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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) who use outpatient physical therapy or community wellness services for locomotor training and predict the duration of services, controlling for demographic, injury, quality of life, and service and financial characteristics. We explore how the duration of services is related to locomotor strategy. DESIGN: Observational study of participants at 4 SCI Model Systems centers with survival. Weibull regression model to predict the duration of services. SETTING: Rehabilitation and community wellness facilities at 4 SCI Model Systems centers. PARTICIPANTS: Eligibility criteria were SCI or dysfunction resulting in motor impairment and the use of physical therapy or community wellness programs for locomotor/gait training. We excluded those who did not complete training or who experienced a disruption in training greater than 45 days. Our sample included 62 participants in conventional therapy and 37 participants in robotic exoskeleton training. INTERVENTIONS: Outpatient physical therapy or community wellness services for locomotor/gait training. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SCI characteristics (level and completeness of injury) and the duration of services from medical records. Self-reported perceptions of SCI consequences using the SCI-Functional Index for basic mobility and SCI-Quality of Life measurement system for bowel difficulties, bladder difficulties, and pain interference. RESULTS: After controlling for predictors, the duration of services for the conventional therapy group was an average of 63% longer than for the robotic exoskeleton group, however each visit was 50% shorter in total time. Men had an 11% longer duration of services than women had. Participants with complete injuries had a duration of services that was approximately 1.72 times longer than participants with incomplete injuries. Perceived improvement was larger in the conventional group. CONCLUSIONS: Locomotor/gait training strategies are distinctive for individuals with SCI using a robotic exoskeleton in a community wellness facility as episodes are shorter but individual sessions are longer. Participants' preferences and the ability to pay for ongoing services may be critical factors associated with the duration of outpatient services.

2.
J Rehabil Assist Technol Eng ; 8: 20556683211035057, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471545

RESUMO

Introduction: After stroke, upper limb impairment affects independent performance of activities of daily living. We evaluated the usability, functionality, and efficacy of a myoelectric elbow-wrist-hand orthosis to provide support, limit unsafe motion, and enhance the functional motion of paralyzed or weak upper limbs. Methods: Individuals with stroke participated in a single-session study to evaluate the device. Ability to activate the device was tested in supported and unsupported shoulder position, as well as the elbow range of motion, ability to maintain elbow position, and ability to lift and hold a range of weights while using the device. Results: No adverse events were reported. 71% of users were able to operate the device in all three active myoelectric activation modes (Biceps, Triceps, Dual) during testing. Users were able to hold a range of wrist weights (0.5-2 lbs) for 10-120 seconds, with the largest percentage of participants able to hold weights with the device in Biceps Mode. Conclusions: The myoelectric elbow-wrist-hand orthosis improved range of motion during use and was efficacious at remediating upper extremity impairment after stroke. All users could operate the device in at least one mode, and most could lift and hold weights representative of some everyday objects using the device.

3.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 18(1): 124, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls are a leading cause of accidental deaths and injuries worldwide. The risk of falling is especially high for individuals suffering from balance impairments. Retrospective surveys and studies of simulated falling in lab conditions are frequently used and are informative, but prospective information about real-life falls remains sparse. Such data are essential to address fall risks and develop fall detection and alert systems. Here we present the results of a prospective study investigating a proof-of-concept, smartphone-based, online system for fall detection and notification. METHODS: The system uses the smartphone's accelerometer and gyroscope to monitor the participants' motion, and falls are detected using a regularized logistic regression. Data on falls and near-fall events (i.e., stumbles) is stored in a cloud server and fall-related variables are logged onto a web portal developed for data exploration, including the event time and weather, fall probability, and the faller's location and activity before the fall. RESULTS: In total, 23 individuals with an elevated risk of falling carried the phones for 2070 days in which the model classified 14,904,000 events. The system detected 27 of the 37 falls that occurred (sensitivity = 73.0 %) and resulted in one false alarm every 46 days (specificity > 99.9 %, precision = 37.5 %). 42.2 % of the events falsely classified as falls were validated as stumbles. CONCLUSIONS: The system's performance shows the potential of using smartphones for fall detection and notification in real-life. Apart from functioning as a practical fall monitoring instrument, this system may serve as a valuable research tool, enable future studies to scale their ability to capture fall-related data, and help researchers and clinicians to investigate real-falls.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Smartphone , Humanos , Sistemas On-Line , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252030

RESUMO

Orthotic and assistive devices such as knee ankle foot orthoses (KAFO), come in a variety of forms and fits, with several levels of available features that could help users perform daily activities more naturally. However, objective data on the actual use of these devices outside of the research lab is usually not obtained. Such data could enhance traditional lab-based outcome measures and inform clinical decision-making when prescribing new orthotic and assistive technology. Here, we link data from a GPS unit and an accelerometer mounted on the orthotic device to quantify its usage in the community and examine the correlations with clinical metrics. We collected data from 14 individuals over a period of 2 months as they used their personal KAFO first, and then a novel research KAFO; for each device we quantified number of steps, cadence, time spent at community locations and time wearing the KAFO at those locations. Sensor-derived metrics showed that mobility patterns differed widely between participants (mean steps: 591.3, SD =704.2). The novel KAFO generally enabled participants to walk faster during clinical tests ( ∆6 Minute-Walk-Test=71.5m, p=0.006). However, some participants wore the novel device less often despite improved performance on these clinical measures, leading to poor correlation between changes in clinical outcome measures and changes in community mobility ( ∆6 Minute-Walk-Test - ∆ Community Steps: r=0.09, p=0.76). Our results suggest that some traditional clinical outcome measures may not be associated with the actual wear time of an assistive device in the community, and obtaining personalized data from real-world use through wearable technology is valuable.


Assuntos
Órtoses do Pé , Acelerometria , Tornozelo , Humanos , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Caminhada
5.
Sci Adv ; 7(20)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980495

RESUMO

Soft, skin-integrated electronic sensors can provide continuous measurements of diverse physiological parameters, with broad relevance to the future of human health care. Motion artifacts can, however, corrupt the recorded signals, particularly those associated with mechanical signatures of cardiopulmonary processes. Design strategies introduced here address this limitation through differential operation of a matched, time-synchronized pair of high-bandwidth accelerometers located on parts of the anatomy that exhibit strong spatial gradients in motion characteristics. When mounted at a location that spans the suprasternal notch and the sternal manubrium, these dual-sensing devices allow measurements of heart rate and sounds, respiratory activities, body temperature, body orientation, and activity level, along with swallowing, coughing, talking, and related processes, without sensitivity to ambient conditions during routine daily activities, vigorous exercises, intense manual labor, and even swimming. Deployments on patients with COVID-19 allow clinical-grade ambulatory monitoring of the key symptoms of the disease even during rehabilitation protocols.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Acelerometria/métodos , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Temperatura Corporal , COVID-19 , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 18(1): 88, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with transfemoral amputations who are considered to be limited community ambulators are classified as Medicare functional classification (MFCL) level K2. These individuals are usually prescribed a non-microprocessor controlled knee (NMPK) with an appropriate foot for simple walking functions. However, existing research suggests that these individuals can benefit from using a microprocessor controlled knee (MPK) and appropriate foot for their ambulation, but cannot obtain one due to insurance policy restrictions. With a steady increase in older adults with amputations due to vascular conditions, it is critical to evaluate whether advanced prostheses can provide better safety and performance capabilities to maintain and improve quality of life in individuals who are predominantly designated MFCL level K2. To decipher this we conducted a 13 month longitudinal clinical trial to determine the benefits of using a C-Leg and 1M10 foot in individuals at K2 level with transfemoral amputation due to vascular disease. This longitudinal clinical trial incorporated recommendations prescribed by the lower limb prosthesis workgroup to design a study that can add evidence to improve reimbursement policy through clinical outcomes using an MPK in K2 level individuals with transfemoral amputation who were using an NMPK for everyday use. METHODS: Ten individuals (mean age: 63 ± 9 years) with unilateral transfemoral amputation due to vascular conditions designated as MFCL K2 participated in this longitudinal crossover randomized clinical trial. Baseline outcomes were collected with their current prosthesis. Participants were then randomized to one of two groups, either an intervention with the MPK with a standardized 1M10 foot or their predicate NMPK with a standardized 1M10 foot. On completion of the first intervention, participants crossed over to the next group to complete the study. Each intervention lasted for 6 months (3 months of acclimation and 3 months of take-home trial to monitor home use). At the end of each intervention, clinical outcomes and self-reported outcomes were collected to compare with their baseline performance. A generalized linear model ANOVA was used to compare the performance of each intervention with respect to their own baseline. RESULTS: Statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements were observed in gait performance, safety, and participant-reported measures when using the MPK C-Leg + 1M10 foot. Most participants were able to achieve higher clinical scores in gait speed, balance, self-reported mobility, and fall safety, while using the MPK + 1M10 combination. The improvement in scores were within range of scores achieved by individuals with K3 functional level as reported in previous studies. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with transfemoral amputation from dysvascular conditions designated MFCL level K2 benefited from using an MPK + appropriate foot. The inference and evidence from this longitudinal clinical trial will add to the knowledgebase related to reimbursement policy-making. Trial registration This study is registered on clinical trials.gov with the study title "Functional outcomes in dysvascular transfemoral amputees" and the associated ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01537211. The trial was retroactively registered on February 7, 2012 after the first participant was enrolled.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Articulação do Joelho , Microcomputadores , Idoso , Amputação , Amputados , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Caminhada
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893178

RESUMO

Capabilities in continuous monitoring of key physiological parameters of disease have never been more important than in the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Soft, skin-mounted electronics that incorporate high-bandwidth, miniaturized motion sensors enable digital, wireless measurements of mechanoacoustic (MA) signatures of both core vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature) and underexplored biomarkers (coughing count) with high fidelity and immunity to ambient noises. This paper summarizes an effort that integrates such MA sensors with a cloud data infrastructure and a set of analytics approaches based on digital filtering and convolutional neural networks for monitoring of COVID-19 infections in sick and healthy individuals in the hospital and the home. Unique features are in quantitative measurements of coughing and other vocal events, as indicators of both disease and infectiousness. Systematic imaging studies demonstrate correlations between the time and intensity of coughing, speaking, and laughing and the total droplet production, as an approximate indicator of the probability for disease spread. The sensors, deployed on COVID-19 patients along with healthy controls in both inpatient and home settings, record coughing frequency and intensity continuously, along with a collection of other biometrics. The results indicate a decaying trend of coughing frequency and intensity through the course of disease recovery, but with wide variations across patient populations. The methodology creates opportunities to study patterns in biometrics across individuals and among different demographic groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Taxa Respiratória , Sons Respiratórios , SARS-CoV-2 , Tecnologia sem Fio , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica
8.
Brain Sci ; 11(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652677

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies suggests that a novel neuromodulation technique targeting the spinal circuitry enhances gait rehabilitation, but research on its application to stroke survivors is limited. Therefore, we investigated the characteristics of spinal motor-evoked responses (sMERs) from lower-limb muscles obtained by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) after stroke compared to age-matched and younger controls without stroke. Thirty participants (ten stroke survivors, ten age-matched controls, and ten younger controls) completed the study. By using tSCS applied between the L1 and L2 vertebral levels, we compared sMER characteristics (resting motor threshold (RMT), slope of the recruitment curve, and latency) of the tibialis anterior (TA) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles among groups. A single pulse of stimulation was delivered in 5 mA increments, increasing from 5 mA to 250 mA or until the subjects reached their maximum tolerance. The stroke group had an increased RMT (27-51%) compared to both age-matched (TA: p = 0.032; MG: p = 0.005) and younger controls (TA: p < 0.001; MG: p<0.001). For the TA muscle, the paretic side demonstrated a 13% increased latency compared to the non-paretic side in the stroke group (p = 0.010). Age-matched controls also exhibited an increased RMT compared to younger controls (TA: p = 0.002; MG: p = 0.007), suggesting that altered sMER characteristics present in stroke survivors may result from both stroke and normal aging. This observation may provide implications for altered spinal motor output after stroke and demonstrates the feasibility of using sMER characteristics as an assessment after stroke.

9.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(2): 203-215, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the experiences of clinicians who have used robotic exoskeletons in their practice and acquire information that can guide clinical decisions and training strategies related to robotic exoskeletons. DESIGN: Qualitative, online survey study, and 4 single-session focus groups followed by thematic analysis to define themes. SETTING: Focus groups were conducted at 3 regional rehabilitation hospitals and 1 Veteran's Administration (VA) Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: Clinicians (N=40) reported their demographic characteristics and clinical experience using robotic exoskeletons. Twenty-nine clinicians participated in focus groups at regional hospitals that use robotic exoskeletons, as well as 1 VA Medical Center. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinicians' preferences, experiences, training strategies, and clinical decisions on how robotic exoskeleton devices are used with Veterans and civilians with spinal cord injury. RESULTS: Clinicians had an average of 3 years of experience using exoskeletons in clinical and research settings. Major themes emerging from focus group discussions included appropriateness of patient goals, patient selection criteria, realistic patient expectations, patient and caregiver training for use of exoskeletons, perceived benefits, preferences regarding specific exoskeletons, and device limitations and therapy recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians identified benefits of exoskeleton use including decreased physical burden and fatigue while maximizing patient mobility, increased safety of clinicians and patients, and expanded device awareness and preferences. Suitability of exoskeletons for patients with various characteristics and managing expectations were concerns. Clinicians identified research opportunities as technology continues to advance toward safer, lighter, and hands-free devices.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Robótica/instrumentação , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Hospitais de Veteranos , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
10.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(2): 233-244, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential of a microprocessor swing and stance controlled knee-ankle-foot orthosis (MPO) to improve balance, functional mobility, and quality of life in individuals with lower-extremity impairments as compared to a stance-control-orthosis (SCO) and conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) over a use-period of a month. DESIGN: Randomized crossover study. SETTING: Ambulatory research laboratory and home and community for community-dwelling adults. PARTICIPANTS: Persons (N=18) who actively used a unilateral KAFO or SCO for impairments due to neurologic or neuromuscular disease, orthopedic disease, or trauma. INTERVENTION: Participants were trained to acclimate and use SCO and MPO. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT), 10-m walk test, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), functional gait assessment (FGA), hill assessment index, stair assessment index (SAI), Five Times Sit to Stand Test, crosswalk test, Modified Falls Efficacy Scale, Orthotic and Prosthetic User's Survey (OPUS), and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHQOL)-BREF Scale. RESULTS: Significant changes were observed in participants' self-selected gait speed (P=.023), BBS (P=.01), FGA (P=.002), and SAI (P<.001) between baseline and post-MPO assessment. Similar significant differences were seen when comparing post-MPO with post-SCO data. During the 6MWT, persons using the MPO walked significantly longer (P=.013) than when using their baseline device. Participants reported higher quality of life scores in the OPUS (P=.02) and physical health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF (P=.037) after using the MPO. Participants reported fewer falls when wearing the MPO (5) versus an SCO (38) or locked KAFO (15). CONCLUSIONS: The MPO may contribute to improved quality of life and health status of persons with lower-extremity impairments by providing the ability to have better walking speed, endurance, and functional balance.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Microcomputadores , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Cross-Over , Avaliação da Deficiência , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equilíbrio Postural , Qualidade de Vida
11.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 17(1): 124, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) may experience both psychological and physiological benefits from robotic locomotor exoskeleton use, and knowledgeable users may have valuable perspectives to inform future development. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the experiences, perspectives, concerns, and suggestions on the use of robotic locomotor exoskeletons by civilians and veterans living with SCI. METHODS: Participants reported their demographic characteristics and the extent of robotic exoskeleton use in an online survey. Then, 28 experienced robotic locomotor exoskeleton users participated in focus groups held at three regional hospitals that specialize in rehabilitation for persons with SCI. We used a qualitative description approach analysis to analyze the data, and included thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants expressed that robotic exoskeletons were useful in therapy settings but, in their current form, were not practical for activities of daily living due to device limitations. Participants detailed the psychological benefits of being eye-level with their non-disabled peers and family members, and some reported physiologic improvements in areas such as bowel and bladder function. Participants detailed barriers of increased fatigue, spasticity, and spasms and expressed dissatisfaction with the devices due to an inability to use them independently and safely. Participants provided suggestions to manufacturers for technology improvements. CONCLUSIONS: The varied opinions and insights of robotic locomotor exoskeletons users with SCI add to our knowledge of device benefits and limitations.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Robótica/instrumentação , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Brain Inj ; 34(8): 1118-1126, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the impacts of yoga-based physical therapy versus a seated rest within the context of standard rehabilitation practice on sleep, heart rate variability (HRV), anxiety, and fatigue during acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation. METHODS: Eleven individuals participated in this crossover study involving the following interventions in a randomized order: group yoga-based physical therapy (YPT), conventional physical therapy (CPT), and group seated rest in a relaxing environment (SR). HRV and self-reported anxiety and fatigue were measured immediately before and after each group, and sleep after each condition and at baseline. Data was analyzed using generalized linear mixed models with repeated measures. RESULTS: The interaction between time and treatment was statistically significant (p = .0203). For the SR treatment, wake after sleep onset (WASO) rate was reduced from 14.99 to 10.60 (IRR = 0.71; p = .006). Time and treatment were not found to be statistically significantly associated with any of the secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: Yoga-based physical therapy is feasible and safe in the inpatient rehabilitation setting following TBI. Sleep quality improved following the addition of a one-hour seated rest in a relaxing environment to a standard rehabilitation daily schedule, suggesting that structured rest time may be beneficial to sleep hygiene during inpatient rehabilitation following TBI. ClinicalTrials.Gov Registration Number: NCT03701594.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Ioga , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Projetos Piloto
13.
Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol ; 15(7): 762-772, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255369

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe appraisals of robotic exoskeletons for locomotion by potential users with spinal cord injuries, their perceptions of device benefits and limitations, and recommendations for manufacturers and therapists regarding device use.Materials and methods: We conducted focus groups at three regional rehabilitation hospitals and used thematic analysis to define themes.Results: Across four focus groups, 35 adults participated; they were predominantly middle-aged, male, and diverse in terms of race and ethnicity, well educated, and not working. Participants had been living with SCI an average of two decades. Most participants were aware of exoskeletons. Some were enthusiastic about the usability of the devices while others were more circumspect. They had many questions about device affordability and usability, and were discerning in their appraisal of benefits and suitability to their particular circumstances. They reflected on device cost, the need for caregiver assistance, use of hands, and environmental considerations. They weighed the functional benefits relative to the cost of preferred activities. Their recommendations focused on cost, battery life, and independent use.Conclusions: Potential users' appraisals of mobility technology reflect a nuanced appreciation of device costs; functional, social, and psychological benefits; and limitations. Results provide guidance to therapists and manufacturers regarding device use.Implications for RehabilitationPotential users of robotic locomotor exoskeletons with spinal cord injuries appreciate the functional, social, and psychological benefits that these devices may offer.Their appraisals reflect nuanced consideration of device cost and features, and the suitability of the assistive technology to their circumstances.They recommend that manufacturers focus on reducing cost, extending battery life, and features that allow independent use.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/reabilitação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Locomoção , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veteranos
14.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 17(1): 4, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We know little about the budget impact of integrating robotic exoskeleton over-ground training into therapy services for locomotor training. The purpose of this study was to estimate the budget impact of adding robotic exoskeleton over-ground training to existing locomotor training strategies in the rehabilitation of people with spinal cord injury. METHODS: A Budget Impact Analysis (BIA) was conducted using data provided by four Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Model Systems rehabilitation hospitals. Hospitals provided estimates of therapy utilization and costs about people with spinal cord injury who participated in locomotor training in the calendar year 2017. Interventions were standard of care walking training including body-weight supported treadmill training, overground training, stationary robotic systems (i.e., treadmill-based robotic gait orthoses), and overground robotic exoskeleton training. The main outcome measures included device costs, training costs for personnel to use the device, human capital costs of locomotor training, device demand, and the number of training sessions per person with SCI. RESULTS: Robotic exoskeletons for over-ground training decreased hospital costs associated with delivering locomotor training in the base case analysis. This analysis assumed no difference in intervention effectiveness across locomotor training strategies. Providing robotic exoskeleton overground training for 10% of locomotor training sessions over the course of the year (range 226-397 sessions) results in decreased annual locomotor training costs (i.e., net savings) between $1114 to $4784 per annum. The base case shows small savings that are sensitive to parameters of the BIA model which were tested in one-way sensitivity analyses, scenarios analyses, and probability sensitivity analyses. The base case scenario was more sensitive to clinical utilization parameters (e.g., how often devices sit idle and the substitution of high cost training) than device-specific parameters (e.g., robotic exoskeleton device cost or device life). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis simultaneously considered human capital cost, device cost, and locomotor device substitution. With probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the introduction of a robotic exoskeleton only remained cost saving for one facility. CONCLUSIONS: Providing robotic exoskeleton for over-ground training was associated with lower costs for the locomotor training of people with SCI in the base case analyses. The analysis was sensitive to parameter assumptions.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado/economia , Reabilitação Neurológica/economia , Reabilitação Neurológica/instrumentação , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Adulto , Feminino , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635375

RESUMO

Gait and balance impairments are linked with reduced mobility and increased risk of falling. Wearable sensing technologies, such as inertial measurement units (IMUs), may augment clinical assessments by providing continuous, high-resolution data. This study tested and validated the utility of a single IMU to quantify gait and balance features during routine clinical outcome tests, and evaluated changes in sensor-derived measurements with age, sex, height, and weight. Age-ranged, healthy individuals (N = 49, 20-70 years) wore a lower back IMU during the 10 m walk test (10MWT), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Spatiotemporal gait parameters computed from the sensor data were validated against gold standard measures, demonstrating excellent agreement for stance time, step time, gait velocity, and step count (intraclass correlation (ICC) > 0.90). There was good agreement for swing time (ICC = 0.78) and moderate agreement for step length (ICC = 0.68). A total of 184 features were calculated from the acceleration and angular velocity signals across these tests, 36 of which had significant correlations with age. This approach was also demonstrated for an individual with stroke, providing higher resolution information about balance, gait, and mobility than the clinical test scores alone. Leveraging mobility data from wireless, wearable sensors can help clinicians and patients more objectively pinpoint impairments, track progression, and set personalized goals during and after rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Marcha , Equilíbrio Postural , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neurology ; 92(3): e263-e273, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that gait training with a hip-assistive robotic exoskeleton improves clinical outcomes and strengthens the descending corticospinal drive to the lower limb muscles in persons with chronic stroke. METHODS: Fifty participants completed the randomized, single-blind, parallel study. Participants received over-ground gait training with the Honda Stride Management Assist (SMA) exoskeleton or intensity-matched functional gait training, delivered in 18 sessions over 6-8 weeks. Performance-based and self-reported clinical outcomes were measured at baseline, midpoint, and completion, and at a 3-month follow-up. Corticomotor excitability (CME) of 3 bilateral leg muscles was measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation. RESULTS: The primary outcome, walking speed, improved for the SMA group by completion of the program (0.24 ± 0.14 m/s difference, p < 0.001). Compared to the functional group, SMA users had greater improvement in walking endurance (46.0% ± 27.4% vs 35.7% ± 20.8%, p = 0.033), took more steps during therapy days (4,366 ± 2,426 vs 3,028 ± 1,510; p = 0.013), and demonstrated larger changes in CME of the paretic rectus femoris (178% ± 75% vs 33% ± 32%, p = 0.010). Participants with hemorrhagic stroke demonstrated greater improvement in balance when using the SMA (24.7% ± 20% vs 6.8% ± 6.7%, p = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Gait training with the SMA improved walking speed in persons with chronic stroke, and may promote greater walking endurance, balance, and CME than functional gait training. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01994395. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that gait training with a hip-assistive exoskeleton increases clinical outcomes and CME in persons with chronic stroke, but does not significantly improve walking speeds compared to intensity-matched functional gait training.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/reabilitação , Marcha/fisiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Extremidades/inervação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação Física e Treinamento , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores de Tempo , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Neurol Phys Ther ; 42(4): 256-267, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Refinement of robotic exoskeletons for overground walking is progressing rapidly. We describe clinicians' experiences, evaluations, and training strategies using robotic exoskeletons in spinal cord injury rehabilitation and wellness settings and describe clinicians' perceptions of exoskeleton benefits and risks and developments that would enhance utility. METHODS: We convened focus groups at 4 spinal cord injury model system centers. A court reporter took verbatim notes and provided a transcript. Research staff used a thematic coding approach to summarize discussions. RESULTS: Thirty clinicians participated in focus groups. They reported using exoskeletons primarily in outpatient and wellness settings; 1 center used exoskeletons during inpatient rehabilitation. A typical episode of outpatient exoskeleton therapy comprises 20 to 30 sessions and at least 2 staff members are involved in each session. Treatment focuses on standing, stepping, and gait training; therapists measure progress with standardized assessments. Beyond improved gait, participants attributed physiological, psychological, and social benefits to exoskeleton use. Potential risks included falls, skin irritation, and disappointed expectations. Participants identified enhancements that would be of value including greater durability and adjustability, lighter weight, 1-hand controls, ability to navigate stairs and uneven surfaces, and ability to balance without upper extremity support. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Each spinal cord injury model system center had shared and distinct practices in terms of how it integrates robotic exoskeletons into physical therapy services. There is currently little evidence to guide integration of exoskeletons into rehabilitation therapy services and a pressing need to generate evidence to guide practice and to inform patients' expectations as more devices enter the market.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A231).


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Reabilitação Neurológica/instrumentação , Reabilitação Neurológica/métodos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Adulto , Exoesqueleto Energizado/normas , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 19(5): e184, 2017 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28546137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smartphones contain sensors that measure movement-related data, making them promising tools for monitoring physical activity after a stroke. Activity recognition (AR) systems are typically trained on movement data from healthy individuals collected in a laboratory setting. However, movement patterns change after a stroke (eg, gait impairment), and activities may be performed differently at home than in a lab. Thus, it is important to validate AR for gait-impaired stroke patients in a home setting for accurate clinical predictions. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to evaluate AR performance in a home setting for individuals who had suffered a stroke, by using different sets of training activities. Specifically, we compared AR performance for persons with stroke while varying the origin of training data, based on either population (healthy persons or persons with stoke) or environment (laboratory or home setting). METHODS: Thirty individuals with stroke and fifteen healthy subjects performed a series of mobility-related activities, either in a laboratory or at home, while wearing a smartphone. A custom-built app collected signals from the phone's accelerometer, gyroscope, and barometer sensors, and subjects self-labeled the mobility activities. We trained a random forest AR model using either healthy or stroke activity data. Primary measures of AR performance were (1) the mean recall of activities and (2) the misclassification of stationary and ambulatory activities. RESULTS: A classifier trained on stroke activity data performed better than one trained on healthy activity data, improving average recall from 53% to 75%. The healthy-trained classifier performance declined with gait impairment severity, more often misclassifying ambulatory activities as stationary ones. The classifier trained on in-lab activities had a lower average recall for at-home activities (56%) than for in-lab activities collected on a different day (77%). CONCLUSIONS: Stroke-based training data is needed for high quality AR among gait-impaired individuals with stroke. Additionally, AR systems for home and community monitoring would likely benefit from including at-home activities in the training data.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizado de Máquina/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Atividades Cotidianas , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 96(10 Suppl 1): S128-S134, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28379922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of rehabilitation after spinal cord injury is to enable successful function in everyday life and independence at home. Clinical tests can assess whether patients are able to execute functional movements but are limited in assessing such information at home. A prototype system is developed that detects stand-to-reach activities, a movement with important functional implications, at multiple locations within a mock kitchen. DESIGN: Ten individuals with incomplete spinal cord injuries performed a sequence of standing and reaching tasks. The system monitored their movements by combining two sources of information: a triaxial accelerometer, placed on the subject's thigh, detected sitting or standing, and a network of radio frequency tags, wirelessly connected to a wrist-worn device, detected reaching at three locations. A threshold-based algorithm detected execution of the combined tasks and accuracy was measured by the number of correctly identified events. RESULTS: The system was shown to have an average accuracy of 98% for inferring when individuals performed stand-to-reach activities at each tag location within the same room. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of accelerometry and tags yielded accurate assessments of functional stand-to-reach activities within a home environment. Optimization of this technology could simplify patient compliance and allow clinicians to assess functional home activities.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura
20.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 12: 69, 2015 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26289955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robots offer an alternative, potentially advantageous method of providing repetitive, high-dosage, and high-intensity training to address the gait impairments caused by stroke. In this study, we compared the effects of the Stride Management Assist (SMA®) System, a new wearable robotic device developed by Honda R&D Corporation, Japan, with functional task specific training (FTST) on spatiotemporal gait parameters in stroke survivors. METHODS: A single blinded randomized control trial was performed to assess the effect of FTST and task-specific walking training with the SMA® device on spatiotemporal gait parameters. Participants (n=50) were randomly assigned to FTST or SMA. Subjects in both groups received training 3 times per week for 6-8 weeks for a maximum of 18 training sessions. The GAITRite® system was used to collect data on subjects' spatiotemporal gait characteristics before training (baseline), at mid-training, post-training, and at a 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: After training, significant improvements in gait parameters were observed in both training groups compared to baseline, including an increase in velocity and cadence, a decrease in swing time on the impaired side, a decrease in double support time, an increase in stride length on impaired and non-impaired sides, and an increase in step length on impaired and non-impaired sides. No significant differences were observed between training groups; except for SMA group, step length on the impaired side increased significantly during self-selected walking speed trials and spatial asymmetry decreased significantly during fast-velocity walking trials. CONCLUSIONS: SMA and FTST interventions provided similar, significant improvements in spatiotemporal gait parameters; however, the SMA group showed additional improvements across more parameters at various time points. These results indicate that the SMA® device could be a useful therapeutic tool to improve spatiotemporal parameters and contribute to improved functional mobility in stroke survivors. Further research is needed to determine the feasibility of using this device in a home setting vs a clinic setting, and whether such home use provides continued benefits. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered under the title "Development of walk assist device to improve community ambulation" and can be located in clinicaltrials.gov with the study identifier: NCT01994395 .


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/reabilitação , Marcha , Robótica , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paresia/etiologia , Paresia/reabilitação , Educação Física e Treinamento , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Torque , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
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