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1.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(3): 241-244, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the impact of a quality improvement (QI) initiative on the regional anesthesia placement-to-infant delivery time during cesarean delivery (CD). STUDY DESIGN: We performed a quality improvement trial. Before June 18, 2018, the preoperative protocol was as follows: the anesthesiologist administered regional anesthesia in the operating room then the nurse placed the Foley's catheter, clipped pubic hair, precleaned the abdomen, and abdominal preparation. On June 18, 2018, the protocol changed and all the preoperative preparation (Foley's clip and preclean) were performed prior to the arrival in the operating room. The records of patients who underwent scheduled or nonemergency CD between May 1 and July 15, 2018, were reviewed. Our primary outcome was time between the placements of regional anesthesia to infant delivery at the time of CD. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 194 patients were included, 124 before and 70 after the process change. The change in process leads to a significant reduction in anesthesia-to-delivery time, even after adjusting for number of prior CD and body mass index (BMI). Other times were also significantly impacted by the change. CONCLUSION: Our QI initiative significantly decreased the time from anesthesia placement to delivery of the fetus. Performing preoperative preparation activities, such as Foley's placement and shaving, after regional anesthesia for CD, increase the risk of fetal exposure to maternal hypotension. We evaluated the impact of a QI initiative on regional anesthesia placement to infant delivery time during CD.

2.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(5): 361-368, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between medications intake in early pregnancy and variation in the fetal fraction (FF) in pregnant women undergoing cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of women (n = 1051) undergoing cfDNA testing at an academic center. The exposed group included women taking medications (n = 400; 38.1%), while the nonexposed group consisted of women taking no medications (n = 651; 61.9%). Our primary outcome was FF. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses as appropriate. RESULTS: The FFs were 8.8% (6.6-12.1), 8.7% (6.3-11.6), and 7.7% (5.1-9.3) among women taking 0, 1, and two or more medications, respectively (P < 0.01). Using multivariable linear mixed effects model, the mean FF was significantly lower among those taking two or more medications compared with the nonexposed group. FF was directly correlated with gestational age at the time of cfDNA testing and inversely correlated with maternal obesity. Exposure to metformin was associated with 1.8% (0.2-3.4) lower mean FF when compared with the nonexposed group (P = 0.02). Obesity and intake of two or more medications were associated with higher hazard ratio of having a low FF less than 4%. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to metformin or two or more medications was associated with decreased FF, and obesity is associated with delay in achieving adequate FF percentage. These findings should be considered while counseling patients on test limitations.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Teste Pré-Natal não Invasivo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Am J Perinatol ; 36(1): 62-66, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Wearing a white coat (WC) has been associated with risk of colonization and transmission of resistant pathogens. Also, studies have shown that physicians' attire in general affects patients' confidence in their physician and the patient-physician relationship. Our objective is to evaluate the hypothesis that not wearing a WC during physician postpartum rounds does not affect patient-physician communication scores. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an unblinded, randomized, parallel arms, controlled trial of postpartum women at a single university hospital. Women were randomly assigned to having their postpartum physicians' team wear a WC or not (no-WC) during rounds. Our primary outcome was "patient-physician communication" score. Univariable and multivariable analysis were used where appropriate. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-eight patients were enrolled (87 in WC and 91 in no-WC groups). Note that 40.4% of patients did not remember whether the physicians wore a WC or not. There was no difference in the primary outcome (p = 0.64) even after adjusting for possible confounders. CONCLUSION: Not wearing a WC during postpartum rounds did not affect the patient-physician communication or patient satisfaction scores. In the setting of prior reports showing a risk of WC pathogen transmission between patients, our findings cannot support the routine wearing of WCs during postpartum rounds.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Preferência do Paciente , Relações Médico-Paciente , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Visitas com Preceptor , Adulto , Vestuário/psicologia , Vestuário/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/psicologia , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 32(2): 271-278, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between maternal obesity and delivery due to chorioamnionitis prior to labor onset, among expectantly managed women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM). METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized trial of magnesium sulfate versus placebo to prevent cerebral palsy or death among offspring of women with anticipated delivery at 24-31-week gestation. After univariable analysis, Cox proportional hazard evaluated the association between maternal obesity and chorioamnionitis, while Laplace regression investigated how obesity affects the gestational age at delivery of the first 20% of women developing the outcome of interest. RESULTS: A total of 164 of the 1942 women with pPROM developed chorioamnionitis prior to labor onset. Obese women had a 60% increased hazard of developing such complication (adjusted HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.1, p = .008), prompting delivery 1.5 weeks earlier, as the 20th survival percentile was 27.2-week gestation (95%CI 26-28.6) among obese as opposed to 28.8 weeks (95%CI 27.4-30.1) (p = .002) among nonobese women. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal obesity is a risk factor for chorioamnionitis prior to labor onset. Future studies will determine if obesity is important enough to change the management of latency after pPROM according to maternal BMI.


Assuntos
Corioamnionite/epidemiologia , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/terapia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Corioamnionite/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Sulfato de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Case Rep Genet ; 2017: 9146507, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387497

RESUMO

Background. A novel mutation in the ACTG2 gene is described in a pregnant patient followed up for chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO) during pregnancy and her fetus with megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS). Case. 24-year-old gravida 1 para 1 with CIPO and persistent nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, admitted at 28 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound revealed a fetus measuring greater than the 95th percentile, polyhydramnios, and megacystis. At delivery, the newborn was noted to have an enlarged bladder, microcolon, and intolerance of oral intake. Genetic testing of mother and child revealed a novel mutation in the ACTG2 gene (C632F>A, p.R211Q). Conclusion. This is the first case in the literature describing a novel mutation in ACTG2 associated with visceral myopathy affecting both mother and fetus/neonate. Visceral myopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis of megacystis diagnosed by ultrasound, and suspicion should increase with family history of CIPO or MMIHS.

6.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 38(2): 387-95, xii, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21575807

RESUMO

The finding of oligohydramnios in pregnancy is problematic. The various mechanisms that control amniotic fluid, the inability to precisely measure and quantify the amount, and the relevance of a "decreased" amount of fluid make the management of this finding unclear. Given the limited amount of data, the single deepest vertical pocket may be a better method than the amniotic fluid index to define oligohydramnios. A large prospective study is needed to develop the most optimal management recommendations, especially for idiopathic oligohydramnios at or near term.


Assuntos
Oligo-Hidrâmnio/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez , Líquido Amniótico/diagnóstico por imagem , Líquido Amniótico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Ultrassonografia
7.
Semin Perinatol ; 30(5): 276-87, 2006 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17011400

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this analysis was to determine the impact on specific forms of neonatal morbidity and mortality by allowing women to opt for delivery by elective cesarean section at 39 weeks of gestation (EGA). According to the National Vital Statistics Reports, over 70% of deliveries in the U.S. annually are at gestational ages>or=39 weeks EGA. Estimating that over 4 million deliveries occur annually in the United States, this would yield approximately 3 million pregnancies wherein the woman may exercise her choice for either primary or repeat cesarean section at 39 weeks EGA or at the point when labor is established. METHODS: A search was conducted using Ovid Medline spanning the past 10 years using the following key words: fetal trauma, shoulder dystocia, brachial plexus palsy, neonatal skull fracture, obstetrical trauma, traumatic delivery, intrauterine fetal demise, stillbirth, fetal demise, and neonatal encephalopathy. Using this search technique, over 2100 articles were identified. The abstracts were reviewed and pertinent articles were chosen for further consideration. The identified articles and their applicable references were obtained for inclusion in this review. Preference was given to publications on or after the year 2000 with the exception of classical or sentinel articles, which were included without regard to year of publication. RESULTS: Four major categories of neonatal morbidity and mortality are discussed: Shoulder dystocia: Accepting that we do not have a successful method for the prediction or prevention of shoulder dystocia, the question becomes, "What is the chance that a baby will sustain a permanent brachial plexus injury at delivery?" Additionally, is there a significant protective effect of cesarean section in reducing the risk of such injury? Currently, the occurrence rate of brachial plexus palsy at the time of vaginal delivery ranges from 0.047% to 0.6% and for cesarean section from 0.0042% to 0.095%. Using a composite estimate of the risk of 0.15% for vaginal deliveries and applying it to the 3 million deliveries>or=39 weeks EGA, approximately 4500 cases of brachial plexus palsy would occur. If only 15% of these injuries were permanent, 675 permanent brachial plexus palsies would occur annually. If the risk of permanent injury is 1 in 10,000 as reported by Chauhan, 300 permanent brachial plexus palsies would occur annually in the United States. The range then for permanent brachial plexus injury that could be avoided with cesarean section on request would appear to vary between 1 in 5000 and 1 in 10,000 vaginal births. Fetal trauma: The incidence of significant birth trauma varies from 0.2 to 1 to 2 per 1000 births. The use of sequential instruments, for example, vacuum followed by forceps or vice versa, is specifically associated with an unacceptably high injury rate. Intrapartum-related neonatal deaths of vertex singleton fetuses with birthweights>2500 g from traumatic cranial or cervical spine injury secondary to vacuum- or forceps-assisted vaginal delivery are still occurring. Overall, the frequency of significant fetal injury is significantly greater with vaginal delivery, especially operative vaginal delivery, than with cesarean section for the nonlaboring woman at 39 weeks EGA or near term when early labor has been established. Neonatal encephalopathy: The prevalence of moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy is 3.8/1000 term live births with a neonatal fatality rate of 9.1%. In 4% to 10% of cases, the etiology appears to be pure intrapartum hypoxia. Intrapartum hypoxia superimposed on antepartum risk factors may account for up to 25% of the moderate to severe encephalopathies, according to one cohort. A paradox in the data thus far is that infants born to nonlaboring women delivered by cesarean section had an 83% reduction in the occurrence of moderate or severe encephalopathy. Considering a prevalence of moderate or severe neonatal encephalopathy of 0.38% and applying it to the 3 million deliveries occurring at >or=39 weeks EGA in the United States annually, 11,400 cases of moderate to severe encephalopathy would occur. The rate of encephalopathy observed in infants delivered by cesarean section would yield approximately 1938 cases. This net difference in moderate to severe encephalopathy would represent 9462 cases annually in the United States that could be prevented with elective cesarean section. Although cesarean delivery may be protective for the development of neonatal encephalopathy, to date it has not proven to be protective of long-term neurologic injury in the form of cerebral palsy with or without mental retardation and/or seizure disorders. Intrauterine fetal demise: Copper reported that the rate of stillbirth is consistent from 23 to 40 weeks EGA with about 5% of all stillbirths occurring at each week of gestation. Yudkin reported a rate of 0.6 stillbirths per 1000 live births from 33 to 39 weeks EGA. After 39 weeks EGA, a significant increase in the stillbirth rate was reported (1.9 per 1000 live births). Fretts reported on fetal deaths per 1000 live births from 37 to 41 weeks of gestational age, showing that the rate progressively increased from 1.3 to 4.6 with each week of gestation. It can be estimated that delivery at 39 weeks EGA would prevent 2 fetal deaths per 1000 living fetuses. This would translate into the prevention of as many as 6000 intrauterine fetal demises in the United States annually-an impact that far exceeds any other strategy implemented for stillbirth reduction thus far. CONCLUSION: It is reasonable to inform the pregnant woman of the risk of each of the above categories, in addition to counseling her regarding the potential risks of a cesarean section for the current and any subsequent pregnancies. The clinician's role should be to provide the best evidence-based counseling possible to the pregnant woman and to respect her autonomy and decision-making capabilities when considering route of delivery.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Nascimento/prevenção & controle , Encefalopatias/prevenção & controle , Cesárea/tendências , Morte Fetal/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos do Nascimento/epidemiologia , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/prevenção & controle , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Distocia/etiologia , Distocia/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Morte Fetal/epidemiologia , Doenças Fetais/epidemiologia , Doenças Fetais/prevenção & controle , Hipóxia Fetal/prevenção & controle , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Participação do Paciente , Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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