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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2094: 1-16, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797285

RESUMO

Plants are multicellular organism composed of different types of cells. These all kinds of cells are formed from pluripotent stem cells present at different positions in plant called stem cell niches. All these stem cell niches and their boundaries are maintained by complex regulatory mechanism at molecular level involving different genes, cofactors, and phytohormones. In this chapter, we discussed the regulatory mechanism and models of stem cell maintenance, specifying their boundaries at different stem cell niches.

2.
Angiology ; 71(1): 17-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129986

RESUMO

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has a high burden of morbidity and mortality due to premature (≤55 years in men; ≤65 years in women) myocardial infarction (MI) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Despite this, the prevalence of risk factors in patients presenting with premature MI or ACS is incompletely described. We compared lifestyle, clinical risk factors, and biomarkers associated with premature MI/ACS in the MENA region with selected non-MENA high-income countries. We identified English-language, peer-reviewed publications through PubMed (up to March 2018). We used the World Bank classification system to categorize countries. Patients with premature MI/ACS in the MENA region had a higher prevalence of smoking than older patients with MI/ACS but a lower prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Men with premature MI/ACS had a higher prevalence of smoking than women but a lower prevalence of diabetes and hypertension. The MENA region had sparse data on lifestyle, diet, psychological stress, and physical activity. To address these knowledge gaps, we initiated the ongoing Gulf Population Risks and Epidemiology of Vascular Events and Treatment (Gulf PREVENT) case-control study to improve primary and secondary prevention of premature MI in the United Arab Emirates, a high-income country in the MENA region.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/prevenção & controle , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Prematura , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
3.
Cureus ; 10(9): e3291, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443461

RESUMO

Introduction The number of cardiac patients increases on a daily basis, and emergency departments bear much of the burden of non-cardiac patients due to pathological fears of the aftermath of the disease. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the burden of non-cardiac patients on the emergency department of a cardiac center in a rural area of Sindh, Pakistan. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at the emergency department of Chandka Medical College Hospital in Larkana. Consecutive patients who presented with cardiac symptoms with no previous history of cardiac disease were included. After a brief history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and a cardiac enzyme assessment, patients were categorized as cardiac or non-cardiac. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, US) and p ≤0.05 was statistically significant. Results Of the 204 patients included, 112 (59.8%) were men, and the mean age was 47 ± 16 years. Most patients (n = 146; 71.6%) were diagnosed as non-cardiac. The non-cardiac diagnosis was significantly more common among patients without diabetes (n = 123, 77.4% vs. n = 23, 51.1%; p = 0.001), without chest pains (n = 93, 81.6% vs. n = 53, 58.9%; p< 0.001), and without shortness of breath (n = 107, 75.9% vs. n = 39, 61.9%; p = 0.041). Conclusion More than two-thirds of the patients were found to have a non-cardiac mechanism behind their symptoms. A major proportion of the emergency room's cardiology department is occupied by non-cardiac patients. Owing to its direct and indirect implication on an otherwise struggling health system, we suggest chest pain units should be developed to decrease the workload and provide better care to cardiac patients.

4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(11): 651, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338395

RESUMO

Laundry detergents, a mixture of different compounds, are used as washing agents in houses and cleaning agents in institutions and industries. As a result, industrial and domestic wastewater usually contains detergent contamination in variable amount. In many developing countries, untreated municipal and industrial wastewater is used for irrigation of crops. There is a possibility that laundry detergents and their ingredients present in irrigation water may affect plant growth as reported in several plant species. However, studies on the effects of laundry detergents on important cereal crops like maize can rarely be found in literature. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of two commonly used commercial laundry detergents on germination, root-shoot length, fresh biomass, leaf number, leaf width, cell viability, cell injury, light-harvesting pigments, protein contents, and ion concentration in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. The obtained results revealed that both the detergents in the tested concentration range (1-500 mg L-1) did not significantly affect seed germination in maize. Similarly, shoot growth, leaf number, and leaf width were not significantly affected by detergents, while in the case of root, one detergent promoted root growth while the other one inhibited it. Both the detergents caused a slight increase in total soluble proteins, and this effect was significant at the highest tested one or two concentrations of detergents (100 and 500 mg L-1). Chlorophylls a and b and total carotenoids were very sensitive to detergent stress and significantly reduced at detergent concentration above 1 or 10 mg L-1. Both the detergents caused an increased cell leakage and reduced cell viability, and in most cases, this effect was statistically significant at detergent doses above 10 mg L-1. Exposure to detergents caused an increased accumulation of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ in maize seedlings. It can be concluded that detergents present in irrigation water at higher concentrations can adversely affect maize by impairing light-harvesting pigments and cell viability.


Assuntos
Detergentes/toxicidade , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(5): 268, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29619567

RESUMO

Hair shampoos, a mixture of various organic and organic compounds, are commonly used personnel care products. Since shampoos are used in almost every household and beauty shop, their ingredients are common components of domestic and municipal wastewater. However, studies on the effect of shampoos to aquatic plants can hardly be found in literature. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the phytotoxic effects of two commonly used anti-dandruff shampoos (named here AD 1 and AD 2) using Lemna minor as a biotest organism. For toxicity assessment, frond number, fresh and dry biomass, and light-harvesting pigments (chlorophyll a, b and total carotenoids) of Lemna were used as end points. Five different concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 5%) of each shampoo were tested in comparison to the control. At lower concentrations of shampoos, some minor and non-significant stimulatory effects were observed in some parameters, but at concentrations above 0.01% both the shampoos significantly inhibited almost all parameters in Lemna. The EC50 values obtained for frond number were 0.034 and 0.11% for AD 1 and AD 2, respectively. The fresh biomass gave EC50 values of 0.07 and 0.066% for AD 1 and AD 2, respectively. Based on the preset study, it can be speculated that shampoo contamination at higher concentrations in water bodies can be a threat to aquatic organisms. This study can be used as a baseline to further investigate shampoo toxicity using other species and to explore the mechanism of shampoo toxicity in aquatic plants.


Assuntos
Araceae/fisiologia , Preparações para Cabelo/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Clorofila A , Caspa/prevenção & controle , Ecotoxicologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cabelo , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 7908183, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884130

RESUMO

Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal) which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce/microbiologia , Qualidade da Água/normas , Água Potável/microbiologia , Humanos , Paquistão , Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Microbiologia da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas
7.
Cancer Med ; 6(9): 2042-2051, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28801995

RESUMO

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) incidence is increasing in the USA. Gemcitabine (G) and oxaliplatin (O) are active in HCC and biliary duct cancer (BDC). Erlotinib (E) is an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with known activity against both. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of the combination G+O+E. Patients with either of the two diagnosis were treated in a phase II trial. Simons 2 stage design was used. A disease-control rate (DCR), complete response (CR) + partial response (PR)+ stable disease (SD) at 24 weeks of ≤20% and >40% (P0 and P1 of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively) were set as undesirable (null) and desirable results. 26 HCC and 7 BDC patients were accrued. In HCC, 1 PR, 10 SD, and 9 PDs were seen. DCR in HCC was 42%. Among seven (7) patients with BDC, one patient was not evaluable; one achieved a long lasting PR, and five patients had SD and DCR was 86%. Median overall survival (OS) times and progression-free survivals (PFS) were 196 and 149 days in HCC and 238 days and not reached in BDC. PFS at 26 weeks in HCC was 41% and at 21 weeks in BDC was 60%. Grade 3 toxicities in >5% of patients were fatigue (12.9%), neutropenia (9.6%), thrombocytopenia (9.6%), and diarrhea (6.4%). G+O+E exceeded both preset P0a and P1 of the primary objective with a PFS of 41% at 26 weeks for HCC and preliminary BDC data may warrant further investigations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 247, 2017 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants are rich source of traditional herbal medicine around the globe. Most of the plant's therapeutic properties are due to the presence of secondary bioactive compounds. METHODS: The present study analyzed the High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fractions of Puncia granatum (peel) extracts (aqueous, chloroform, ethanol and hexane) against multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens (Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus). All the fractions having antibacterial activity was processed for bioactive compounds identification using LC MS/MS analysis. RESULTS: Among total HPLC fractions (n = 30), 4 HPLC fractions of P. granatum (peel) showed potential activity against MDR pathogens. Fraction 1 (F1) and fraction 4 (F4) collected from aqueous extract showed maximum activity against P. aeruginosa. Fraction 2 (F2) of hexane showed antibacterial activity against three pathogens, while ethanol F4 exhibited antibacterial activity against A. baumannii. The active fractions were processed for LC MS/MS analysis to identify bioactive compounds. Valoneic acid dilactone (aqueous F1 and F4), Hexoside (ethanol F4) and Coumaric acid (hexane F2) were identified as bioactive compounds in HPLC fractions. CONCLUSION: Puncia granatum peel extracts HPLC fractions exhibited potential inhibitory activity against MDR bacterial human pathogens. Several bioactive compounds were identified from the HPLC fractions. Further characterization of these compounds may be helpful to conclude it as therapeutic lead molecules against MDR pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lythraceae , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Int J Vasc Med ; 2017: 1925176, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28250991

RESUMO

Epidemiologic evidence suggests a link between psychosocial risk factors such as marital status and coronary artery disease (CAD). Polygamy (multiple concurrent wives) is a distinct marital status practiced in many countries in Asia and the Middle East, but its association with CAD is not well defined. We conducted a multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography during the period from April 1, 2013, to March 30, 2014. Of 1,068 enrolled patients, 687 were married men. Polygamy was reported in 32% of married men (1 wife: 68%, 2 wives: 19%, 3 wives: 10%, and 4 wives: 3%). When stratified by number of wives, significant baseline differences were observed in age, type of community (rural versus urban), prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and household income. After adjusting for baseline differences, there was a significant association between polygamy and CAD (adjusted OR 4.6 [95% CI 2.5, 8.3]), multivessel disease (MVD) (adjusted OR 2.6 [95% CI 1.8, 3.7]), and left main disease (LMD) (adjusted OR 3.5 [95% CI 2.1, 5.9]). Findings were consistent when the number of wives was analyzed as a continuous variable. In conclusion, among married men undergoing coronary angiography for clinical indications, polygamy is associated with the presence of significant CAD, MVD, and LMD.

10.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 242: 1-60, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27464847

RESUMO

Environmental pollution has increased many folds in recent years and in some places has reached levels that are toxic to living things. Among pollutant types, toxic heavy metals and metalloids are among the chemicals that pose the highest threat to biological systems (Jjemba 2004). Unlike organic pollutants, which are biodegradable, heavy metals are not degraded into less hazardous end products (Gupta et al. 2001). Low concentrations of some heavy metals are essential for life, but some of them like Hg, As, Pb and Cd are biologically non-essential and very toxic to living organisms. Even the essential metals may become toxic if they are present at a concentration above the permissible level (Puttaiah and Kiran 2008). For example, exposure to Zn and Fe oxides produce gastric disorder and vomiting, irritation of the skin and mucous membranes. Intake of Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd and Cu causes heart problems, leukemia and cancer, while Co and Mg can cause anemia and hypertension (Drasch et al. 2006). Similarly, various studies indicated that overexposure to heavy metals in air can cause cardiovascular disorders (Miller et al. 2007; Schwartz 2001), asthma (Wiwatanadate and Liwsrisakun 2011), bronchitis/emphysema (Pope 2000), and other respiratory diseases (Dominici et al. 2006).


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Paquistão , Medição de Risco
11.
Coron Artery Dis ; 28(2): 98-103, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27749320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association of widowhood with the severity and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD), and whether it is modified by sex or socioeconomic status. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1068 patients undergoing coronary angiography at five centers in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates were included in the study. CAD was defined as more than 70% lumen stenosis in a major epicardial vessel or more than 50% in the left main coronary artery. Multivessel disease was defined as more than one diseased vessel. RESULTS: Of 1068 patients, 65 (6%) were widowed. Widowed patients were older (65±15 vs. 59±12), more likely to be female (75 vs. 25%), less likely to be smokers (18 vs. 47%), of lower economic and education status, and more likely to have undergone coronary angiography for urgent/emergent indications (75 vs. 61%) (P<0.05 for all). There was a significant association between widowhood and the number of coronary arteries with more than 70% lumen stenosis. Consequently, such a high degree of lumen stenosis in those who were widowed was more likely to require coronary artery bypass graft surgery (38 vs. 16%; P<0.01). After adjusting for baseline differences, widowhood was associated with a significantly higher odds of CAD [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-10.5] and multivessel disease (adjusted OR 4.6; 95% CI 2.2-9.6), but not left main disease (adjusted OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.5-3.1). All associations were consistent in men and women and not modified by age, community setting (urban vs. rural), employment, income, or educational levels (Pinteraction>0.1 for all). CONCLUSION: Widowhood is associated with the severity and extent of CAD. The association is not modified by sex or socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/psicologia , Estenose Coronária/psicologia , Viuvez/psicologia , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Angiografia Coronária , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Estenose Coronária/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Jundishapur J Microbiol ; 9(7): e31824, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27679701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The distribution pattern of phase-variable genes varies from strain to strain and from region to region. The present study was carried out to investigate the distribution pattern of phase-variable genes within Pakistan-based Helicobacter pylori strains and to analyze and compare them with strains prevalent in other parts of the world. OBJECTIVES: To determine the distribution pattern of phase-variable genes in H. pylori strains circulating in Pakistan. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Biopsy samples were collected from 85 symptomatic patients suffering from various upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The biopsy specimens were chopped, then inoculated on H. pylori-specific media and incubated in a Campylobacter Gas Generating kit. Positive isolates were further confirmed via staining and biochemical procedures. Primers were designed for five phase-variable genes using OligoCalc, an oligonucleotide properties calculator (version 3.26) according to parameters stipulated in the literature. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on all positive isolates to determine the presence or absence of phase-variable genes. RESULTS: On culturing, the prevalence of H. pylori infections in the samples was 44.7%. The prevalence was higher in females than in males, and it increased with age. PCR amplification revealed that the hsdR gene was present in 79% of samples, while the mod and ß-subunit genes were present in 16% and 30% of samples, respectively. The streptococcal M protein gene was found in 79%, while the fliP gene was prevalent in 56%. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution patterns of phase-variable genes in Pakistani H. pylori strains were found to be somewhat different. The dominant prevalence of the hsdR gene was an interesting finding, considering its role in bacterial defense in both micro- and macroenvironments.

13.
Ecotoxicology ; 25(2): 329-41, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26603051

RESUMO

Pesticides are highly toxic substances. Their toxicity may not be absolutely specific to the target organisms but can adversely affect different processes in the non-target host plants. In the present study, the effect of over application of four commonly used pesticides (emamectin benzoate, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid) was evaluated on the germination, seedling vigor and photosynthetic pigments in tomato. The obtained results revealed that seed germination was decreased by the pesticides and this effect was more prominent at early stages of exposure. All the tested pesticides reduced the growth of tomato when applied in higher concentration than the recommended dose, but at lower doses the pesticides had some stimulatory effects on growth as compared to the control. A similar effect of pesticides was observed on the photosynthetic pigments, i.e. a decrease in pigments concentrations was caused at higher doses but an increase was observed at lower doses of pesticides. The calculation of EC50 values for different parameters revealed the lowest EC50 values for emamectin (ranged as 51-181 mg/L) followed by alpha-cypermethrin (191.74-374.39), lambda-cyhalothrin (102.43-354.28) and imidacloprid (430.29-1979.66 mg/L). A comparison of the obtained EC50 values for different parameters of tomato with the recommended doses revealed that over application of these pesticides can be harmful to tomato crop. In a few cases these pesticides were found toxic even at the recommended doses. However, a field based study in this regard should be conducted to further verify these results.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Dissacarídeos/toxicidade , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Neonicotinoides , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Paquistão , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/fisiologia
14.
Jundishapur J Microbiol ; 9(11): e35436, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28138372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study was undertaken to analyze the phytochemical content and biological activity of Cichorium intybus seeds traditionally used in Charsadda, Pakistan against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens. OBJECTIVES: This study explored the qualitative and quantitative antibacterial potential of C. intybus. Further qualitative analysis of phytochemical content was performed. METHODS: Cichorium intybus seed extracts were prepared in aqueous, chloroform, ethanol, and hexane separately. RESULTS: All the extracts of C. intybus seeds were screened for antibacterial activity and phytochemical content. Cichorium intybus seed extract showed considerable activity against MDR pathogenic bacteria. In the well diffusion method, aqueous extracts showed a higher zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16 mm ± 0.7 mm) and Acinetobacter baumannii (13 mm ± 0.5 mm), whereas chloroform, ethanol, and hexane extracts showed activity against P. aeruginosa (11 mm ± 0.3 mm, 12 mm ± 0.5 mm, and 11 mm ± 0 mm, respectively) as compared to Imipenem, a broad spectrum antibiotic. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values for aqueous and ethanol extracts indicate that they were more effective against MDR bacteria. Phytochemical analysis revealed that aqueous and ethanol extracts were rich in alkaloids, carbohydrates, gallotannins, and triterpenoids, whereas chloroform and hexane extracts were more concentrated with phenolics, pseudotannins, saponins, and tannins. Cichorium intybus seed extract demonstrated potential activity against MDR human pathogenic bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: The undertaken study has for the first time reported the effects of C. intybus seed extracts against MDR bacterial pathogens. Findings of the current study will be helpful for further elucidation of bioactive molecules for therapeutic use against MDR bacterial pathogens.

15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(19): 15164-70, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26201659

RESUMO

Hair shampoos are among the most commonly used chemicals in everyday life. Since shampoos are a major component of domestic and municipal wastewater, they may affect plants when irrigated with wastewater. However, their effects on plants have never been investigated in detail. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of some commonly used hair shampoos on seed germination and seedling vigor of Brassica napus. Seeds of Brassica napus were exposed to different concentrations of hair shampoos, i.e., 0 (control), 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 %. The obtained results revealed that germination was not very sensitive to shampoo stress and was significantly inhibited only at the highest tested concentration (10 %) of shampoo except in the case of one shampoo where it was inhibited at concentration of 1 % or above. The other tested parameters of Brassica napus were comparatively more sensitive than germination to shampoo stress. However, at lower concentrations of shampoos, stimulatory effects were also observed in some cases. Although no exact data is available on shampoo concentration in wastewater used for irrigation, it is unlikely that shampoo concentration in irrigation water reach so high and pose adversity to plants.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações para Cabelo/toxicidade , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 95: 15-25, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163419

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to determine the effect of wood ash application on different parameters of Brassica napus L. including seed germination, seedling growth, fresh and dry biomass, water content in seedlings, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, total protein and cell viability. In addition, the effect of wood ash on soil microflora and accumulation of trace elements in seedlings were determined. The seeds of B. napus were grown at different doses of wood ash (0, 1, 10, 25, 50 and 100 g (wood ash)/kg (soil)) and the effect on various parameters was determined. Wood ash significantly inhibited seed germination at doses above 25 g/kg and there was no germination at 100 g/kg of wood ash. At lower concentrations of wood ash, most of the growth parameters of seedlings were stimulated, but at higher concentrations of wood ash most of the studied parameters were adversely affected. Wood ash was found to be very detrimental to B. napus when applied above 25 g/kg. Wood ash application resulted in an increased bioaccumulation of trace elements in seedlings of B. napus. Almost all trace elements were significantly higher in seedlings grown in wood ash above 10 g/kg as compared to the control. An increase in total microbial count was observed with wood ash treatment which was statistically significant at 1 and 10 g/kg of wood ash. It is concluded that at very high concentration, wood ash can be detrimental to plants; however, its application at lower application rate can be recommended.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cinza de Carvão/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Madeira
17.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 15: 127, 2015 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25902854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants are rich source of chemical compounds that are used to accomplish biological activity. Indigenously crude extracts of plants are widely used as herbal medicine for the treatment of infections by people of different ethnic groups. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the biological potential of Alkanna tinctoria leaves extract from district Charsadda, Pakistan against multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacteria including Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS: Anti-multi-drug resistant bacterial activity of aqueous, chloroform, ethanol and hexane extracts of Alkanna tinctoria leaves were evaluated by well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of different extracts were determined. Moreover qualitative phytochemicals screening of the studied extracts was performed. RESULTS: All four selected bacteria including A. baumannii, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were categorized as multi-drug resistant (MDR) as they were found to be resistant to 13, 10, 19 and 22 antibiotics belonging to different groups respectively. All the four extract showed potential activity against S. aureus as compare to positive control antibiotic (Imipenem). Similarly among the four extracts of Alkanna tinctoria leaves, aqueous extract showed best activity against A. baumannii (10±03 mm), P. aeruginosa (12±0.5 mm), and S. aureus (14±0.5 mm) as compare to Imipenem. The MICs and MBCs results also showed quantitative concentration of plant extracts to inhibit or kill MDR bacteria. When phytochemicals analysis was performed it was observed that aqueous and ethanol extracts showed phytochemicals with large number as well as volume, especially Alkaloides, Flavonoides and Charbohydrates. CONCLUSION: The undertaken study demonstrated that all the four extracts of Alkanna tinctoria leaves exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against MDR isolates. Finding from the current study will be helpful for further elucidation of lead molecules from Alkanna tinctoria leaves for future therapeutic use against MDR pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Boraginaceae , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paquistão , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Parasitol Res ; 113(12): 4321-6, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25316581

RESUMO

Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral infection, is one of the major public health concerns in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately, 2.5 billion people across the world are at risk from dengue and 50 to 100 million new infections of dengue occur annually. There is yet no vaccine or medicine available against dengue, and treatment remains only supportive. Targeting its vector by a combination of biological and chemical approaches and management of breeding sites are currently the only existing approaches to control or eliminate dengue. Chlorophyll derivatives like chlorophyllin and pheophorbide have been reported as effective natural photosensitizers against larvae of several insects including flies. Chlorophyll derivatives were also reported effective against larval stages of freshwater snails as well as against certain parasites of fish. This article briefly discusses the possible application of chlorophyll derivatives in controlling dengue vectors and hence the disease itself. Chlorophyll derivatives can prove to be a good contributor in an integrated approach against dengue.


Assuntos
Clorofila/química , Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Larva
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 21(24): 13929-42, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25056753

RESUMO

Water pollution with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the serious threats to human health, particularly in developing countries. The main objective of this article is to highlight microbial contamination of drinking water, the major factors responsible for microbial contamination, and the resulting health problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for researchers and administrative agencies to initiate relevant studies and develop new policies to protect further deterioration of water supply with pathogenic microbes and ensure clean and safe drinking water to the public in Pakistan. In Pakistan, water at the source, in the distribution network, and at the consumer tap is heavily polluted with coliforms and fecal coliforms all over the country. An overview of more than 7,000 water samples reviewed here reveals that an average of over 71 and 58 % samples in the country was contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively. Drinking water contamination accounts for 20 to 40 % of all diseases in the country, which causes national income losses of Rs 25-58 billion annually (US$0.25-0.58 billion, approximately 0.6-1.44 % of the country's GDP). Improper disposal of industrial and municipal wastes is the most important factor responsible for water pollution in the country followed by cross-contamination due to old and leaking pipes and lack of water filtration and disinfection facilities. There is an urgent need for emergency steps to stop further deterioration of water quality and improve the existing water quality so as to protect the public from widespread waterborne diseases.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Água Doce/microbiologia , Poluição da Água , Humanos , Paquistão , Poluição da Água/economia , Abastecimento de Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/economia
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