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1.
Chest ; 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with a history suggestive of asthma, diagnosis is usually confirmed by spirometry with bronchodilator response (BDR) or confirmatory methacholine challenge testing (MCT). RESEARCH QUESTION: We examined the proportion of participants with negative BDR testing who had a positive MCT (and its predictors), and characteristics of MCT, including effects of controller medication tapering and temporal variability (and predictors of MCT result change); and concordance between MCT and pulmonologist asthma diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Adults with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma were recruited by random-digit dialing across Canada. Subjects performed spirometry with BDR testing and returned for MCT if testing was non-diagnostic for asthma. Subjects on controllers underwent medication tapering with serial MCTs over 3-6 weeks. Subjects with a negative MCT (PC20 > 8 mg/mL) off medications were examined by a pulmonologist and had serial MCTs after 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: Of 500 subjects (50.5 +/- 16.6 years old, 68.0% female) with a negative BDR test for asthma, 215 (43.0%) had a positive MCT. Subjects with pre-bronchodilator airflow limitation were more likely to have a positive MCT (odds ratio 1.90; 95% confidence interval 1.17-3.04). MCT converted from negative to positive with medication tapering in 18/94 (19.1%) participants, and spontaneously over time in 25/165 (15.2%) participants. Of 231 subjects with negative MCT, 28 (12.1%) subsequently received an asthma diagnosis from a pulmonologist. INTERPRETATION: In subjects with a self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma, absence of bronchodilator reversibility had a negative predictive value of only 57% to exclude asthma. A finding of spirometric airflow limitation significantly increased chances of asthma. MCT results varied with medication taper and over time, and pulmonologists were sometimes prepared to give a clinical diagnosis of asthma despite negative MCT. Correspondingly, in patients for whom a high clinical suspicion of asthma exists, repeat testing appears to be warranted.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last decade, tuberculosis incidence among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic has been rising. Our aim was to better understand the transmission dynamics of TB in this remote region of Canada using whole genome sequencing. METHODS: Isolates from patients who had culture positive pulmonary TB disease in Iqaluit, Nunavut between 2009 -2015 underwent whole genome sequencing (WGS). The number of transmission events between cases within clusters was calculated using a threshold of ≤ 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) difference between isolates and then combined with detailed epidemiological data using a reproducible novel algorithm. Social network analysis of epidemiological data was used to support the WGS data analysis. RESULTS: During the study period, 140 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates from 135 cases were sequenced. Four clusters were identified, all from Euro-American lineage. One cluster represented 62% of all the cases that were sequenced over the entire study period. In this cluster, two large chains of transmission were associated with three superspreading events in a homeless shelter. One of the superspreading events was linked to a non-sanctioned gambling house that resulted in further transmission. Shelter to non- shelter transmission was also confirmed. An algorithm developed for the determination of transmission events demonstrated very good reproducibility (kappa score 0.98 (CI 95% 0.97-1.0). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that socioeconomic factors, namely residing in a homeless shelter and spending time in a gambling house, combined with the superspreading event effect may have been significant factors explaining the rise in cases in this predominantly Inuit arctic community.

3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 161, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some patients admitted to acute care hospital require supportive services after discharge. The objective of our review was to identify models and variables that predict the need for supportive services after discharge from acute care hospital. METHODS: We performed a systematic review searching the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases from inception to May 1st 2017. We selected studies that derived and validated a prediction model for the need for supportive services after hospital discharge for patients admitted non-electively to a medical ward. We extracted cohort characteristics, model characteristics and variables screened and included in final predictive models. Risk of bias was assessed using the Quality in Prognostic Studies tool. RESULTS: Our search identified 3362 unique references. Full text review identified 6 models. Models had good discrimination in derivation (c-statistics > 0.75) and validation (c-statistics > 0.70) cohorts. There was high quality evidence that age, impaired physical function, disabilities in performing activities of daily living, absence of an informal care giver and frailty predict the need for supportive services after discharge. Stroke was the only unique diagnosis with at least moderate evidence of an independent effect on the outcome. No models were externally validated, and all were at moderate or higher risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in physical function and activities of daily living, age, absence of an informal care giver and frailty have the strongest evidence as determinants of the need for support services after hospital discharge. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This review was registered with PROSPERO #CRD42016037144.

6.
Chest ; 157(2): 435-445, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital readmissions are costly to health-care systems and represent a measure of quality care. Patients with cancer with malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) are at high risk for rehospitalization; however, risk factors for readmissions in this population are not well described. Understanding the incidence and risk factors for readmission could facilitate the development of a readmission reduction strategy in this patient population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) (2014 sample) to determine the proportion of all-cause, unplanned, 30-day readmissions to hospital among patients with MPEs. Survey weighting methods that accounted for the NRD sampling design were used to generate nationally representative estimates. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine predictors of early readmission. RESULTS: There were 27,900 unplanned readmissions after 108,824 index hospitalizations for MPEs, a rate of 25.6% (95% CI, 25.0%-26.3%). The mortality rate during readmission to hospital was 17.3% (n = 4,840; 95% CI, 16.6%-18.1%). Mean cost per readmission was $15,452 ± $415, with total aggregate costs of > $400 million. Predictors of early readmission included having Medicaid insurance status, treatment with thoracentesis only, and discharge to a care facility or home health care. CONCLUSIONS: One in four patients with cancer and MPEs are readmitted to hospital within 30 days of discharge, and nearly one in five die during the readmission. Nondefinitive management with thoracentesis led to more readmissions. A further understanding of factors that drive preventable readmissions could significantly improve quality of care in this population.

7.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 28: 100933, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667069

RESUMO

We describe the case of a previously healthy male patient who presented to a respiratory clinic with sinusitis, pulmonary cavities, and hemoptysis. Three weeks following a diagnosis of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) and initiation of immunosuppressive treatment, the patient suddenly developed a large pneumothorax that was complicated by empyema. In this report we discuss and highlight the rare pleural complications associated with GPA, and alert clinicians to monitor for these important complications even after disease-modifying treatment is initiated.

8.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 1691-1701, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534323

RESUMO

Purpose: Among individuals with COPD and/or lung cancer, to describe end-of-life health service utilization, costs, and place of death; to identify predictors of home palliative care use, and to assess benefits associated with palliative care use. Patients and methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based study using provincial linked health administrative data (Ontario, Canada) between 2010 and 2015. We examined health care use in the last 90 days of life in adults 35 years and older with physician-diagnosed COPD and/or lung cancer identified using a validated algorithm and the Ontario Cancer Registry, respectively. Four mutually exclusive groups were considered: (i) COPD only, (ii) lung cancer only, (iii) COPD and lung cancer, and (iv) neither COPD nor lung cancer. Multivariable generalized linear models were employed. Results: Of 445,488 eligible deaths, 34% had COPD only, 4% had lung cancer only, 5% had both and 57% had neither. Individuals with COPD only received less palliative care (20% vs 57%) than those with lung cancer only. After adjustment, people with lung cancer only were far more likely to receive palliative care (OR=4.22, 4.08-4.37) compared to those with neither diagnosis, while individuals with COPD only were less likely to receive palliative care (OR=0.82, 0.81-0.84). Home palliative care use was associated with reduced death and fewer days in acute care, and less cost, regardless of the diagnosis. Conclusion: Although individuals with lung cancer were much more likely to receive palliative care than those with COPD, both populations were underserviced. Results suggest greater involvement of palliative care may improve the dying experience of these populations and reduce costs.

9.
Chest ; 155(1): 69-78, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of influenza vaccination in reducing influenza-related hospitalizations among patients with COPD is not well described, and influenza vaccination uptake remains suboptimal. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a national, prospective, multicenter cohort study including patients with COPD, hospitalized with any acute respiratory illness or exacerbation between 2011 and 2015. All patients underwent nasopharyngeal swab screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for influenza. The primary outcome was an influenza-related hospitalization. We identified influenza-positive cases and negative control subjects and used multivariable logistic regression with a standard test-negative design to estimate the vaccine effectiveness for preventing influenza-related hospitalizations. RESULTS: Among 4,755 hospitalized patients with COPD, 4,198 (88.3%) patients with known vaccination status were analyzed. The adjusted analysis showed a 38% reduction in influenza-related hospitalizations in vaccinated vs unvaccinated individuals. Influenza-positive patients (n = 1,833 [38.5%]) experienced higher crude mortality (9.7% vs 7.9%; P = .047) and critical illness (17.2% vs 12.1%; P < .001) compared with influenza-negative patients. Risk factors for mortality in influenza-positive patients included age > 75 years (OR, 3.7 [95% CI, 0.4-30.3]), cardiac comorbidity (OR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.3-3.2]), residence in long-term care (OR, 2.6 [95% CI, 1.5-4.5]), and home oxygen use (OR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1.6-5.1]). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination significantly reduced influenza-related hospitalization among patients with COPD. Initiatives to increase vaccination uptake and early use of antiviral agents among patients with COPD could reduce influenza-related hospitalization and critical illness and improve health-care costs in this vulnerable population. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.govNo.:NCT01517191; URL www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/tendências , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Vacinação/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Adulto Jovem
10.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 19(2): 68-72, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552014

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (ASCT), there are no clear guidelines as to how to screen for these risks. This study sought to determine the utility of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) prior to ASCT on predicting posttransplant clinical outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing ASCT between 2010 and 2012 at the Ottawa Hospital (n = 172) were reviewed. PFT results prior to ASCT were retrieved. The primary outcomes were incidence of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, Seattle Criteria for pulmonary toxicities, and transplant-related mortality (TRM). RESULTS: PFTs were performed for 91 (53%) patients prior to ASCT. There were more smokers in the PFT cohort than the non-PFT cohort (41.8% vs. 19.8%, respectively; P < .0001). Pulmonary toxicity as measured by the Seattle Criteria did not correlate with PFT results (normal vs. abnormal, 8.1% and 6.1%, respectively; P = 1.00). There were no differences in incidence of ICU admission by PFT result (normal vs. abnormal, 2.7% vs. 8.2%, respectively; P = .61) and no difference in TRM by PFT result (normal vs. abnormal, 0% vs. 2.0%, respectively; P = 1.00). CONCLUSION: Despite testing patients deemed higher risk for pulmonary toxicity, abnormal PFTs did not predict for an increased risk of pulmonary toxicity, ICU admission, or TRM at our center.

11.
BMC Palliat Care ; 17(1): 127, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients who engage in Advance Care Planning (ACP) are more likely to get care consistent with their values. We sought to determine the barriers and facilitators to ACP engagement after discharge from hospital. METHODS: Prior to discharge from hospital eligible patients received a standardized conversation about prognosis and ACP. Each patient was given an ACP workbook and asked to complete it over the following four weeks. We included frail elderly patients with a high risk of death admitted to general internal medicine wards at a tertiary care academic teaching hospital. Four weeks after discharge we conducted semi-structured interviews with patients. Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed with thematic analysis. Themes were categorized according to the theoretical domains framework. RESULTS: We performed 17 interviews. All Theoretical Domain Framework components except for Social/Professional Identity and Behavioral Regulation were identified in our data. Poor knowledge about ACP and physician communication skills were barriers partially addressed by our intervention. Some patients found it difficult to discuss ACP during an acute illness. For others acute illness made ACP discussions more relevant. Uncertainty about future health motivated some participants to engage in ACP while others found that ACP discussions prevented them from living in the moment and stripped them of hope that better days were ahead. CONCLUSIONS: For some patients acute illness resulting in admission to hospital can be an opportunity to engage in ACP conversations but for others ACP discussions are antithetical to the goals of hospital care.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Alta do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Doente Terminal/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Prognóstico , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 4: 135, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116551

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the airways, associated with frailty, disability, co-morbidity, and mortality. Individuals with COPD experience increased risk and rates of acute exacerbation as their lung disease worsens. Current treatments to prevent acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) are only modestly effective. New therapies are needed to improve the quality of life and clinical outcomes for individuals living with COPD and especially for those prone to frequent recurrent AECOPD. Recent research has suggested an association of gammaglobulin or immunoglobulin G levels with AECOPD and a favorable effect of an immunoglobulin treatment on the frequency of recurrent AECOPD, healthcare provider visits, treatments, and hospitalizations. However, control trials are required to confirm this apparent association and therapeutic effect. This study aims to assess if intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy is feasible, safe, tolerable, and potentially effective in reducing the frequency of recurrent AECOPD. Methods/design: Adult COPD patients at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH) will be recruited to partake in a randomized double-blind, parallel, two-arm, placebo control trial. Eligible patients will be administered either IVIG or normal saline following 1:1 randomization and every 4 weeks for 1 year. The primary outcome of feasibility will be determined by recruitment, patient adherence, safety and tolerance, success of the follow-up procedures, and outcome measurement. The safety and tolerability will be assessed through adverse events, adherence, and study withdrawals. Efficacy trends will be investigated by assessing incidence rates of AECOPD, improvement in quality of life, and healthcare services use and cost. Discussion: The study results will inform larger studies designed to confirm a clinically significant therapeutic effect in identifiable populations which would be a major advance in the care of COPD patients. Trial registration number: ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT03018652 and NCT02690038.

13.
CMAJ Open ; 6(2): E235-E240, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tunnelled pleural catheters used to treat malignant pleural effusions may achieve pleurodesis. We aimed to identify factors associated with higher pleurodesis rates and earlier catheter removal. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a prospective database of tunnelled pleural catheters inserted consecutively between May 2006 and June 2013 for confirmed malignant pleural effusion. The cohort included patients who underwent medical thoracoscopy. Clinical, radiologic and pleural fluid data were recorded. We used logistic regression and Cox regression to assess rates of and days to pleurodesis, respectively. RESULTS: We analyzed data for 1071 tunnelled pleural catheters in 956 patients. Increased rates of pleurodesis were associated with lymphoma (odds ratio [OR] 3.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.93-6.33), ovarian cancer (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.68-5.11), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Scale of Performance Status grade 2 or less (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.79-4.34), medical thoracoscopy (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.28-3.85), protein level (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06), albumin level (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.12) and percent eosinophils (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.07). Reduced rates of pleurodesis were associated with gastrointestinal cancers (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.87), hydropneumothorax on the postdrainage chest radiograph (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.41-0.94) and percent other cells on cell count (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99). Earlier pleurodesis was associated with ovarian cancer (hazard ratio [HR] 1.48, 95% CI 1.06-2.08), medical thoracoscopy (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.10-1.92), protein level (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.04) and percent eosinophils (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.04). Delayed pleurodesis was associated with breast cancer (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.46-0.81), hydropneumothorax with 80% or less lung expansion (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.80) and percent other cells (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-1.00). INTERPRETATION: Clinicians should consider numerous factors to predict the probability of and timing to pleurodesis with tunnelled pleural catheters.

15.
Can Respir J ; 2017: 9345324, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28951662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many centers performing medical thoracoscopy (MT) to diagnose pleural disease will insert a chest tube and admit patients to hospital after the procedure, which is inconvenient for patients and contributes to healthcare costs. We report the data on the safety, outcomes, and performance characteristics of outpatient MT with indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) insertion in a large Canadian cohort. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study reviewed patients who underwent outpatient MT and IPC insertion under conscious sedation. Patients without complications were discharged the same day. We report the data on safety, outcomes, and performance characteristics of our program. RESULTS: Outpatient MT and IPC insertion was performed on 218 patients. 99.1% of patients were safely discharged the same day. There was no procedure associated mortality. Pleural malignancy (59.6%) and nonspecific pleuritis (29.4%) were the most common pathologies. Pleural nodularity detected endoscopically was excellent at predicting malignancy with a positive predictive value of 92.5% and is more frequently detected endoscopically when compared to CT scan (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of a comprehensive pleural disease program, outpatient MT can be safely performed and is an alternative to an inpatient surgical approach for undiagnosed pleural effusions.


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural Maligno/diagnóstico , Toracoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Tubos Torácicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Toracoscopia/efeitos adversos
16.
CMAJ Open ; 5(1): E222-E228, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28401138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is currently debate over the benefits and harms of physician-assisted death. One of the factors influencing this debate is concern about symptoms in the days before death. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of symptoms before death and determine patient characteristics associated with these symptoms. METHODS: We reviewed the medical record of every patient who died at a multisite academic teaching hospital over a 3-month period. We determined the number of episodes of pain, dyspnea, agitation and nausea during the final 48 hours of life and assessed the patient and encounter characteristics associated with 2 or more episodes of symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 480 patients died during the study period. Of these patients, 29.2% (140/480) had 2 or more symptoms in the final 48 hours of life. Higher Elixhauser comorbidity scores (relative risk [RR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-1.49), having a family doctor (RR 2.33, 95% CI 1.02-5.38), being admitted to the medical oncology service (RR 1.51, 95% CI 1.11-2.05) and having a documented order for no resuscitation written early during the stay in hospital (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.01-1.89) were independently associated with symptoms. Admission to intensive care was associated with fewer symptoms (RR 0.39, CI 95% 0.19-0.80). INTERPRETATION: Symptoms are common in the final 48 hours of life, particularly in patients with multimorbidity who want limitations on the aggressiveness of their care. An integrated palliative approach is needed for select at-risk patients.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392683

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of hospital admission, the fifth leading cause of death in North America, and is estimated to cost $49 billion annually in North America by 2020. The majority of COPD care costs are attributed to hospitalizations; yet, there are limited data to understand the drivers of high costs among hospitalized patients with COPD. In this study, we aimed to determine the patient and hospital-level factors associated with high-cost hospital care, in order to identify potential targets for the reorganization and planning of health services. We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a Canadian academic hospital between September 2010 and 2014, including adult patients with a first-time admission for COPD exacerbation. We calculated total costs, ranked patients by cost quintiles, and collected data on patient characteristics and health service utilization. We used multivariable regression to determine factors associated with highest hospital costs. Among 1,894 patients included in the study, the mean age was 73±12.6 years, median length of stay was 5 (interquartile range 3-9) days, mortality rate was 7.8% (n=147), and 9% (n=170) required intensive care. Hospital spending totaled $19.8 million, with 63% ($12.5 million) spent on 20% of patients. Factors associated with highest costs for COPD care included intensive care unit admission (odds ratio [OR] 32.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 20.3, 51.7), death in hospital (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.3, 5.2), discharge to long-term care facility (OR 5.7; 95% CI 3.5, 9.2), and use of the alternate level of care designation during hospitalization (OR 23.5; 95% CI 14.1, 39.2). High hospital costs are driven by two distinct groups: patients who require acute medical treatment for severe illness and patients with functional limitation who require assisted living facilities upon discharge. Improving quality of care and reducing cost in this high-needs population require a strong focus on early recognition and management of functional impairment for patients living with chronic disease.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/economia , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Custos Hospitalares , Admissão do Paciente/economia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/economia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Moradias Assistidas/economia , Cuidados Críticos/economia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Análise Multivariada , Ontário , Alta do Paciente/economia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
JAMA ; 317(3): 269-279, 2017 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28114551

RESUMO

Importance: Although asthma is a chronic disease, the expected rate of spontaneous remissions of adult asthma and the stability of diagnosis are unknown. Objective: To determine whether a diagnosis of current asthma could be ruled out and asthma medications safely stopped in randomly selected adults with physician-diagnosed asthma. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective, multicenter cohort study was conducted in 10 Canadian cities from January 2012 to February 2016. Random digit dialing was used to recruit adult participants who reported a history of physician-diagnosed asthma established within the past 5 years. Participants using long-term oral steroids and participants unable to be tested using spirometry were excluded. Information from the diagnosing physician was obtained to determine how the diagnosis of asthma was originally made in the community. Of 1026 potential participants who fulfilled eligibility criteria during telephone screening, 701 (68.3%) agreed to enter into the study. All participants were assessed with home peak flow and symptom monitoring, spirometry, and serial bronchial challenge tests, and those participants using daily asthma medications had their medications gradually tapered off over 4 study visits. Participants in whom a diagnosis of current asthma was ultimately ruled out were followed up clinically with repeated bronchial challenge tests over 1 year. Exposure: Physician-diagnosed asthma established within the past 5 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of participants in whom a diagnosis of current asthma was ruled out, defined as participants who exhibited no evidence of acute worsening of asthma symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, or bronchial hyperresponsiveness after having all asthma medications tapered off and after a study pulmonologist established an alternative diagnosis. Secondary outcomes included the proportion with asthma ruled out after 12 months and the proportion who underwent an appropriate initial diagnostic workup for asthma in the community. Results: Of 701 participants (mean [SD] age, 51 [16] years; 467 women [67%]), 613 completed the study and could be conclusively evaluated for a diagnosis of current asthma. Current asthma was ruled out in 203 of 613 study participants (33.1%; 95% CI, 29.4%-36.8%). Twelve participants (2.0%) were found to have serious cardiorespiratory conditions that had been previously misdiagnosed as asthma in the community. After an additional 12 months of follow-up, 181 participants (29.5%; 95% CI, 25.9%-33.1%) continued to exhibit no clinical or laboratory evidence of asthma. Participants in whom current asthma was ruled out, compared with those in whom it was confirmed, were less likely to have undergone testing for airflow limitation in the community at the time of initial diagnosis (43.8% vs 55.6%, respectively; absolute difference, 11.8%; 95% CI, 2.1%-21.5%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with physician-diagnosed asthma, a current diagnosis of asthma could not be established in 33.1% who were not using daily asthma medications or had medications weaned. In patients such as these, reassessing the asthma diagnosis may be warranted.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Suspensão de Tratamento , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Testes de Provocação Brônquica , Canadá/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Espirometria
19.
Syst Rev ; 6(1): 8, 2017 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28095901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients who are discharged from hospital after an acute medical illness often have impaired function that prevents them from returning to their previous place of residence. Assessing each patient's post-discharge needs takes time and resources but is important in order to reduce unplanned readmissions and adverse events post-discharge. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a systematic review to synthesize the evidence on prognostic models and their reported accuracy in predicting the location of discharge after a medical admission to an acute care hospital. We will perform searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and COCHRANE databases. Pre-defined study, population, and model characteristics will be reported. We will write a narrative summary of included studies. Methodological quality of the studies will be assessed using the QUIPS tool, and the quality of evidence will be evaluated using the GRADE tool. DISCUSSION: Early and accurate assessment of patient needs for supportive services after discharge has the potential to improve patient outcomes and health system efficiency. This systematic review will identify factors that can accurately predict location of discharge using existing tools and identify priority knowledge gaps to inform future research. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016037144.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Modelos Teóricos , Alta do Paciente , Medição de Risco/métodos , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Readmissão do Paciente , Reabilitação , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
20.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 19: 40-2, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27482510

RESUMO

We describe the case of a young patient with a history of non-resolving pneumonia. She was diagnosed with a limited form of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA), by percutaneous core needle lung biopsy. In this report, we discuss the definition and clinical implications of limited GPA, treatment options, and highlight the importance of considering vasculitis in the differential diagnosis of non-resolving pneumonia.

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