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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 82, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intrapartum period is a time of high mortality risk for newborns and mothers. Numerous interventions exist to minimize risk during this period. Data on intervention coverage are needed for health system improvement. Maternal report of intrapartum interventions through surveys is the primary source of coverage data, but they may be invalid or unreliable. METHODS: We assessed the reliability of maternal report of delivery and immediate newborn care for a sample of home and health facility births in Sarlahi, Nepal. Mothers were visited as soon as possible following delivery (< 72 h) and asked to report circumstances of labor and delivery. A subset was revisited 1-24 months after delivery and asked to recall interventions received using standard household survey questions. We assessed the reliability of each indicator by comparing what mothers reported immediately after delivery against what they reported at the follow-up survey. We assessed potential variation in reliability of maternal report by characteristics of the mother, birth event, or intervention prevalence. RESULTS: One thousand five hundred two mother/child pairs were included in the reliability study, with approximately half of births occurring at home. A higher proportion of women who delivered in facilities reported "don't know" when asked to recall specific interventions both initially and at follow-up. Most indicators had high observed percent agreement, but kappa values were below 0.4, indicating agreement was primarily due to chance. Only "received any injection during delivery" demonstrated high reliability among all births (kappa: 0.737). The reliability of maternal report was typically lower among women who delivered at a facility. There was no difference in reliability based on time since birth of the follow-up interview. We observed over-reporting of interventions at follow-up that were more common in the population and under-reporting of less common interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces previous findings that mothers are unable to report reliably on many interventions within the peripartum period. Household surveys which rely on maternal report, therefore, may not be an appropriate method for collecting data on coverage of many interventions during the peripartum period. This is particularly true among facility births, where many interventions may occur without the mother's full knowledge.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Mães/psicologia , Período Periparto/psicologia , Autorrelato , Adulto , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Nepal , Gravidez , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 16, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased coverage of antenatal care and facility births might not improve maternal and newborn health outcomes if quality of care is sub-optimal. Our study aimed to assess the facility readiness and health worker knowledge required to provide quality maternal and newborn care. METHODS: Using an audit tool and interviews, respectively, facility readiness and health providers' knowledge of maternal and immediate newborn care were assessed at all 23 birthing centers (BCs) and the District hospital in the rural southern Nepal district of Sarlahi. Facility readiness to perform specific functions was assessed through descriptive analysis and comparisons by facility type (health post (HP), primary health care center (PHCC), private and District hospital). Knowledge was compared by facility type and by additional skilled birth attendant (SBA) training. RESULTS: Infection prevention items were lacking in more than one quarter of facilities, and widespread shortages of iron/folic acid tablets, injectable ampicillin/gentamicin, and magnesium sulfate were a major barrier to facility readiness. While parenteral oxytocin was commonly provided, only the District hospital was prepared to perform all seven basic emergency obstetric and newborn care signal functions. The required number of medical doctors, nurses and midwives were present in only 1 of 5 PHCCs. Private sector SBAs had significantly lower knowledge of active management of third stage of labor and correct diagnosis of severe pre-eclampsia. While half of the health workers had received the mandated additional two-month SBA training, comparison with the non-trained group showed no significant difference in knowledge indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Facility readiness to provide quality maternal and newborn care is low in this rural area of Nepal. Addressing the gaps by facility type through regular monitoring, improving staffing and supply chains, supervision and refresher trainings is important to improve quality.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nepal , Assistência Perinatal , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
4.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e032558, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796487

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Measuring quality of care in low-income and middle-income countries is complicated by the lack of a standard, universally accepted definition for 'quality' for any particular service, as well as limited guidance on which indicators to include in measures of quality of care, and how to incorporate those indicators into summary indices. The aim of this paper is to develop, characterise and compare a set of antenatal care (ANC) indices for facility readiness and provision of care. METHODS: We created nine indices for facility readiness using three methods for selecting items and three methods for combining items. In addition, we created three indices for provision of care using one method for selecting items and three methods for combining items. For each index, we calculated descriptive statistics, categorised the continuous index scores using tercile cut points to assess comparability of facility classification, and examined the variability and distribution of scores. RESULTS: Our results showed that, within a country, the indices were quite similar in terms of mean index score, facility classification, coefficient of variation, floor and ceiling effects, and the inclusion of items in an index with a range of variability. Notably, the indices created using principal components analysis to combine the items were the most different from the other indices. In addition, the index created by taking a weighted average of a core set of items had lower agreement with the other indices when looking at facility classification. CONCLUSIONS: As improving quality of care becomes integral to global efforts to produce better health outcomes, demand for guidance on creating standardised measures of service quality will grow. This study provides health systems researchers with a comparison of methodologies commonly used to create summary indices of ANC service quality and it highlights the similarities and differences between methods.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Haiti , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Malaui , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(Suppl 4): e001290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297250

RESUMO

The global community is committed to addressing malnutrition. And yet, coverage data for high-impact interventions along the continuum of care remain scarce due to several measurement and data collection challenges. In this analysis paper, we identify 24 nutrition interventions that should be tracked by all countries, and determine if their coverage is currently measured by major household nutrition and health surveys. We then present three case studies, using published literature and empirical data from large-scale initiatives, to illustrate the kind of data collection innovations that are feasible. We find that data are not routinely collected in a standardised way across countries for most of the core set of interventions. Case studies-of growth monitoring and screening for acute malnutrition, infant and young child feeding counselling, and nutrition monitoring in India-highlight both challenges and potential solutions. Advancing the nutrition intervention coverage measurement agenda is essential for sustained progress in driving down rates of malnutrition. It will require (1) global consensus on a core set of validated coverage indicators on proven, high-impact nutrition-specific interventions; (2) the inclusion of coverage measurement and indicator guidance in WHO intervention recommendations; (3) the incorporation of these indicators into data collection mechanisms and relevant intervention delivery platforms; and (4) an agenda for continuous measurement improvement.

6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(Suppl 4): e001297, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297252

RESUMO

Current methods for measuring intervention coverage for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health and nutrition (RMNCH+N) do not adequately capture the quality of services delivered. Without information on the quality of care, it is difficult to assess whether services provided will result in expected health improvements. We propose a six-step coverage framework, starting from a target population to (1) service contact, (2) likelihood of services, (3) crude coverage, (4) quality-adjusted coverage, (5) user-adherence-adjusted coverage and (6) outcome-adjusted coverage. We support our framework with a comprehensive review of published literature on effective coverage for RMNCH+N interventions since 2000. We screened 8103 articles and selected 36 from which we summarised current methods for measuring effective coverage and computed the gaps between 'crude' coverage measures and quality-adjusted measures. Our review showed considerable variability in data sources, indicator definitions and analytical approaches for effective coverage measurement. Large gaps between crude coverage and quality-adjusted coverage levels were evident, ranging from an average of 10 to 38 percentage points across the RMNCH+N interventions assessed. We define effective coverage as the proportion of individuals experiencing health gains from a service among those who need the service, and distinguish this from other indicators along a coverage cascade that make quality adjustments. We propose a systematic approach for analysis along six steps in the cascade. Research to date shows substantial drops in effective delivery of care across these steps, but variation in methods limits comparability of the results. Advancement in coverage measurement will require standardisation of effective coverage terminology and improvements in data collection and methodological approaches.

8.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 011101, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275570

RESUMO

Background: Measures of quality of care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) rarely include experience of care. This gap in service quality metrics may be driven by a lack of understanding of client and provider perspectives. Understanding these perspectives is a critical first step in not only improving metrics, but also in improving service delivery. This study identifies the items antenatal care (ANC) clients and health care providers in Tanzania associate with a quality ANC service and explores the experience of care domain from both client and provider perspectives. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with15 providers and 35 clients in Tanzania that included a free-listing activity to elicit items clients and providers associate with quality ANC services. We analyzed the free-listing for rank order and frequency to identify the most salient items, which were included in the second phase of data collection. We then conducted semi-structured interviews with a pile sort activity with the same 15 providers and 32 new clients to understand the importance of the items identified in the free-listing. We used a thematic analysis driven by the framework approach to analyze interview data. Results: Both clients and providers perceived quality of ANC as being comprised of items related to experience of care, provision of care, and cross-cutting essential physical and human resources. The free-listing findings illuminated that the experience of care was equally important to clients and providers as the availability of physical and human resources and the content of the care delivered. In addition, clients and providers perceived that a positive patient care experience - marked by good communication, active listening, keeping confidentiality, and being spoken to politely - increased utilization of health services and improved health outcomes. Conclusions: The experience of care in LMICs is an overlooked, yet critically important topic. Understanding the experience of care from those who receive and deliver services is key to measuring and improving the quality of ANC. Our research highlights the importance of incorporating experience of care into future quality improvement activities and quality measures. By doing so, we identify barriers and facilitating factors of practical use to policy-makers and governments in LMICs.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 113, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron-deficiency anemia during pregnancy is an underlying cause of maternal deaths, and reducing risk through routine iron supplementation is a key component of antenatal care (ANC) programs in most low- and middle income countries. Supplementation coverage during pregnancy is estimated from maternal self-reports in population-based household surveys, yet recall bias and social desirability bias lead to errors of unknown magnitude. METHODS: We linked data from household and health facility surveys from 16 countries to estimate input-adjusted coverage of iron supplementation during pregnancy. We assessed the validity of reported receipt of iron supplements in client exit interviews using direct observation as the gold standard across 9 countries with a recent Service Provision Assessment (SPA). Using a sample of 227 women who participated in the Nepal Oil Massage Study (NOMS), we also assessed the validity of self-reported receipt of iron folic acid (IFA) supplements. We used Poisson regression models to explore the association between client and health facility characteristics and agreement of self-reported receipt of iron supplements compared to direct observation. RESULTS: Across the 16 countries, iron supplements were in supply at most of the 9215 sampled health facilities offering ANC services (91%). We estimated that between 48 and 93% of women attended at least one ANC visit at a health facility with iron supplements available. The specificity of recall of receipt of iron supplementation immediately following a visit was 79.3% and the sensitivity was 88.7% for the entire sample. Individual-level accuracy was high (Area under the curve > 0.7) and population bias low (0.75 < inflation factor < 1.25) across all countries. By contrast, in the NOMS sub-study, the accuracy of self-reported receipt of IFA supplements after 1-2 years was poor (sensitivity 86.1%, specificity 34.3%). Adjusted regression analyses indicated that older age and higher level of education were associated with poorer agreement between self-reports and direct observation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the need for caution when using self-reported measures with an extended recall period. Further validation studies using conditions similar to widely used population-based household surveys are warranted.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020902, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893037

RESUMO

Background: Low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) seek to better utilize household and health facility survey data for monitoring and evaluation, as well as for health program planning. However, analysis of this complex survey data are complicated. In Tanzania, the National Evaluation Platform project sought to analyze Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data and Service Provision Assessment (SPA) data as part of an evaluation of the national One Plan for Maternal and Child Health. To support this evaluation, we used this survey data to answer two key methodological questions: 1) what are the benefits and costs of using sampling weights in rate estimation; and 2) what is the best method for calculating standard errors in these two surveys? Methods: We conducted a simulation study for each methodologic question. The first simulation study assessed the benefits and costs of using sampling weights in rate estimation. This simulation used weighted and unweighted estimates and examined bias, variance, and the mean squared error (MSE). The second simulation study assessed the best method for calculating standard errors comparing cluster bootstrapped variance estimation, design based asymptotic variance with one level (svy1), and design based asymptotic variance with three levels (svy3). We compared coverage probability and confidence interval length. Results: Our results showed that although weighted estimates were less biased, unweighted estimates were less variable. The weighted estimates had a lower MSE, indicating that the effect of the bias trade-off was greater than the effect of the variance trade-off for most indicators assessed. The best performer for variance estimation was the cluster bootstrap method, followed by the svy3 method. The svy1 method was the worst performer for most indicators assessed. Conclusions: As complex survey data become more widely used for policymaking in LMICs, there is a need for guidance on the best methods for analyzing this data. The standard of practice has been a design-based analysis using survey weights and the single-level svy method for calculating standard errors. This study puts forth an alternative approach to analysis. In addition, this study offers practical guidance on determining the best method for analysis of complex survey data.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Demografia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Tanzânia
11.
J Glob Health ; 8(2): 020803, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410743

RESUMO

Background: Population-based measures of intervention coverage are used in low- and middle-income countries for program planning, prioritization, and evaluation. There is increased interest in effective coverage, which integrates information about service quality or health outcomes. Approaches proposed for quality-adjusted effective coverage include linking data on need and service contact from population-based surveys with data on service quality from health facility surveys. However, there is limited evidence about the validity of different linking methods for effective coverage estimation. Methods: We collaborated with the 2016 Côte d'Ivoire Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) to link data from a health provider assessment to care-seeking data collected by the MICS in the Savanes region of Côte d'Ivoire. The provider assessment was conducted in a census of public and non-public health facilities and pharmacies in Savanes in May-June 2016. We also included community health workers managing sick children who served the clusters sampled for the MICS. The provider assessment collected information on structural and process quality for antenatal care, delivery and immediate newborn care, postnatal care, and sick child care. We linked the MICS and provider data using exact-match and ecological linking methods, including aggregate linking and geolinking methods. We compared the results obtained from exact-match and ecological methods. Results: We linked 731 of 786 care-seeking episodes (93%) from the MICS to a structural quality score for the provider named by the respondent. Effective coverage estimates computed using exact-match methods were 13%-63% lower than the care-seeking estimates from the MICS. Absolute differences between exact match and ecological linking methods were ±7 percentage points for all ecological methods. Incorporating adjustments for provider category and weighting by service-specific utilization into the ecological methods generally resulted in better agreement between ecological and exact match estimates. Conclusions: Ecological linking may be a feasible and valid approach for estimating quality-adjusted effective coverage when a census of providers is used. Adjusting for provider type and caseload may improve agreement with exact match results. There remain methodological questions to be addressed to develop guidance on using linking methods for estimating quality-adjusted effective coverage, including the effect of facility sampling and time displacement.


Assuntos
Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Registro Médico Coordenado , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Costa do Marfim , Ecologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Glob Health ; 8(2): 020804, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202519

RESUMO

Background: Population-based intervention coverage indicators are widely used to track country and program progress in improving health and to evaluate health programs. Indicator validation studies that compare survey responses to a "gold standard" measure are useful to understand whether the indicator provides accurate information. The Improving Coverage Measurement (ICM) Core Group has developed and implemented a standard approach to validating coverage indicators measured in household surveys, described in this paper. Methods: The general design of these studies includes measurement of true health status and intervention receipt (gold standard), followed by interviews with the individuals observed, and a comparison of the observations (gold standard) to the responses to survey questions. The gold standard should use a data source external to the respondent to document need for and receipt of an intervention. Most frequently, this is accomplished through direct observation of clinical care, and/or use of a study-trained clinician to obtain a gold standard diagnosis. Follow-up interviews with respondents should employ standard survey questions, where they exist, as well as alternative or additional questions that can be compared against the standard household survey questions. Results: Indicator validation studies should report on participation at every stage, and provide data on reasons for non-participation. Metrics of individual validity (sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) and population-level validity (inflation factor) should be reported, as well as the percent of survey responses that are "don't know" or missing. Associations between interviewer and participant characteristics and measures of validity should be assessed and reported. Conclusions: These methods allow respondent-reported coverage measures to be validated against more objective measures of need for and receipt of an intervention, and should be considered together with cognitive interviewing, discriminative validity, or reliability testing to inform decisions about which indicators to include in household surveys. Public health researchers should assess the evidence for validity of existing and proposed household survey coverage indicators and consider validation studies to fill evidence gaps.


Assuntos
Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos de Validação como Assunto , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa
13.
J Glob Health ; 8(2): 020801, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206478

RESUMO

Background: Quantitative validation studies alone may not be able to distinguish between instances when participants did not accurately report an event vs when participants did not understand a question. We used an explanatory qualitative study design to acquire an in-depth understanding of why some mothers in rural Nepal overestimate birth size of their newborn and their length of pregnancy. Methods: We conducted two focus group discussions (FGDs) with study staff who administered a quantitative questionnaire and 12 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with mothers who had participated in a quantitative validation study. Transcripts were coded and analyzed for themes in patterns of meaning within and across FGDs and IDIs. Using this thematic map, we synthesized our data into common and divergent responses from participants to facilitate our interpretation of the quantitative findings. Results: We identified five themes specific to this analysis: difficulties with the length of pregnancy question, challenges in administering the birth size question, the perceived effect of time since birth on mothers' ability to remember information, the language and style differences specific to this setting, and the study context shaping the relationship between study staff and mothers who participated and how this may have influenced mothers' responses. Visual aids may help to scale the question about birth size within a cultural frame of reference for maternal reports to be more interpretable. Among both study staff and mothers, a longer period of time since the birth of a child was thought to be associated with diminished accuracy of maternal reports, a perception not supported by our previously published quantitative findings. Conclusions: Poor validity of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth indicators based on maternal reports may be partly attributed to challenges in maternal understanding of questions assessing birth size and length of pregnancy. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings regarding maternal comprehension and to further evaluate the utility of visual aids developed for this study.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Mães/psicologia , Nascimento Prematuro , População Rural , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Compreensão , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Nepal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Glob Health ; 8(1): 010607, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983929

RESUMO

Background: Existing population-based surveys have limited accuracy for estimating the coverage and quality of management of child illness. Linking household survey data with health care provider assessments has been proposed as a means of generating more informative population-level estimates of effective coverage, but methodological issues need to be addressed. Methods: A 2016 survey estimated effective coverage of management of child illness in Southern Province, Zambia, using multiple methods for linking temporally and geographically proximate household and health care provider data. Mothers of children <5 years were surveyed about seeking care for child illness. Information on health care providers' capacity to manage child illness, or structural quality, was assessed using case scenarios and a tool modeled on the WHO Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA). Each sick child was assigned the structural quality score of their stated (exact-match) source of care. Effective coverage was calculated as the average structural quality experienced by all sick children. Children were also ecologically linked to providers using measures of geographic proximity, with and without data on non-facility providers, to assess the effects of these linking methods on effective coverage estimates. Results: Data were collected on 83 providers and 385 children with fever, diarrhea, and/or symptoms of ARI in the preceding 2 weeks. Most children sought care from government facilities or community-based agents (CBAs). Effective coverage of management of child illness estimated through exact-match linking was approximately 15-points lower in each stratum than coverage of seeking skilled care due to providers' limited structural quality. Estimates generated using most measures of geographic proximity were similar to the exact-match estimate, with the exception of the kernel density estimation method in the urban area. Estimates of coverage in rural areas were greatly reduced across all methods using facility-only data if seeking care from CBAs was treated as unskilled care. Conclusions: Linking household and provider data may generate more informative estimates of effective coverage of management of child illness. Ecological linking with provider data on a sample of all skilled providers may be as effective as exact-match linking in areas with low variation in structural quality within a provider category or minimal provider bypassing.


Assuntos
Diarreia/terapia , Febre/terapia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Registro Médico Coordenado/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Doença Aguda , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Mães/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Zâmbia
15.
J Glob Health ; 8(1): 010604, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899981

RESUMO

Background: Tracking progress towards global newborn health targets depends largely on maternal reported data collected through large, nationally representative surveys. We evaluated the validity, across a range of recall period lengths (1 to 24 months post-delivery), of maternal report of birthweight, birth size and length of pregnancy. Methods: We compared maternal reports to reference standards of birthweights measured within 72 hours of delivery and gestational age generated from reported first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) prospectively collected as part of a population-based study (n = 1502). We calculated sensitivity, specificity, area the under the receiver operating curve (AUC) as a measure of individual-level accuracy, and the inflation factor (IF) to quantify population-level bias for each indicator. We assessed if length of recall period modified accuracy by stratifying measurements across time bins and using a modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) of correctly classifying newborns as low birthweight (LBW) or preterm, adjusting for child sex, place of delivery, maternal age, maternal education, parity, and ethnicity. Results: The LBW indicator using maternally reported birthweight in grams had low individual-level accuracy (AUC = 0.69) and high population-level bias (inflation factor IF = 0.62). LBW using maternally reported birth size and the preterm birth indicator had lower individual-level accuracy (AUC = 0.58 and 0.56, respectively) and higher population-level bias (IF = 0.28 and 0.35, respectively) up to 24 months following birth. Length of recall time did not affect accuracy of LBW indicators. For the preterm birth indicator, accuracy did not change with length of recall up to 20 months after birth and improved slightly beyond 20 months. Conclusions: The use of maternal reports may underestimate and bias indicators for LBW and preterm birth. In settings with high prevalence of LBW and preterm births, these indicators generated from maternal reports may be more vulnerable to misclassification. In populations where an important proportion of births occur at home or where weight is not routinely measured, mothers perhaps place less importance on remembering size at birth. Further work is needed to explore whether these conclusions on the validity of maternal reports hold in similar rural and low-income settings.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Mães/psicologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Adulto , Viés , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Glob Health ; 8(1): 010602, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29619212

RESUMO

Background: Accurate data on care-seeking for child illness are needed to improve public health programs and reduce child mortality. The accuracy of maternal report of care-seeking for child illness as collected through household surveys has not been validated. Methods: A 2016 survey compared reported care-seeking against a gold-standard of health care provider documented care-seeking events among a random sample of mothers of children <5 years in Southern Province, Zambia. Enrolled children were assigned cards with unique barcodes. Seventy-five health care providers were given smartphones with a barcode reader and instructed to scan the cards of participating children seeking care at the source, generating an electronic record of the care-seeking event. Additionally, providers gave all caregivers accessing care for a child <5 years provider-specific tokens used to verify the point of care during the household survey. Reported care-seeking events were ascertained in each household using a questionnaire modeled off the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) / Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS). The accuracy of maternal report of care-seeking behavior was estimated by comparing care-seeking events reported by mothers against provider-documented events. Results: Data were collected on 384 children with fever, diarrhea, and/or symptoms of ARI in the preceding 2 weeks. Most children sought care from government facilities or community-based agents (CBAs). We found high sensitivity (Rural: 0.91, 95% confidence interval CI 0.84-0.95; Urban: 0.98, 95% CI 0.92-0.99) and reasonable specificity (Rural: 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.82; Urban: 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.85) of maternal report of care-seeking for child illness by type of provider. Maternal report of any care-seeking and seeking care from a skilled provider had slightly higher sensitivity and specificity. Seeking care from a traditional practitioner was associated with lower odds of accurately reporting the event, while seeking care from a government provider was associated with greater odds of accurate report. The measure resulted in a slight overestimation of true care-seeking behavior in the study population. Conclusions: Maternal report is a valid measure of care-seeking for child illness in settings with high utilization of public sector providers. The study findings were limited by the low diversity in care-seeking practices for child illness and the exclusion of shops.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Diarreia/terapia , Febre/terapia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
17.
J Glob Health ; 8(1): 010601, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29497508

RESUMO

Background: Improving maternal and newborn health requires improvements in the quality of facility-based care. This is challenging to measure: routine data may be unreliable; respondents in population surveys may be unable to accurately report on quality indicators; and facility assessments lack population level denominators. We explored methods for linking access to skilled birth attendance (SBA) from household surveys to data on provision of care from facility surveys with the aim of estimating population level effective coverage reflecting access to quality care. Methods: We used data from Mayuge District, Uganda. Data from household surveys on access to SBA were linked to health facility assessment census data on readiness to provide basic emergency obstetric and newborn care (BEmONC) in the same district. One individual- and two ecological-linking methods were applied. All methods used household survey reports on where care at birth was accessed. The individual-linking method linked this to data about facility readiness from the specific facility where each woman delivered. The first ecological-linking approach used a district-wide mean estimate of facility readiness. The second used an estimate of facility readiness adjusted by level of health facility accessed. Absolute differences between estimates derived from the different linking methods were calculated, and agreement examined using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Results: A total of 1177 women resident in Mayuge reported a birth during 2012-13. Of these, 664 took place in facilities within Mayuge, and were eligible for linking to the census of the district's 38 facilities. 55% were assisted by a SBA in a facility. Using the individual-linking method, effective coverage of births that took place with an SBA in a facility ready to provide BEmONC was just 10% (95% confidence interval CI 3-17). The absolute difference between the individual- and ecological-level linking method adjusting for facility level was one percentage point (11%), and tests suggested good agreement. The ecological method using the district-wide estimate demonstrated poor agreement. Conclusions: The proportion of women accessing appropriately equipped facilities for care at birth is far lower than the coverage of facility delivery. To realise the life-saving potential of health services, countries need evidence to inform actions that address gaps in the provision of quality care. Linking household and facility-based information provides a simple but innovative method for estimating quality of care at the population level. These encouraging findings suggest that linking data sets can result in meaningful evidence even when the exact location of care seeking is not known.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Public Health ; 17(Suppl 4): 777, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29143682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mali is one of four countries implementing a National Evaluation Platform (NEP) to build local capacity to answer evaluation questions for maternal, newborn, child health and nutrition (MNCH&N). In 2014-15, NEP-Mali addressed questions about the potential impact of Mali's MNCH&N plans and strategies, and identified priority interventions to achieve targeted mortality reductions. METHODS: The NEP-Mali team modeled the potential impact of three intervention packages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) from 2014 to 2023. One projection included the interventions and targets from Mali's ten-year health strategy (PDDSS) for 2014-2023, and two others modeled intervention packages that included scale up of antenatal, intrapartum, and curative interventions, as well as reductions in stunting and wasting. We modeled the change in maternal, newborn and under-five mortality rates under these three projections, as well as the number of lives saved, overall and by intervention. RESULTS: If Mali were to achieve the MNCH&N coverage targets from its health strategy, under-5 mortality would be reduced from 121 per 1000 live births to 93 per 1000, far from the target of 69 deaths per 1000. Projections 1 and 2 produced estimated mortality reductions from 121 deaths per 1000 to 70 and 68 deaths per 1000, respectively. With respect to neonatal mortality, the mortality rate would be reduced from 39 to 32 deaths per 1000 live births under the current health strategy, and to 25 per 1000 under projections 1 and 2. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that achieving the coverage targets for the MNCH&N interventions in the 2014-23 PDDSS would likely not allow Mali to achieve its mortality targets. The NEP-Mali team was able to identify two packages of MNCH&N interventions (and targets) that achieved under-5 and neonatal mortality rates at, or very near, the PDDSS targets. The Malian Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene is using these results to revise its plans and strategies.


Assuntos
Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Planejamento em Saúde/métodos , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Software , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mali/epidemiologia , Gravidez
19.
J Glob Health ; 7(2): 021101, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163936

RESUMO

Background: Utilization of antenatal care (ANC) services has increased over the past two decades. Continued gains in maternal and newborn health will require an understanding of both access and quality of ANC services. We linked health facility and household survey data to examine the quality of service provision for five ANC interventions across health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Using data from 20 nationally representative health facility assessments - the Service Provision Assessment (SPA) and the Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA), we estimated facility level readiness to deliver five ANC interventions: tetanus toxoid vaccine for pregnant women, intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp), syphilis detection and treatment in pregnancy, iron supplementation and hypertensive disease case management. Facility level indicators were stratified by health facility type, managing authority and location, then linked to estimates of ANC utilization in that stratum from the corresponding Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to generate population level estimates of the 'likelihood of appropriate care'. Finally, the association between estimates of the 'likelihood of appropriate care' from the linking approach and estimates of coverage levels from the DHS were assessed. Findings: A total of 10 534 health facilities were surveyed in the 20 health facility assessments, of which 8742 reported offering ANC services and were included in the analysis. Health facility readiness to deliver IPTp, iron supplementation, and tetanus toxoid vaccination was higher (median: 84.1%, 84.9% and 82.8% respectively) than readiness to deliver hypertensive disease case management and syphilis detection and treatment (median: 23.0% and 19.9% respectively). Coverage of at least 4 ANC visits ranged from 24.8% to 75.8%. Estimates of the likelihood of appropriate care derived from linking health facility and household survey data showed marked gaps for all interventions, particularly hypertensive disease case management and syphilis detection and treatment. There was fairly good concordance between our estimates of high likelihood of appropriate care and DHS estimates of coverage for iron supplementation, IPTp, and tetanus toxoid vaccination. Conclusion: Linking household surveys to health facility assessments revealed marked gaps in population-level coverage of quality ANC interventions and underscored the need for a double-pronged approach to increase ANC utilization and improve the quality of ANC services.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , África ao Sul do Saara , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
J Glob Health ; 7(1): 010801, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28607675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular monitoring of coverage for reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health (RMNCH) is central to assessing progress toward health goals. The objectives of this review were to describe the current state of coverage measurement for RMNCH, assess the extent to which current approaches to coverage measurement cover the spectrum of RMNCH interventions, and prioritize interventions for a novel approach to coverage measurement linking household surveys with provider assessments. METHODS: We included 58 interventions along the RMNCH continuum of care for which there is evidence of effectiveness against cause-specific mortality and stillbirth. We reviewed household surveys and provider assessments used in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to determine whether these tools generate measures of intervention coverage, readiness, or quality. For facility-based interventions, we assessed the feasibility of linking provider assessments to household surveys to provide estimates of intervention coverage. RESULTS: Fewer than half (24 of 58) of included RMNCH interventions are measured in standard household surveys. The periconceptional, antenatal, and intrapartum periods were poorly represented. All but one of the interventions not measured in household surveys are facility-based, and 13 of these would be highly feasible to measure by linking provider assessments to household surveys. CONCLUSIONS: We found important gaps in coverage measurement for proven RMNCH interventions, particularly around the time of birth. Based on our findings, we propose three sets of actions to improve coverage measurement for RMNCH, focused on validation of coverage measures and development of new measurement approaches feasible for use at scale in LMICs.


Assuntos
Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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