Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 392
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Leukemia ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060401

RESUMO

To target mechanisms critical for multiple myeloma (MM) plasma cell adaptations to genomic instabilities and further sustain MM cell killing, we here specifically trigger DNA damage response (DDR) in MM cells by a novel BCMA antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) delivering the DNA cross-linking PBD dimer tesirine, MEDI2228. MEDI2228, more effectively than its anti-tubulin MMAF-ADC homolog, induces cytotoxicity against MM cells regardless of drug resistance, BCMA levels, p53 status, and the protection conferred by bone marrow stromal cells and IL-6. Distinctly, prior to apoptosis, MEDI2228 activates DDRs in MM cells via phosphorylation of ATM/ATR kinases, CHK1/2, CDK1/2, and H2AX, associated with expression of DDR-related genes. Significantly, MEDI2228 synergizes with DDR inhibitors (DDRi s) targeting ATM/ATR/WEE1 checkpoints to induce MM cell lethality. Moreover, suboptimal doses of MEDI2228 and bortezomib (btz) synergistically trigger apoptosis of even drug-resistant MM cells partly via modulation of RAD51 and accumulation of impaired DNA. Such combination further induces superior in vivo efficacy than monotherapy via increased nuclear γH2AX-expressing foci, irreversible DNA damages,  and tumor cell death, leading to significantly prolonged host survival. These results indicate leveraging MEDI2228 with DDRi s or btz as novel combination strategies, further supporting ongoing clinical development of MEDI2228 in patients with relapsed and refractory MM.

2.
Leukemia ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060406

RESUMO

While the past decade has seen meaningful improvements in clinical outcomes for multiple myeloma patients, a subset of patients does not benefit from current therapeutics for unclear reasons. Many gene expression-based models of risk have been developed, but each model uses a different combination of genes and often involves assaying many genes making them difficult to implement. We organized the Multiple Myeloma DREAM Challenge, a crowdsourced effort to develop models of rapid progression in newly diagnosed myeloma patients and to benchmark these against previously published models. This effort lead to more robust predictors and found that incorporating specific demographic and clinical features improved gene expression-based models of high risk. Furthermore, post-challenge analysis identified a novel expression-based risk marker, PHF19, which has recently been found to have an important biological role in multiple myeloma. Lastly, we show that a simple four feature predictor composed of age, ISS, and expression of PHF19 and MMSET performs similarly to more complex models with many more gene expression features included.

3.
Leukemia ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949267

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988140

RESUMO

The cardiac conduction system initiates and propagates each heartbeat. Specialized conducting cells are a well-conserved phenomenon across vertebrate evolution, although mammalian and avian species harbor specific components unique to organisms with four-chamber hearts. Early histological studies in mammals provided evidence for a dominant pacemaker within the right atrium and clarified the existence of the specialized muscular axis responsible for atrioventricular conduction. Building on these seminal observations, contemporary genetic techniques in a multitude of model organisms has characterized the developmental ontogeny, gene regulatory networks, and functional importance of individual anatomical compartments within the cardiac conduction system. This review describes in detail the transcriptional and regulatory networks that act during cardiac conduction system development and homeostasis with a particular emphasis on networks implicated in human electrical variation by large genome-wide association studies. We conclude with a discussion of the clinical implications of these studies and describe some future directions.

5.
Leukemia ; 34(2): 578-588, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591469

RESUMO

Recent attempts have focused on identifying fewer magnitude of minimal residual disease (MRD) rather than exploring the biological and genetic features of the residual plasma cells (PCs). Here, a cohort of 193 patients with at least one cytogenetic abnormalities (CA) at diagnosis were analyzed, and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) analyses were performed in patient-paired diagnostic and posttherapy samples. Persistent CA in residual PCs were observed for the majority of patients (63%), even detectable in 28/63 (44%) patients with MRD negativity (<10-4). The absence of CA in residual PCs was associated with prolonged survival regardless of MRD status. According to the change of the clonal size of specific CA, patients were clustered into five groups, reflecting different patterns of clone selection under therapy pressure. Therapy-induced clonal selection exerted a significant impact on survival (HR = 4.0; P < 0.001). According to the longitudinal cytogenetic studies at relapse, sequential cytogenetic dynamics were observed in most patients, and cytogenetic architecture of residual PCs could to some extent predict the evolutional pattern at relapse. Collectively, the repeat cytogenetic evaluation in residual PCs could not only serves as a good complementary tool for MRD detection, but also provides a better understanding of clinical response and clonal evolution.

6.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(1): e7-e15, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526843

RESUMO

The third annual Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) Myeloma Intergroup Workshop on Minimal Residual Disease and Immune Profiling was held on November 29, 2018, at the American Society of Hematology (ASH) annual meeting. This workshop featured the latest research focused on minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment and immune profiling (IP) in myeloma as well as discussion of the statistical and regulatory issues intrinsic to the development of MRD as a surrogate endpoint. In this report, we provide a summary of the workshop and focus on the integration of MRD and IP assessment into trial design and clinical practice.

7.
Leukemia ; 34(1): 167-179, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182781

RESUMO

Over the last few years, a detailed map of genetic and epigenetic lesions that underlie multiple myeloma (MM) has been created. Regulation of microRNA (miR)-dependent gene expression and mRNA splicing play significant roles in MM pathogenesis; however, to date an interplay between these processes is not yet delineated. Here we investigated miR-mediated regulation of splicing networks at the transcriptome level. Our studies show that a significant number (78%) of miRs which are either up- or down-regulated in patient CD138+ MM cells, but not in healthy donors (HD) CD138+ plasma cells (PC), target genes involved in early stages of pre-mRNA splicing. We also identified deregulated miRs that target core splicing factors (SF) and modifiers (SM, enhancers/silencers) which cause altered splicing in MM. Our studies suggest that Let-7f, in combination other miRs which are frequently and significantly deregulated in patients with overt MM, targets genes that regulate intron excision. Importantly, deregulated expression of certain miRs in MM promote increased intron retention, a novel characteristic of the MM genome, by inducing deregulated expression of the genes that regulate the splicing network. Our studies, therefore, provide the rationale for therapeutically targeting deregulated miRs to reverse aberrant splicing and improve patient outcome in MM.

8.
Leukemia ; 34(1): 210-223, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427721

RESUMO

The purpose of these studies was to develop and characterize B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-specific peptide-encapsulated nanoparticle formulations to efficiently evoke BCMA-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) with poly-functional immune activities against multiple myeloma (MM). Heteroclitic BCMA72-80 [YLMFLLRKI] peptide-encapsulated liposome or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles displayed uniform size distribution and increased peptide delivery to human dendritic cells, which enhanced induction of BCMA-specific CTL. Distinct from liposome-based nanoparticles, PLGA-based nanoparticles demonstrated a gradual increase in peptide uptake by antigen-presenting cells, and induced BCMA-specific CTL with higher anti-tumor activities (CD107a degranulation, CTL proliferation, and IFN-γ/IL-2/TNF-α production) against primary CD138+ tumor cells and MM cell lines. The improved functional activities were associated with increased Tetramer+/CD45RO+ memory CTL, CD28 upregulation on Tetramer+ CTL, and longer maintenance of central memory (CCR7+ CD45RO+) CTL, with the highest anti-MM activity and less differentiation into effector memory (CCR7- CD45RO+) CTL. These results provide the framework for therapeutic application of PLGA-based BCMA immunogenic peptide delivery system, rather than free peptide, to enhance the induction of BCMA-specific CTL with poly-functional Th1-specific anti-MM activities. These results demonstrate the potential clinical utility of PLGA nanotechnology-based cancer vaccine to enhance BCMA-targeted immunotherapy against myeloma.

10.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830214

RESUMO

Importance: All patients who develop multiple myeloma have a preceding asymptomatic expansion of clonal plasma cells, clinically recognized as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance or smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM). During the past decade, significant progress has been made in the classification and risk stratification of SMM. Observations: This review summarizes current clinical challenges and discusses available models for risk stratification in the context of SMM. Owing to several novel, more effective, and less toxic drugs, these aspects are becoming increasingly important to identify patients eligible for early treatment. However, all proposed criteria were built around indirect markers of disease burden and therefore are generally able to identify a fraction of patients with SMM in whom transformation to multiple myeloma and genomic subclonal diversification are already happening. In contrast, next-generation sequencing approaches have the potential to identify myeloma precursor disease that will progress even before the major clonal expansion and progression, providing a potential base for more effective treatment and better precision regarding the optimal timing of treatment initiation. Conclusions and Relevance: Owing to modern technologies, in the near future, prognostic models derived from genomic signatures independent of the disease burden will allow better identification of the optimal timing to treat a plasma cell clonal disorder at the very early stages, when the chances of eradication are higher.

11.
Blood Adv ; 3(21): 3360-3374, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698464

RESUMO

MYD88 L265P is the most common mutation in lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia (LPL/WM) and one of the most frequent in poor-prognosis subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Although inhibition of the mutated MYD88 pathway has an adverse impact on LPL/WM and DLBCL cell survival, its role in lymphoma initiation remains to be clarified. We show that in mice, human MYD88L265P promotes development of a non-clonal, low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with several clinicopathologic features that resemble human LPL/WM, including expansion of lymphoplasmacytoid cells, increased serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentration, rouleaux formation, increased number of mast cells in the bone marrow, and proinflammatory signaling that progresses sporadically to clonal, high-grade DLBCL. Murine findings regarding differences in the pattern of MYD88 staining and immune infiltrates in the bone marrows of MYD88 wild-type (MYD88WT) and MYD88L265P mice are recapitulated in the human setting, which provides insight into LPL/WM pathogenesis. Furthermore, histologic transformation to DLBCL is associated with acquisition of secondary genetic lesions frequently seen in de novo human DLBCL as well as LPL/WM-transformed cases. These findings indicate that, although the MYD88L265P mutation might be indispensable for the LPL/WM phenotype, it is insufficient by itself to drive malignant transformation in B cells and relies on other, potentially targetable cooperating genetic events for full development of lymphoma.

12.
Am J Hematol ; 94(11): 1244-1253, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456261

RESUMO

We tested the hypothesis that using CXCR4 inhibition to target the interaction between the tumor cells and the microenvironment leads to sensitization of the tumor cells to apoptosis. Eligibility criteria included multiple myeloma (MM) patients with 1-5 prior lines of therapy. The purposes of the phase I study were to evaluate the safety and maximal-tolerated dose (MTD) of the combination. The treatment-related adverse events and response rate of the combination were assessed in the phase II study. A total of 58 patients were enrolled in the study. The median age of the patients was 63 years (range, 43-85), and 78% of them received prior bortezomib. In the phase I study, the MTD was plerixafor 0.32 mg/kg, and bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 . The overall response rate for the phase II study was 48.5%, and the clinical benefit rate 60.6%. The median disease-free survival was 12.6 months. The CyTOF analysis demonstrated significant mobilization of plasma cells, CD34+ stem cells, and immune T cells in response to plerixafor. This is an unprecedented study that examines therapeutic targeting of the bone marrow microenvironment and its interaction with the tumor clone to overcome resistance to therapy. Our results indicate that this novel combination is safe and that the objective response rate is high even in patients with relapsed/refractory MM. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00903968.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3835, 2019 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444325

RESUMO

The multiple myeloma (MM) genome is heterogeneous and evolves through preclinical and post-diagnosis phases. Here we report a catalog and hierarchy of driver lesions using sequences from 67 MM genomes serially collected from 30 patients together with public exome datasets. Bayesian clustering defines at least 7 genomic subgroups with distinct sets of co-operating events. Focusing on whole genome sequencing data, complex structural events emerge as major drivers, including chromothripsis and a novel replication-based mechanism of templated insertions, which typically occur early. Hyperdiploidy also occurs early, with individual trisomies often acquired in different chronological windows during evolution, and with a preferred order of acquisition. Conversely, positively selected point mutations, whole genome duplication and chromoplexy events occur in later disease phases. Thus, initiating driver events, drawn from a limited repertoire of structural and numerical chromosomal changes, shape preferred trajectories of evolution that are biologically relevant but heterogeneous across patients.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Medula Óssea/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Cromotripsia , Replicação do DNA , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Filogenia , Mutação Puntual , Fatores de Tempo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2969, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278357

RESUMO

Analysis of mutational signatures is becoming routine in cancer genomics, with implications for pathogenesis, classification, prognosis, and even treatment decisions. However, the field lacks a consensus on analysis and result interpretation. Using whole-genome sequencing of multiple myeloma (MM), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute myeloid leukemia, we compare the performance of public signature analysis tools. We describe caveats and pitfalls of de novo signature extraction and fitting approaches, reporting on common inaccuracies: erroneous signature assignment, identification of localized hyper-mutational processes, overcalling of signatures. We provide reproducible solutions to solve these issues and use orthogonal approaches to validate our results. We show how a comprehensive mutational signature analysis may provide relevant biological insights, reporting evidence of c-AID activity among unmutated CLL cases or the absence of BRCA1/BRCA2-mediated homologous recombination deficiency in a MM cohort. Finally, we propose a general analysis framework to ensure production of accurate and reproducible mutational signature data.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/normas , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Biologia Computacional/normas , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Mutação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/normas
17.
Cell Rep ; 27(12): 3486-3499.e6, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216470

RESUMO

Ectopic expression of transcription factors (TFs) can reprogram cell state. However, because of the large combinatorial space of possible TF cocktails, it remains difficult to identify TFs that reprogram specific cell types. Here, we develop Reprogram-Seq to experimentally screen thousands of TF cocktails for reprogramming performance. Reprogram-Seq leverages organ-specific cell-atlas data with single-cell perturbation and computational analysis to predict, evaluate, and optimize TF combinations that reprogram a cell type of interest. Focusing on the cardiac system, we perform Reprogram-Seq on MEFs using an undirected library of 48 cardiac factors and, separately, a directed library of 10 epicardial-related TFs. We identify a combination of three TFs, which efficiently reprogram MEFs to epicardial-like cells that are transcriptionally, molecularly, morphologically, and functionally similar to primary epicardial cells. Reprogram-Seq holds promise to accelerate the generation of specific cell types for regenerative medicine.

18.
Blood ; 134(2): 160-170, 2019 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043423

RESUMO

Pharmacologic agents that modulate ubiquitin ligase activity to induce protein degradation are a major new class of therapeutic agents, active in a number of hematologic malignancies. However, we currently have a limited understanding of the determinants of activity of these agents and how resistance develops. We developed and used a novel quantitative, targeted mass spectrometry (MS) assay to determine the relative activities, kinetics, and cell-type specificity of thalidomide and 4 analogs, all but 1 of which are in clinical use or clinical trials for hematologic malignancies. Thalidomide analogs bind the CRL4CRBN ubiquitin ligase and induce degradation of particular proteins, but each of the molecules studied has distinct patterns of substrate specificity that likely underlie the clinical activity and toxicities of each drug. Our results demonstrate that the activity of molecules that induce protein degradation depends on the strength of ligase-substrate interaction in the presence of drug, the levels of the ubiquitin ligase, and the expression level of competing substrates. These findings highlight a novel mechanism of resistance to this class of drugs mediated by competition between substrates for access to a limiting pool of the ubiquitin ligase. We demonstrate that increased expression of a nonessential substrate can lead to decreased degradation of other substrates that are critical for antineoplastic activity of the drug, resulting in drug resistance. These studies provide general rules that govern drug-dependent substrate degradation and key differences between thalidomide analog activity in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Talidomida/química , Talidomida/farmacologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/química , Neoplasias Hematológicas/enzimologia , Humanos , Especificidade por Substrato , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
N Engl J Med ; 380(18): 1726-1737, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies suggest that bb2121, a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy that targets B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), has potential for the treatment of multiple myeloma. METHODS: In this phase 1 study involving patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, we administered bb2121 as a single infusion at doses of 50×106, 150×106, 450×106, or 800×106 CAR-positive (CAR+) T cells in the dose-escalation phase and 150×106 to 450×106 CAR+ T cells in the expansion phase. Patients had received at least three previous lines of therapy, including a proteasome inhibitor and an immunomodulatory agent, or were refractory to both drug classes. The primary end point was safety. RESULTS: Results for the first 33 consecutive patients who received a bb2121 infusion are reported. The data-cutoff date was 6.2 months after the last infusion date. Hematologic toxic effects were the most common events of grade 3 or higher, including neutropenia (in 85% of the patients), leukopenia (in 58%), anemia (in 45%), and thrombocytopenia (in 45%). A total of 25 patients (76%) had cytokine release syndrome, which was of grade 1 or 2 in 23 patients (70%) and grade 3 in 2 patients (6%). Neurologic toxic effects occurred in 14 patients (42%) and were of grade 1 or 2 in 13 patients (39%). One patient (3%) had a reversible grade 4 neurologic toxic effect. The objective response rate was 85%, including 15 patients (45%) with complete responses. Six of the 15 patients who had a complete response have had a relapse. The median progression-free survival was 11.8 months (95% confidence interval, 6.2 to 17.8). All 16 patients who had a response (partial response or better) and who could be evaluated for minimal residual disease (MRD) had MRD-negative status (≤10-4 nucleated cells). CAR T-cell expansion was associated with responses, and CAR T cells persisted up to 1 year after the infusion. CONCLUSIONS: We report the initial toxicity profile of a BCMA-directed cellular immunotherapy for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Antitumor activity was documented. (Funded by Bluebird Bio and Celgene; CRB-401 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02658929.).


Assuntos
Antígeno de Maturação de Linfócitos B/antagonistas & inibidores , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Relação CD4-CD8 , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA