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1.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is established that Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients experience sleep disruption. However, it remains unknown whether disruption in the quantity, quality or timing of sleep is a risk factor for the onset of AD. METHODS: We used the largest published genome-wide association studies of self-reported and accelerometer-measured sleep traits (chronotype, duration, fragmentation, insomnia, daytime napping and daytime sleepiness), and AD. Mendelian randomization (MR) was used to estimate the causal effect of self-reported and accelerometer-measured sleep parameters on AD risk. RESULTS: Overall, there was little evidence to support a causal effect of sleep traits on AD risk. There was some suggestive evidence that self-reported daytime napping was associated with lower AD risk [odds ratio (OR): 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-0.99). Some other sleep traits (accelerometer-measured 'eveningness' and sleep duration, and self-reported daytime sleepiness) had ORs of a similar magnitude to daytime napping, but were less precisely estimated. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found very limited evidence to support a causal effect of sleep traits on AD risk. Our findings provide tentative evidence that daytime napping may reduce AD risk. Given that this is the first MR study of multiple self-report and objective sleep traits on AD risk, findings should be replicated using independent samples when such data become available.

3.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; : 108362, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to discover which young adults vape, the reasons given for vaping, and which reasons for vaping are associated with continued vaping/smoking. METHODS: In a UK cohort of 3,994 young adults, we explored the association of retrospectively-recalled reasons for vaping by 23 years (collected between 2015 and 2016) with vaping/smoking status at 24 years (collected between 2016 and 2017). Using logistic regression, we assessed the association with vaping behaviour among ever vapers who had ever smoked (n = 668), and with smoking behaviour among individuals who regularly smoked prior to vaping (n = 412). RESULTS: Vaping to quit smoking was associated with higher likelihood of vaping (odds ratio [OR] = 3.51, 95 % confidence interval [95 % CI] = 2.29-5.38), but lower likelihood of smoking at 24 years (OR = 0.50, 95 %CI = 0.32 to 0.78). Vaping to cut down smoking was associated with higher likelihood of vaping (OR = 2.90, 95 % CI = 1.87-4.50) and smoking at 24 years (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI = 1.02-2.58). Vaping out of curiosity was associated with lower likelihood of vaping at 24 years (OR = 0.41, 95 %CI = 0.26 to 0.63) but higher likelihood of smoking at 24 years (OR = 1.66, 95 % CI = 1.04-2.65). CONCLUSIONS: Intention to quit appears important for young adults to stop smoking using e-cigarettes. Public health strategies that encourage vaping specifically for smoking cessation may encourage quitting among young adults.

4.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have found associations between smoking and both poorer cognitive ability and lower educational attainment; however, evaluating causality is challenging. We used two complementary methods to explore this. METHODS: We conducted observational analyses of up to 12 004 participants in a cohort study (Study One) and Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses using summary and cohort data (Study Two). Outcome measures were cognitive ability at age 15 and educational attainment at age 16 (Study One), and educational attainment and fluid intelligence (Study Two). RESULTS: Study One: heaviness of smoking at age 15 was associated with lower cognitive ability at age 15 and lower educational attainment at age 16. Adjustment for potential confounders partially attenuated findings (e.g. fully adjusted cognitive ability ß -0.736, 95% CI -1.238 to -0.233, p = 0.004; fully adjusted educational attainment ß -1.254, 95% CI -1.597 to -0.911, p < 0.001). Study Two: MR indicated that both smoking initiation and lifetime smoking predict lower educational attainment (e.g. smoking initiation to educational attainment inverse-variance weighted MR ß -0.197, 95% CI -0.223 to -0.171, p = 1.78 × 10-49). Educational attainment results were robust to sensitivity analyses, while analyses of general cognitive ability were less so. CONCLUSION: We find some evidence of a causal effect of smoking on lower educational attainment, but not cognitive ability. Triangulation of evidence across observational and MR methods is a strength, but the genetic variants associated with smoking initiation may be pleiotropic, suggesting caution in interpreting these results. The nature of this pleiotropy warrants further study.

5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 495, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from observational studies suggests an association between anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa (AN), but causal inference is complicated by the potential for confounding in these studies. We triangulate evidence across a longitudinal study and a Mendelian randomization (MR) study, to evaluate whether there is support for anxiety disorder phenotypes exerting a causal effect on AN risk. METHODS: Study One assessed longitudinal associations of childhood worry and anxiety disorders with lifetime AN in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort. Study Two used two-sample MR to evaluate: causal effects of worry, and genetic liability to anxiety disorders, on AN risk; causal effects of genetic liability to AN on anxiety outcomes; and the causal influence of worry on anxiety disorder development. The independence of effects of worry, relative to depressed affect, on AN and anxiety disorder outcomes, was explored using multivariable MR. Analyses were completed using summary statistics from recent genome-wide association studies. RESULTS: Study One did not support an association between worry and subsequent AN, but there was strong evidence for anxiety disorders predicting increased risk of AN. Study Two outcomes supported worry causally increasing AN risk, but did not support a causal effect of anxiety disorders on AN development, or of AN on anxiety disorders/worry. Findings also indicated that worry causally influences anxiety disorder development. Multivariable analysis estimates suggested the influence of worry on both AN and anxiety disorders was independent of depressed affect. CONCLUSIONS: Overall our results provide mixed evidence regarding the causal role of anxiety exposures in AN aetiology. The inconsistency between outcomes of Studies One and Two may be explained by limitations surrounding worry assessment in Study One, confounding of the anxiety disorder and AN association in observational research, and low power in MR analyses probing causal effects of genetic liability to anxiety disorders. The evidence for worry acting as a causal risk factor for anxiety disorders and AN supports targeting worry for prevention of both outcomes. Further research should clarify how a tendency to worry translates into AN risk, and whether anxiety disorder pathology exerts any causal effect on AN.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958583

RESUMO

Relatively little is known about the possible effects of personalized genetic risk information on smoking, the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. We examined the acceptability and potential behavior change associated with a personalized genetically-informed risk tool (RiskProfile) among current smokers. Current smokers (n=108) were enrolled in a pre-post study with three visits. At Visit 1, participants completed a baseline assessment and genetic testing via 23andMe. Participants' raw genetic data (CHRNA5 variants) and smoking heaviness were used to create a tailored RiskProfile tool that communicated personalized risks of smoking-related diseases and evidence-based recommendations to promote cessation. Participants received their personalized RiskProfile intervention at Visit 2, approximately 6 weeks later. Visit 3 involved a telephone-based follow-up assessment 30 days after intervention. Of enrolled participants, 83% were retained across the three visits. Immediately following intervention, acceptability of RiskProfile was high (M=4.4; SD=0.6 on scale of 1 to 5); at 30-day follow-up, 89% of participants demonstrated accurate recall of key intervention messages. In the full analysis set of this single-arm trial, cigarettes smoked per day decreased from intervention to 30-day follow-up [11.3 vs. 9.8, difference=1.5, 95% CI (0.6-2.4), p=.001]. A personalized genetically-informed risk tool was found to be highly acceptable and associated with a reduction in smoking, although the absence of a control group must be addressed in future research. This study demonstrates proof of concept for translating key basic science findings into a genetically-informed risk tool that was used to promote progress toward smoking cessation.

7.
J Psychopharmacol ; 34(11): 1237-1249, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies have investigated the effects of physical, psychological and pharmacological stressors (that induce state anxiety) on alcohol outcomes. However, no study has investigated the effects of state anxiety on alcohol outcomes, and the moderating role of drinking to cope (DTC) motives, using the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) challenge. AIMS: We aimed to investigate the relationships between state anxiety and alcohol-related outcomes (primarily alcohol choice). We also explored whether DTC motives moderated these relationships. METHODS: We conducted two experiments using the 7.5% CO2 challenge (Studies 1 and 2) and an observational study (Study 3) (ns = 42, 60 and 219, respectively), to triangulate findings. RESULTS: In Study 1, experimentally induced state anxiety increased alcohol choice (p < .001, ηp2 = .29). This finding was replicated in Study 2, but the effect was weaker (p = .076, ηp2 = .06). Furthermore, DTC moderated the effect (p = .013, ηp2 = .11). However, in Study 3 there was no clear evidence of an association between naturally occurring state anxiety and alcohol choice (b = 0.05, p = .655), or a moderating role of DTC (b = 0.01, p = .852). CONCLUSIONS: Experimentally induced, but not naturally occurring, state anxiety increases alcohol choice, although state anxiety levels were lower in the non-manipulated sample.

8.
Psychol Res ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737585

RESUMO

We used the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) model of anxiety induction to investigate the effects of state anxiety on normal gait and gait when navigating an obstacle. Healthy volunteers (n = 22) completed a walking task during inhalations of 7.5% CO2 and medical air (placebo) in a within-subjects design. The order of inhalation was counterbalanced across participants and the gas was administered double-blind. Over a series of trials, participants walked the length of the laboratory, with each trial requiring participants to navigate through an aperture (width adjusted to participant size), with gait parameters measured via a motion capture system. The main findings were that walking speed was slower, but the adjustment in body orientation was greater, during 7.5% CO2 inhalation compared to air. These findings indicate changes in locomotor behaviour during heightened state anxiety that may reflect greater caution when moving in an agitated state. Advances in sensing technology offer the opportunity to monitor locomotor behaviour, and these findings suggest that in doing so, we may be able to infer emotional states from movement in naturalistic settings.

9.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large population-based cohort studies of neuropsychological factors that characterise or precede depressive symptoms are rare. Most studies use small case-control or cross-sectional designs, which may cause selection bias and cannot test temporality. In a large UK population-based cohort, we investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between inhibitory control of positive and negative information and adolescent depressive symptoms. METHODS: Cohort study of 2328 UK adolescents who completed an affective go/no-go task at age 18. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) and short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (sMFQ) at age 18, and with the sMFQ 1 year later (age 19). Analyses were multilevel and traditional linear regressions, before and after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, we found little evidence that adolescents with more depressive symptoms made more inhibitory control errors [after adjustments, errors increased by 0.04% per 1 s.d. increase in sMFQ score (95% confidence interval 0.02-0.06)], but this association was not observed for the CIS-R. There was no evidence for an influence of valence. Longitudinally, there was no evidence that reduced inhibitory control was associated with future depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibitory control of positive and negative information does not appear to be a marker of current or future depressive symptoms in adolescents and would not be a useful target in interventions to prevent adolescent depression. Our lack of convincing evidence for associations with depressive symptoms suggests that the affective go/no-go task is not a promising candidate for future neuroimaging studies of adolescent depression.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663218

RESUMO

Biomarkers can be used to assess smoking behaviour more accurately and objectively than self-report. This study assessed the association between cotinine (a biomarker of smoke exposure) and later e-cigarette use among a population who were unexposed to e-cigarettes in youth. Young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children took part in the study. We observed associations between cotinine at 15 years (measured between 2006 and 2008 before the wide availability of e-cigarettes) and self-reported ever use of e-cigarettes at 22 (measured between 2014 and 2015 when e-cigarettes were widely available) using logistic regression. A range of potential confounders were adjusted for (age, sex, body mass index, alcohol use and passive smoke exposure). Additionally, we adjusted for the young people's self-reported smoking status/history to explore potential misreporting and measurement error. In a sample of N = 1,194 young people, cotinine levels consistent with active smoking at 15 years were associated with increased odds of e-cigarette ever use at 22 years (Odds Ratio [OR] = 7.24, 95% CI 3.29 to 15.93) even when self-reported active smoking status at age 16 (OR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.32 to 7.48) and latent classes of smoking behaviour from 14 to 16 (OR = 2.70, 95% CI 0.98 to 7.44) were included in the model. Cotinine levels consistent with smoking in adolescence were strongly associated with increased odds of later e-cigarette use, even after adjusting for reported smoking behaviour at age 16 and smoking transitions from 14 to 16.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Appetite ; 154: 104744, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562806

RESUMO

Excessive consumption of energy-dense food increases the risk of obesity, which in turn increases the risk of non-communicable diseases, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes and most non-smoking-related cancers. Health warning labels (HWLs) that communicate the adverse health consequences of excess energy consumption could reduce intake of energy-dense foods. The aim of the current study was to estimate the impact on selection of energy-dense snacks of (a) image-and-text HWLs (b) text-only HWLs and (c) calorie information. In a between-subjects, 3 (HWL: image-and-text, text-only, no label) x 2 (calorie information: present, absent), factorial experimental design, participants (N = 4134) were randomised to view a selection of energy-dense and non-energy-dense snacks with one of five label types or no label. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants selecting an energy-dense snack in a hypothetical vending machine task. The proportion of participants selecting an energy-dense snack was reduced in all label groups, relative to the no label group (no label: 59%; calories only: 54%; text-only HWL: 48%; text-only HWL with calories: 44%; image-and-text HWL: 37%; image-and-text HWL with calories: 38%). Compared to the no label group, participants were least likely to select an energy-dense snack in the image-and-text HWL group (OR = 0.46, 95%CI = 0.40, 0.54, p < 0.001). Health warning labels - particularly those including an image and text - have the potential to reduce selection of energy-dense snacks in an online setting. Their impact on selection and consumption in real-world settings awaits testing.

12.
Addiction ; 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Loneliness is associated with cigarette smoking and problematic alcohol use. Observational evidence suggests these associations arise because loneliness increases substance use; however, there is potential for reverse causation (problematic drinking damages social networks, leading to loneliness). With conventional epidemiological methods, controlling for (residual) confounding and reverse causality is difficult. This study applied Mendelian randomization (MR) to assess bidirectional causal effects among loneliness, smoking behaviour and alcohol (mis)use. MR uses genetic variants as instrumental variables to estimate the causal effect of an exposure on an outcome, if the assumptions are satisfied. DESIGN: Our primary method was inverse-variance weighted (IVW) regression and the robustness of these findings was assessed with five different sensitivity methods. SETTING: European ancestry. PARTICIPANTS: Summary-level data were drawn from the largest available independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of loneliness (n = 511 280), smoking (initiation (n = 249 171), cigarettes per day (n = 249 171) and cessation (n = 143 852), alcoholic drinks per week (n = 226 223) and alcohol dependence (n = 46 568). MEASUREMENTS: Genetic variants predictive of the exposure variable were selected as instruments from the respective GWAS. FINDINGS: There was weak evidence of increased loneliness leading to higher likelihood of initiating smoking, smoking more cigarettes, and a lower likelihood of quitting smoking. Additionally, there was evidence that initiating smoking increases loneliness [IVW, ß = 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.22-0.38, P = 2.8 × 10-13 ]. We found no clear evidence for a causal effect of loneliness on drinks per week (IVW, ß = 0.01, 95% CI = -0.11, 0.13, P = 0.865) or alcohol dependence (IVW, ß = 0.09, 95% CI = -0.19, 0.36, P = 0.533) nor of alcohol use on loneliness (drinks per week IVW, ß = 0.09, 95% CI = -0.02, 0.22, P = 0.076; alcohol dependence IVW, ß = 0.06, 95% CI = -0.02, 0.13, P  =  0.162). CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be tentative evidence for causal, bidirectional, increasing effects between loneliness and cigarette smoking, especially for smoking initiation increasing loneliness.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542040

RESUMO

There is substantial variation in the timing of significant reproductive life events such as menarche and first sexual intercourse. Life history theory explains this variation as an adaptive response to an individual's environment and it is important to examine how traits within life history strategies affect each other. Here we applied Mendelian randomization (MR) methods to investigate whether there is a causal effect of variation in age at menarche and age at first sexual intercourse (markers or results of exposure to early life adversity) on outcomes related to reproduction, education and risky behaviour in UK Biobank (N = 114 883-181 255). Our results suggest that earlier age at menarche affects some traits that characterize life history strategies including earlier age at first and last birth, decreased educational attainment, and decreased age at leaving education (for example, we found evidence for a 0.26 year decrease in age at first birth per year decrease in age at menarche, 95% confidence interval: -0.34 to -0.17; p < 0.001). We find no clear evidence of effects of age at menarche on other outcomes, such as risk taking behaviour. Age at first sexual intercourse was also related to many life history outcomes, although there was evidence of horizontal pleiotropy which violates an assumption of MR and we therefore cannot infer causality from this analysis. Taken together, these results highlight how MR can be applied to test predictions of life history theory and to better understand determinants of health and social behaviour.


Assuntos
Coito , Escolaridade , Menarca/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Reprodução , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Traços de História de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Reino Unido
14.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not clear to what extent associations between schizophrenia, cannabis use and cigarette use are due to a shared genetic etiology. We, therefore, examined whether schizophrenia genetic risk associates with longitudinal patterns of cigarette and cannabis use in adolescence and mediating pathways for any association to inform potential reduction strategies. METHODS: Associations between schizophrenia polygenic scores and longitudinal latent classes of cigarette and cannabis use from ages 14 to 19 years were investigated in up to 3925 individuals in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mediation models were estimated to assess the potential mediating effects of a range of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenotypes. RESULTS: The schizophrenia polygenic score, based on single nucleotide polymorphisms meeting a training-set p threshold of 0.05, was associated with late-onset cannabis use (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.08,1.41), but not with cigarette or early-onset cannabis use classes. This association was not mediated through lower IQ, victimization, emotional difficulties, antisocial behavior, impulsivity, or poorer social relationships during childhood. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for genetic liability to cannabis or cigarette use, using polygenic scores excluding the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster, or basing scores on a 0.5 training-set p threshold, provided results consistent with our main analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that genetic risk for schizophrenia is associated with patterns of cannabis use during adolescence. Investigation of pathways other than the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenotypes examined here is required to identify modifiable targets to reduce the public health burden of cannabis use in the population.

15.
Addiction ; 2020 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506597

RESUMO

AIMS: Among three eye-tracking studies, we examined how cigarette pack features affected visual attention and self-reported avoidance of and reactance to warnings. DESIGN: Study 1: smoking status × warning immediacy (short-term versus long-term health consequences) × warning location (top versus bottom of pack). Study 2: smoking status × warning framing (gain-framed versus loss-framed) × warning format (text-only versus pictorial). Study 3: smoking status × warning severity (highly severe versus moderately severe consequences of smoking). SETTING: University of Bristol, UK, eye-tracking laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Study 1: non-smokers (n = 25), weekly smokers (n = 25) and daily smokers (n = 25). Study 2: non-smokers (n = 37), smokers contemplating quitting (n = 37) and smokers not contemplating quitting (n = 43). Study 3: non-smokers (n = 27), weekly smokers (n = 26) and daily smokers (n = 26). MEASUREMENTS: For all studies: visual attention, measured as the ratio of the number of fixations to the warning versus the branding, self-reported predicted avoidance of and reactance to warnings and for study 3, effect of warning on quitting motivation. FINDINGS: Study 1: greater self-reported avoidance [mean difference (MD) = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.94, 1.35, P < 0.001, ηp 2  = 0.64] and visual attention (MD = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.09, 1.68, P = 0.03, ηp 2  = 0.06) to long-term warnings, but not for reactance (MD = 0.14, 95% CI = -0.04, 0.32, P = 0.12, ηp 2  = 0.03). Increased visual attention to warnings on the upper versus lower half of the pack (MD = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.33, 3.26, P = 0.02, ηp 2  = 0.08). Study 2: higher self-reported avoidance of (MD = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.59,0.80, P < 0.001, ηp 2  = 0.61) and reactance to (MD = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.27, 0.47, P < 0.001, ηp 2  = 0.34) loss-framed warnings but little evidence of a difference for visual attention (MD = 0.52; 95% CI = -0.54, 1.58, P = 0.30, ηp 2  = 0.01). Greater visual attention, avoidance and reactance to pictorial versus text-only warnings (all Ps < 0.001, ηp 2  > 0.25). Study 3: greater self-reported avoidance of (MD = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.48, P < 0.001, ηp 2  = 0.33) and reactance to (MD = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.23, P = 0.003, ηp 2  = 0.11) highly severe warnings but findings were inconclusive as to whether there was a difference in visual attention (MD = -0.55; 95% CI = -1.5, 0.41, P = 0.24, ηp 2  = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Subjective and objective (eye-tracking) measures of avoidance of health warnings on cigarette packs produce different results, suggesting these measure different constructs. Visual avoidance of warnings indicates low-level disengagement with warnings, while self-reported predicted avoidance reflects higher-level engagement with warnings.

16.
J Psychopharmacol ; 34(11): 1226-1236, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that acute alcohol consumption impairs processing of emotional faces. As emotion processing plays a key role in effective social interaction, these impairments may be one mechanism by which alcohol changes social behaviour. This study investigated the effect of individual differences on this relationship by comparing emotion recognition performance after acute alcohol consumption in individuals with high and low trait aggression. METHODS: Regular non-dependent drinkers, either high or low in trait aggression participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment (N = 88, 50% high trait aggressive). Participants attended two sessions. In one they consumed an alcoholic drink (0.4 g/kg) and in the other they consumed a matched placebo. They then completed two computer-based tasks: one measured global and emotion-specific recognition performance across six primary emotions (anger, sadness, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise), the other measured processing bias of two ambiguously expressive faces (happy-angry/happy-sad). RESULTS: There was evidence of poorer global emotion recognition after alcohol. In addition, there was evidence of poorer sensitivity to sadness and fear after alcohol. There was also evidence for a reduced bias towards happiness following alcohol and weak evidence for an increased bias towards sadness. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that alcohol impairs global emotion recognition. They also highlight a reduced ability to detect sadness and fearful facial expressions. As sadness and fear are cues of submission and distress (i.e. function to curtail aggression), failure to successfully detect these emotions when intoxicated may increase the likelihood of aggressive responding. This coupled with a reduced bias towards seeing happiness may collectively contribute to aggressive behaviour.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 526, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing the availability of healthier food increases its selection and consumption. However, there is an absence of evidence related to alcohol. This study aimed to estimate the impact of increasing the absolute and relative availability of non-alcoholic compared to alcoholic drinks on selection. We also assessed whether effects were modified by cognitive resource. METHODS: UK adult weekly alcohol consumers (n = 808) were recruited to an online experiment with a hypothetical drink selection task. Participants were randomly assigned to one of eight conditions, in a 4 (availability) × 2 (cognitive resource) factorial design. The four availability conditions were: i. Reference 1 (two non-alcoholic, two alcoholic drinks); ii. Reference 2 (four non-alcoholic, four alcoholic drinks); iii. Increased non-alcoholic drinks (six non-alcoholic, two alcoholic drinks); iv. Increased alcoholic drinks (two non-alcoholic, six alcoholic drinks). The two cognitive resource conditions were: a. Low (high time pressure); b. High (low time pressure). Logistic regression was used to assess selection of a non-alcoholic drink. RESULTS: 49% of participants selected a non-alcoholic drink in the Increased non-alcoholic drinks condition, compared to 36% in Reference 1, 39% in Reference 2, and 26% in the Increased alcoholic drinks condition. Non-alcoholic drink selection was similar between Reference 1 and 2 when the total number of drinks increased (absolute availability) but the proportion of non-alcoholic compared to alcoholic drinks (relative availability) was unchanged (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.77, 1.73). In contrast, the odds of selecting a non-alcoholic drink were 71% higher when both absolute and relative availability of non-alcoholic compared to alcoholic drinks was increased from Reference 1 to the Increased non-alcoholic drinks condition (OR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.15, 2.54), and 48% higher when increased from Reference 2 to the Increased non-alcoholic drinks condition (OR: 1.48, 95% CI 0.99, 2.19). There was no evidence of an effect of cognitive resource. CONCLUSIONS: Greater availability of non-alcoholic drinks, compared to alcoholic drinks, increased their online selection, an effect that may be larger when changing their relative availability, i.e., increasing the proportion of non-alcoholic drinks. Naturalistic studies are needed to determine the impact of availability interventions on reducing alcohol purchasing and consumption.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
19.
Addiction ; 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There have been few longitudinal studies of association between alcohol use and cognitive functioning in young people. We aimed to examine whether alcohol use is a causal risk factor for deficient cognitive functioning in young adults. DESIGN: Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between longitudinal latent class patterns of binge drinking and subsequent cognitive functioning. Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) tested evidence for the causal relationship between alcohol use and cognitive functioning. SETTING: South West England. PARTICIPANTS: The observational study included 3155 adolescents and their parents (fully adjusted models) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Genetic instruments for alcohol use were based on almost 1 000 000 individuals from the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and Sequencing Consortium of Alcohol and Nicotine use (GSCAN). Genome-wide association studies for cognitive outcomes were based on 2500 individuals from ALSPAC. MEASUREMENTS: Binge drinking was assessed at approximately 16, 17, 18, 21 and 23 years. Cognitive functioning comprised working memory, response inhibition and emotion recognition assessed at 24 years of age. Ninety-nine independent genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with 'number of drinks per week' were used as the genetic instrument for alcohol consumption. Potential confounders were included in the observational analyses. FINDINGS: Four binge drinking classes were identified: 'low-risk' (41.3%), 'early-onset monthly' (19.1%), 'adult frequent' (22.5%) and 'early-onset frequent' (17.0%). The association between early-onset frequent binge drinking and cognitive functioning: working memory (b = -0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -1.24 to 0.41), response inhibition (b = 31.9, 95% CI = -25.3 to 89.2), and emotion recognition (b = 0.02, 95% CI = -0.07 to 0.10) in comparison to low-risk drinkers were inconclusive as to whether a difference was present. Two-sample MR analyses similarly provided little evidence that alcohol use is associated with deficits in working memory using the inverse variance weight (b = 0.29, 95% CI = -0.42 to 0.99), response inhibition (b = -0.32, 95% CI = -1.04 to 0.39) and emotion recognition (b = 0.03, 95% CI = -0.55 to 0.61). CONCLUSIONS: Binge drinking in adolescence and early adulthood may not be causally related to deficiencies in working memory, response inhibition or emotion recognition in youths.

20.
Br J Psychiatry ; 217(6): 701-707, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous literature has demonstrated a strong association between cigarette smoking, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This association has not previously been examined in a causal inference framework and could have important implications for suicide prevention strategies. AIMS: We aimed to examine the evidence for an association between smoking behaviours (initiation, smoking status, heaviness, lifetime smoking) and suicidal thoughts or attempts by triangulating across observational and Mendelian randomisation analyses. METHOD: First, in the UK Biobank, we calculated observed associations between smoking behaviours and suicidal thoughts or attempts. Second, we used Mendelian randomisation to explore the relationship between smoking and suicide attempts and ideation, using genetic variants as instruments to reduce bias from residual confounding and reverse causation. RESULTS: Our observational analysis showed a relationship between smoking behaviour, suicidal ideation and attempts, particularly between smoking initiation and suicide attempts (odds ratio, 2.07; 95% CI 1.91-2.26; P < 0.001). The Mendelian randomisation analysis and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis, however, did not support this (odds ratio for lifetime smoking on suicidal ideation, 0.050; 95% CI -0.027 to 0.127; odds ratio on suicide attempts, 0.053; 95% CI, -0.003 to 0.110). Despite past literature showing a positive dose-response relationship, our results showed no clear evidence for a causal effect of smoking on suicidal ideation or attempts. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first Mendelian randomisation study to explore the effect of smoking on suicidal ideation and attempts. Our results suggest that, despite observed associations, there is no clear evidence for a causal effect.

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