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1.
Qual Life Res ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Bladder Cancer Quality of Life Study collected detailed and sensitive patient-reported outcomes from bladder cancer survivors in the period after bladder removal surgery, when participation in survey research may present a burden. This paper describes the study recruitment methods and examines the response rates and patterns of missing data. METHODS: Detailed surveys focusing on quality of life, healthcare decision-making, and healthcare expenses were mailed to patients 5-7 months after cystectomy. We conducted up to 10 follow-up recruitment calls. We analyzed survey completion rates following each contact in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics, and patterns of missing data across survey content areas. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 71% (n = 269/379). This was consistent across patient clinical characteristics; response rates were significantly higher among patients over age 70 and significantly lower among racial and ethnic minority patients compared to non-Hispanic white patients. Each follow-up contact resulted in marginal survey completion rates of at least 10%. Rates of missing data were low across most content areas, even for potentially sensitive questions. Rates of missing data differed significantly by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the effort required to participate in research, this population of cancer survivors showed willingness to share detailed information about quality of life, health care decision-making, and expenses, soon after major cancer surgery. Additional contacts were effective at increasing participation. Response patterns differed by race/ethnicity and other demographic factors. Our data collection methods show that it is feasible to gather detailed patient-reported outcomes during this challenging period.

2.
Radiat Res ; 192(6): 649-661, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609677

RESUMO

Assessment of health effects from low-dose radiation exposures in patients undergoing diagnostic imaging is an active area of research. High-quality dosimetry information pertaining to these medical exposures is generally not readily available to clinicians or epidemiologists studying radiation-related health risks. The purpose of this study was to provide methods for organ dose estimation in pediatric patients undergoing four common diagnostic fluoroscopy procedures: the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series, the lower gastrointestinal (LGI) series, the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and the modified barium swallow (MBS). Abstracted X-ray film data and physician interviews were combined to generate procedure outlines detailing X-ray beam projections, imaged anatomy, length of X-ray exposure, and presence and amount of contrast within imaged anatomy. Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations were completed for each of the four diagnostic fluoroscopy procedures across the 162-member (87 males and 75 females) University of Florida/National Cancer Institute pediatric phantom library, which covers variations in both subject height and weight. Absorbed doses to 28 organs, including the active marrow and bone endosteum, were assigned for all 162 phantoms by procedure. Additionally, we provide dose coefficients (DCs) in a series of supplementary tables. The DCs give organ doses normalized to procedure-specific dose metrics, including: air kerma-area product (µGy/mGy · cm2), air kerma at the reference point (µGy/µGy), number of spot films (SF) (µGy/number of SFs) and total fluoroscopy time (µGy/s). Organs accumulating the highest absorbed doses per procedure were as follows: kidneys between 0.9-25.4 mGy, 1.1-16.6 mGy and 1.1-9.7 mGy for the UGI, LGI and VCUG procedures, respectively, and salivary glands between 0.2-3.7 mGy for the MBS procedure. Average values of detriment-weighted dose, a phantom-specific surrogate for the effective dose based on ICRP Publication 103 tissue-weighting factors, were 0.98 mSv, 1.16 mSv, 0.83 mSv and 0.15 mSv for the UGI, LGI, VCUG and MBS procedures, respectively. Scalable database of organ dose coefficients by patient sex, height and weight, and by procedure exposure time, reference point air kerma, kerma-area product or number of spot films, allows clinicians and researchers to compute organ absorbed doses based on their institution-specific and patient-specific dose metrics. In addition to informing on patient dosimetry, this work has the potential to facilitate exposure assessments in epidemiological studies designed to investigate radiation-related risks.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Doses de Radiação , Radiometria/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bário/farmacocinética , Criança , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Método de Monte Carlo , Radiografia , Distribuição Tecidual
3.
Bladder Cancer ; 5(1): 51-61, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854413

RESUMO

Background: Bladder cancer patients who undergo cystectomy and urinary diversion face functional and quality-of-life challenges. Little is known about these patients' experiences during decision-making, surgery, and recovery, or how they vary by treatment setting. Objective: To learn about patients' experiences with treatment choice, surgical care, and recovery across health settings. Understanding patient experiences is essential to closing care gaps and developing patient-reported measures. Methods: We conducted focus groups with cystectomy patients and family caregivers at a large comprehensive health care system (N = 32 patients) and an NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center (N = 25 patients and 5 caregivers). Using standard qualitative methods, we identified themes that are not well-represented in existing research. Results: Across both systems, patients described variable experiences in decision-making about their cystectomy and urinary diversion. Some felt overwhelmed by information; others felt poorly informed. Many found self-care equipment challenging; many felt they knew little about what to expect regarding chemotherapy, recovery, and transitioning home. At times, health care personnel could not help manage patients' ostomies or catheterization equipment. Our study also contributes a grounded theoretical framework for describing meaningful domains of patient experience with cystectomy and urinary diversion. We identified a common trajectory that includes decision-making, surgery and post-operative recovery, mastery of self-care, and reintegration. Conclusions: Patients with radical cystectomy and urinary diversion report a wide variety of experiences not captured by quantitative measures. These findings demonstrate that many cystectomy patients could benefit from additional post-operative support. We offer a framework to measure patient-centered domains in future research.

4.
Urology ; 125: 222-229, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative contributions of patient and surgeon factors for predicting selection of ileal conduit (IC), neobladder (NB), or continent pouch (CP) urinary diversions (UD) for patients diagnosed with muscle-invasive/high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. This information is needed to enhance research comparing cancer survivors' outcomes across different surgical treatment options. METHODS: Bladder cancer patients' age ≥21 years with cystectomy/UD performed from January 2010 to June 2015 in 3 Kaiser Permanente regions were included. All patient and surgeon data were obtained from electronic health records. A mixed effects logistic regression model was used treating surgeon as a random effect and region as a fixed effect. RESULTS: Of 991 eligible patients, 794 (80%) received IC. One hundred sixty-nine surgeons performed the surgeries and accounted for a sizeable proportion of the variability in patient receipt of UD (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.26). The multilevel model with only patient factors showed good fit (area under the curve = 0.93, Hosmer-Lemeshow test P = .44), and older age, female sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate <45, 4+ comorbidity index score, and stage III/IV tumors were associated with higher odds of receiving an IC vs neobladder/continent pouch. However, including surgeon factors (annual cystectomy volume, specialty training, clinical tenure) had no association (P = .29). CONCLUSION: In this community setting, patient factors were major predictors of UD received. Surgeons also played a substantial role, yet clinical training and experience were not major predictors. Surgeon factors such as beliefs about UD options and outcomes should be explored.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária , Idoso , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Seleção de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Derivação Urinária/métodos , Derivação Urinária/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
J Oncol Pract ; 11(1): e1-8, 2015 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25161127

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancer chemotherapy toxicity is not well documented outside of randomized trials. We developed and conducted preliminary evaluation of an algorithm to detect grade 3 and 4 toxicities using electronic data from a large integrated managed care organization. METHODS: The algorithm used administrative, pharmacy, and electronic data from outpatient, emergency room, and inpatient records of 99 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 2006 to 2009 who underwent chemotherapy. Data were abstracted for 12 months post-treatment initiation (24 months for trastuzumab recipients). An oncology nurse independently blindly reviewed records; these results were the "gold standard." Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for overall toxicity, categories of toxicities, and toxicity by age or regimen. The algorithm was applied to an independent sample of 1,575 patients with breast cancer diagnosed during the study period to estimate prevalence rates. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity for detecting chemotherapy-related toxicity was 89% (95% CI, 77% to 95%). The highest sensitivity was for identification of hematologic toxicities (97%; 95% CI, 84% to 99%). There were good sensitivities for infectious toxicity, but rates dropped for GI and neurological toxicities. Specificity was high within each category (89% to 99%), but when combined to measure any toxicity, it was lower (70%; 95% CI, 57% to 81%). When applied to an independent chemotherapy sample, the algorithm estimates a 26% rate of hematologic toxicity; rates were higher among patients age ≥ 65 years versus less than 65 years. CONCLUSIONS: If validated in other samples and health care settings, algorithms to capture toxicity could be useful in comparative and cost-effectiveness evaluations of community practice-delivered treatment.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , California , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 135(2): 591-602, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22903688

RESUMO

Breast cancer patients have voiced dissatisfaction regarding their education on breast cancer-related lymphedema risk and risk reduction strategies from their clinicians. Informing patients about lymphedema can contribute to decrease their risk of developing the condition, or among those already affected, prevent it from progressing further. In this cross-sectional study, a lymphedema awareness score was calculated based on responses to a brief telephone interview conducted among 389 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 2000 to 2008 and had a previous record of a lymphedema-related diagnosis or procedure in their electronic medical record. During the telephone interview, women self-reported a lymphedema clinical diagnosis, lymphedema symptoms but no lymphedema diagnosis, or neither a diagnosis nor symptoms, and responded to questions on lymphedema education and support services as well as health knowledge. Multivariable logistic regression [odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI)] was used to determine the associations of selected sociodemographic and clinical factors with the odds of having lymphedema awareness (adequate vs. inadequate). The median (range) of the lymphedema awareness score was 4 (0-7). Compared with patients <50 years of age, patients 70+ years of age at breast cancer diagnosis had lower odds of adequate lymphedema awareness (OR 0.25; 95 % CI 0.07, 0.89), while patients 50-59 and 60-69 years had greater odds of adequate awareness although not statistically significant (OR 2.05; 95 % CI 0.88, 4.78 and OR 1.55; 95 % CI 0.60, 4.02, respectively; p for trend = 0.09). Higher educational level and greater health literacy were suggestive of adequate awareness yet were not significant. These results can help inform educational interventions to strengthen patient knowledge of lymphedema risk and risk reduction practices, particularly in an integrated health care delivery setting. With the growing population of breast cancer survivors, increasing patient awareness and education about lymphedema risk reduction and care after cancer diagnosis is warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Linfedema/etiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , California , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Autorrelato
7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 131(3): 1029-38, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22037785

RESUMO

Breast cancer survivors have reported dissatisfaction regarding their education on risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) from clinicians. We describe clinician knowledge and treatment referral of patients with BCRL among active oncologists, surgeons, and primary care physicians in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Care Program. A total of 887 oncologists, surgeons, and primary care clinicians completed a 10-minute web survey from May 2, 2010 to December 31, 2010 on BCRL knowledge, education, and referral patterns. A knowledge score of BCRL was calculated based on clinician responses. Multivariable regression models were used to determine the associations of selected covariates with BCRL knowledge score and clinician referral, respectively. Compared with primary care clinicians, oncologists had the highest mean score followed closely by surgeons (P < 0.0001). In multivariable analyses, being female, an oncologist or surgeon, and recently receiving BCRL materials were each significantly associated with higher BCRL knowledge scores. About 44% of clinicians (n = 381) indicated they had ever made a BCRL referral (100% oncologists, 79% surgeons, and 36% primary care clinicians). Clinicians with a higher knowledge score were more likely to make referrals. In stratified analyses by specialty, the significant associated factors remained for primary care but became non-significant for oncology and surgery. These results can inform educational interventions to strengthen clinician knowledge of the clinical management of BCRL, especially among primary care clinicians. With the growing number of breast cancer survivors, increasing clinician education about BCRL across all specialties is warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Competência Clínica , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Linfedema/complicações , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes
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