risk of total prostate cancer and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.79-1.21) and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.70-1.13) for risk of fatal disease, respectively. No evidence of association was seen for consumption of total, caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or tea and risk of total prostate cancer or cancer by stage, grade or fatality in this large cohort. Further investigations are needed to clarify whether an association exists by different preparations or by concentrations and constituents of these beverages.


Assuntos
Café , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Chá , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
15.
Gut ; 68(4): 672-683, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically identify and validate published colorectal cancer risk prediction models that do not require invasive testing in two large population-based prospective cohorts. DESIGN: Models were identified through an update of a published systematic review and validated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the UK Biobank. The performance of the models to predict the occurrence of colorectal cancer within 5 or 10 years after study enrolment was assessed by discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (plots of observed vs predicted probability). RESULTS: The systematic review and its update identified 16 models from 8 publications (8 colorectal, 5 colon and 3 rectal). The number of participants included in each model validation ranged from 41 587 to 396 515, and the number of cases ranged from 115 to 1781. Eligible and ineligible participants across the models were largely comparable. Calibration of the models, where assessable, was very good and further improved by recalibration. The C-statistics of the models were largely similar between validation cohorts with the highest values achieved being 0.70 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.72) in the UK Biobank and 0.71 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.74) in EPIC. CONCLUSION: Several of these non-invasive models exhibited good calibration and discrimination within both external validation populations and are therefore potentially suitable candidates for the facilitation of risk stratification in population-based colorectal screening programmes. Future work should both evaluate this potential, through modelling and impact studies, and ascertain if further enhancement in their performance can be obtained.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
Br J Cancer ; 120(3): 375-378, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from mobile phones have been classified as potentially carcinogenic. No study has investigated use of Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA), a source of RF-EMF with wide occupational use, and cancer risks. METHODS: We investigated association of monthly personal radio use and risk of cancer using Cox proportional hazards regression among 48,518 police officers and staff of the Airwave Health Monitoring Study in Great Britain. RESULTS: During median follow-up of 5.9 years, 716 incident cancer cases were identified. Among users, the median of the average monthly duration of use in the year prior to enrolment was 30.5 min (inter-quartile range 8.1, 68.1). Overall, there was no association between personal radio use and risk of all cancers (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93, 1.03). For head and neck cancers HR = 0.72 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.70) among personal radio users vs non-users, and among users it was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.23) per doubling of minutes of personal radio use. CONCLUSIONS: With the limited follow-up to date, we found no evidence of association of personal radio use with cancer risk. Continued follow-up of the cohort is warranted.


Assuntos
Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Ondas de Rádio/efeitos adversos , Telefone Celular , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Polícia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 147, 2018 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few published breast cancer (BC) risk prediction models consider the heterogeneity of predictor variables between estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) and negative (ER-) tumors. Using data from two large cohorts, we examined whether modeling this heterogeneity could improve prediction. METHODS: We built two models, for ER+ (ModelER+) and ER- tumors (ModelER-), respectively, in 281,330 women (51% postmenopausal at recruitment) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (the agreement between predicted and observed tumor risks) were assessed both internally and externally in 82,319 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative study. We performed decision curve analysis to compare ModelER+ and the Gail model (ModelGail) regarding their applicability in risk assessment for chemoprevention. RESULTS: Parity, number of full-term pregnancies, age at first full-term pregnancy and body height were only associated with ER+ tumors. Menopausal status, age at menarche and at menopause, hormone replacement therapy, postmenopausal body mass index, and alcohol intake were homogeneously associated with ER+ and ER- tumors. Internal validation yielded a C-statistic of 0.64 for ModelER+ and 0.59 for ModelER-. External validation reduced the C-statistic of ModelER+ (0.59) and ModelGail (0.57). In external evaluation of calibration, ModelER+ outperformed the ModelGail: the former led to a 9% overestimation of the risk of ER+ tumors, while the latter yielded a 22% underestimation of the overall BC risk. Compared with the treat-all strategy, ModelER+ produced equal or higher net benefits irrespective of the benefit-to-harm ratio of chemoprevention, while ModelGail did not produce higher net benefits unless the benefit-to-harm ratio was below 50. The clinical applicability, i.e. the area defined by the net benefit curve and the treat-all and treat-none strategies, was 12.7 × 10- 6 for ModelER+ and 3.0 × 10- 6 for ModelGail. CONCLUSIONS: Modeling heterogeneous epidemiological risk factors might yield little improvement in BC risk prediction. Nevertheless, a model specifically predictive of ER+ tumor risk could be more applicable than an omnibus model in risk assessment for chemoprevention.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Modelos Biológicos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16714, 2018 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425263

RESUMO

The majority of lung cancer is caused by tobacco smoking, and lung cancer-relevant epigenetic markers have been identified in relation to smoking exposure. Still, smoking-related markers appear to mediate little of the effect of smoking on lung cancer. Thus in order to identify disease-relevant markers and enhance our understanding of pathways, a wide search is warranted. Through an epigenome-wide search within a case-control study (131 cases, 129 controls) nested in a Norwegian prospective cohort of women, we found 25 CpG sites associated with lung cancer. Twenty-three were classified as associated with smoking (LC-AwS), and two were classified as unassociated with smoking (LC-non-AwS), as they remained associated with lung cancer after stringent adjustment for smoking exposure using the comprehensive smoking index (CSI): cg10151248 (PC, CSI-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.34 [0.23-0.52] per standard deviation change in methylation) and cg13482620 (B3GNTL1, CSI-adjusted OR = 0.33 [0.22-0.50]). Analysis among never smokers and a cohort of smoking-discordant twins confirmed the classification of the two LC-non-AwS CpG sites. Gene expression profiles demonstrated that the LC-AwS CpG sites had different enriched pathways than LC-non-AwS sites. In conclusion, using blood-derived DNA methylation and gene expression profiles from a prospective lung cancer case-control study in women, we identified 25 CpG lung cancer markers prior to diagnosis, two of which were LC-non-AwS markers and related to distinct pathways.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Transcriptoma , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
19.
Br J Cancer ; 119(8): 1036-1039, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323197

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models could be used to risk-stratify the population to provide individually tailored screening provision. Using participants from the UK Biobank prospective cohort study, we evaluated whether the addition of a genetic risk score (GRS) could improve the performance of two previously validated models. Inclusion of the GRS did not appreciably improve discrimination of either model, and led to substantial miscalibration. Following recalibration the discrimination did not change, but good calibration for models incorporating the GRS was recovered. Comparing predictions between models with and without the GRS, 5% of participants or fewer changed their absolute risk by ±0.3% or more in either model. In summary, addition of a GRS did not meaningfully improve the performance of validated CRC-risk prediction models. At present, provision of genetic information is not useful for risk stratification for CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Modelos Estatísticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Risco , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(22): 5594-5601, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037816

RESUMO

Purpose: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has the potential for cure with surgery when diagnosed at an early stage. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) has been shown to be elevated in the plasma of RCC patients. We aimed to test whether plasma KIM-1 could represent a means of detecting RCC prior to clinical diagnosis.Experimental Design: KIM-1 concentrations were measured in prediagnostic plasma from 190 RCC cases and 190 controls nested within a population-based prospective cohort study. Cases had entered the cohort up to 5 years before diagnosis, and controls were matched on cases for date of birth, date at blood donation, sex, and country. We applied conditional logistic regression and flexible parametric survival models to evaluate the association between plasma KIM-1 concentrations and RCC risk and survival.Results: The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of RCC for a doubling in KIM-1 concentration was 1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.44-2.03, P = 4.1 × 10-23], corresponding to an IRR of 63.3 (95% CI, 16.2-246.9) comparing the 80th to the 20th percentiles of the KIM-1 distribution in this sample. Compared with a risk model including known risk factors of RCC (age, sex, country, body mass index, and tobacco smoking status), a risk model additionally including KIM-1 substantially improved discrimination between cases and controls (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.8 compared with 0.7). High plasma KIM-1 concentrations were also associated with poorer survival (P = 0.0053).Conclusions: Plasma KIM-1 concentrations could predict RCC incidence up to 5 years prior to diagnosis and were associated with poorer survival. Clin Cancer Res; 24(22); 5594-601. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Curva ROC
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