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1.
J Hum Genet ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586129

RESUMO

It has been reported that there are differences in effects on irinotecan-induced adverse reactions between UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28. In order to compare those differences in the Japanese population, we examined the associations between UGT1A1 and irinotecan-induced adverse reactions using the BioBank Japan Project database. We genotyped UTG1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 and conducted case-control analyses. A total of 651 patients (102 cases and 549 tolerant controls) were included in this study. The results showed that UGT1A1*6/*6 is a predictor of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) (p-value 0.00070, odds ratio 6.59, 95% confidence interval 2.33-18.6), whereas UGT1A1*6/*28 and UGT1A1*28/*28 were not. The subanalysis comprising only patients with UGT1A1*6/*6, UGT1A1*6/*28, and UGT1A1*28/*28 revealed a trend towards an increased risk of ADRs in patients with UGT1A1*6 (p-value 0.0092, odds ratio 4.39, 95% confidence interval 1.57-14.9). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that use of platinum-based antineoplastic drugs and presence of UGT1A1*6/*6 were independent variables, significantly associated with ADRs. The diagnostic performance of a predictive model had a sensitivity of 49.0%, specificity of 70.1%, and a number needed to screen of 5.8. We concluded that UGT1A1 testing could be useful to predict irinotecan-induced ADRs, and that UTG1A1*6 rather than UGT1A1*28 contributed to ADR occurrence.

2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488892

RESUMO

We performed genome-wide association studies of five gynecologic diseases using data of 46,837 subjects (5236 uterine fibroid, 645 endometriosis, 647 ovarian cancer (OC), 909 uterine endometrial cancer (UEC), and 538 uterine cervical cancer (UCC) cases allowing overlaps, and 39,556 shared female controls) from Biobank Japan Project. We used the population-specific imputation reference panel (n = 3541), yielding 7,645,193 imputed variants. Analyses performed under logistic model, linear mixed model, and model incorporating correlations identified nine significant associations with three gynecologic diseases including four novel findings (rs79219469:C > T, LINC02183, P = 3.3 × 10-8 and rs567534295:C > T, BRCA1, P = 3.1 × 10-8 with OC, rs150806792:C > T, INS-IGF2, P = 4.9 × 10-8 and rs140991990:A > G, SOX9, P = 3.3 × 10-8 with UCC). Random-effect meta-analysis of the five GWASs correcting for the overlapping subjects suggested one novel shared risk locus (rs937380553:A > G, LOC730100, P = 2.0 × 10-8). Reverse regression analysis identified three additional novel associations (rs73494486:C > T, GABBR2, P = 4.8 × 10-8, rs145152209:A > G, SH3GL3/BNC1, P = 3.3 × 10-8, and rs147427629:G > A, LOC107985484, P = 3.8 × 10-8). Estimated heritability ranged from 0.026 for OC to 0.220 for endometriosis. Genetic correlations were relatively strong between OC and UEC, endometriosis and OC, and uterine fibroid and OC (rg > 0.79) compared with relatively weak correlations between UCC and the other four (rg = -0.08 ~ 0.25). We successfully identified genetic associations with gynecologic diseases in the Japanese population. Shared genetic effects among multiple related diseases may help understanding the pathophysiology.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558841

RESUMO

The functional variants involved in alcohol metabolism, the A allele of rs1229984:A > G in ADH1B and the A allele of rs671:G > A in ALDH2, are specifically prevalent among East Asian population. They are shown to be under recent positive selection, but the reasons for the selection are unknown. To test whether these positively selected variants have beneficial effects on survival in modern population, we performed the survival analyses using the large-scale Japanese cohort (n = 135,974) with genotype and follow-up survival data. The rs671-A allele was significantly associated with the better survival in the additive model (HR for mortality = 0.960, P = 1.7 × 10-5), and the rs1229984-A had both additive and non-additive effects (HR = 0.962, P = 0.0016 and HR = 0.958, P = 0.0066, respectively), which was consistent with the positive selection. The favorable effects of these alleles on survival were independent of the habit of alcohol consumption itself. The heterogenous combinatory effect between rs1229984 and rs671 genotype was also observed (HRs for AA genotype at rs671 were 1.03, 0.80, and 0.90 for GG, GA, and AA genotype at rs1229984, respectively), supposedly reflecting the synergistic effects on survival.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4393, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562340

RESUMO

Human height is a representative phenotype to elucidate genetic architecture. However, the majority of large studies have been performed in European population. To investigate the rare and low-frequency variants associated with height, we construct a reference panel (N = 3,541) for genotype imputation by integrating the whole-genome sequence data from 1,037 Japanese with that of the 1000 Genomes Project, and perform a genome-wide association study in 191,787 Japanese. We report 573 height-associated variants, including 22 rare and 42 low-frequency variants. These 64 variants explain 1.7% of the phenotypic variance. Furthermore, a gene-based analysis identifies two genes with multiple height-increasing rare and low-frequency nonsynonymous variants (SLC27A3 and CYP26B1; PSKAT-O < 2.5 × 10-6). Our analysis shows a general tendency of the effect sizes of rare variants towards increasing height, which is contrary to findings among Europeans, suggesting that height-associated rare variants are under different selection pressure in Japanese and European populations.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing has been conducted in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) using multi-gene panels, but no centralized guidelines for genetic testing exist. To overcome this limitation, we investigated the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pathogenic variants. METHODS: We sequenced eight genes associated with hereditary PCa in 7,636 unselected Japanese patients with PCa and 12,366 male, cancer-free controls. We assigned clinical significance for all 1,456 variants using the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines and ClinVar. We compared the frequency of carriers bearing pathogenic variants between cases and controls to calculated PCa risk in each gene and documented the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients bearing pathogenic variants. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 136 pathogenic variants, and 2.9% of patients and 0.8% of controls had a pathogenic variant. Association with PCa risk was statistically significant for variants in BRCA2 (P < 0.001, OR = 5.65, 95% CI = 3.55-9.32), HOXB13 (P < 0.001, OR = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.84-8.19), and ATM (P < 0.001, OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.63-5.15). We detected recurrent new pathogenic variants such as p.Gly132Glu of HOXB13. Patients with pathogenic variants were 2.0 years younger at diagnosis, more often had smoking and alcohol drinking histories, and family histories of breast, pancreatic, lung, and liver cancers. CONCLUSION: This largest sequencing study of PCa heredity provides additional evidence to the latest consensus among clinicians for developing genetic testing guidelines for PCa.

6.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 58: 186-189, 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060020

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy is difficult to administer in patients with poor performance status (PS), advanced metastatic lesion, and unresectable colon cancer. We report herein our experience of a patient who showed complete response to chemotherapy and marked PS improvement. The patient presented with the following adverse factors poor PS, advanced progression of metastatic lesions, advanced unresectable colorectal cancer with severe stricture, and old age. PRESENTATION OF CASE: The patient was an 80-year-old male diagnosed with occlusive cancer of the descending colon with multiple metastases in the liver, Stage Ⅳb (National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines version 2. 2018). A 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) + panitumumab (Pmab) regimen was successfully administered and led to decreased tumor marker levels; oral intake also became possible. Additional examinations showed that the primary lesion and distant metastatic lesions had almost disappeared; the patient had achieved a near complete response (CR). Currently, 35 cycles of mFOLFOX6+Pmab have been administered, and his near CR has been maintained for 32 months. DISCUSSION: Best supportive care (BSC) is the recommended option for elderly patients with advanced unresectable colon cancer. This is the first case in which an elderly patient with poor PS and advanced unresectable colorectal cancer was treated with combination chemotherapy of mFOLFOX6 + Pmab. CONCLUSION: Although the use of chemotherapy for elderly with advanced unresectable colorectal cancer or those with poor PS is limited, this case shows that systemic chemotherapy is now an option for such cases previously managed with BSC.

7.
Cancer Sci ; 110(7): 2284-2295, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069869

RESUMO

Cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that functions as a tumor suppressor of lung tumors. We herein demonstrated that CADM1 interacts with Hippo pathway core kinases and enhances the phosphorylation of YAP1, and also that the membranous co-expression of CADM1 and LATS2 predicts a favorable prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma. CADM1 significantly repressed the saturation density elevated by YAP1 overexpression in NIH3T3 cells. CADM1 significantly promoted YAP1 phosphorylation on Ser 127 and downregulated YAP1 target gene expression at confluency in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Moreover, CADM1 was co-precipitated with multiple Hippo pathway components, including the core kinases MST1/2 and LATS1/2, suggesting the involvement of CADM1 in the regulation of the Hippo pathway through cell-cell contact. An immunohistochemical analysis of primary lung adenocarcinomas (n = 145) revealed that the histologically low-grade subtype frequently showed the membranous co-expression of CADM1 (20/22, 91% of low-grade; 61/91, 67% of intermediate grade; and 13/32, 41% of high-grade subtypes; P < 0.0001) and LATS2 (22/22, 100% of low-grade; 44/91, 48% of intermediate-grade; and 1/32, 3% of high-grade subtypes; P < 0.0001). A subset analysis of disease-free survival revealed that the membranous co-expression of CADM1 and LATS2 was a favorable prognosis factor (5-year disease-free survival rate: 83.8%), even with nuclear YAP1-positive expression (5-year disease-free survival rate: 83.7%), whereas nuclear YAP1-positive cases with the negative expression of CADM1 and LATS2 had a poorer prognosis (5-year disease-free survival rate: 33.3%). These results indicate that the relationship between CADM1 and Hippo pathway core kinases at the cell membrane is important for suppressing the oncogenic role of YAP1.


Assuntos
Molécula 1 de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células NIH 3T3 , Gradação de Tumores , Fosforilação , Prognóstico , Análise Serial de Tecidos
8.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(5): 855-864, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A family history of urolithiasis is associated with a more than doubling of urolithiasis risk, and a twin study estimating 56% heritability of the condition suggests a pivotal role for host genetic factors. However, previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified only six risk-related loci. METHODS: To identify novel urolithiasis-related loci in the Japanese population, we performed a large-scale GWAS of 11,130 cases and 187,639 controls, followed by a replication analysis of 2289 cases and 3817 controls. Diagnosis of urolithiasis was confirmed either by a clinician or using medical records or self-report. We also assessed the association of urolithiasis loci with 16 quantitative traits, including metabolic, kidney-related, and electrolyte traits (such as body mass index, lipid storage, eGFR, serum uric acid, and serum calcium), using up to 160,000 samples from BioBank Japan. RESULTS: The analysis identified 14 significant loci, including nine novel loci. Ten regions showed a significant association with at least one quantitative trait, including metabolic, kidney-related, and electrolyte traits, suggesting a common genetic basis for urolithiasis and these quantitative traits. Four novel loci were related to metabolic traits, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, or hyperuricemia. The remaining ten loci were associated with kidney- or electrolyte-related traits; these may affect crystallization. Weighted genetic risk score analysis indicated that the highest risk group (top 20%) showed an odds ratio of 1.71 (95% confidence interval, 1.42 to 2.06) - 2.13 (95% confidence interval, 2.00 to 2.27) compared with the reference group (bottom 20%). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that host genetic factors related to regulation of metabolic and crystallization pathways contribute to the development of urolithiasis.

9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 511(3): 544-550, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824185

RESUMO

Gefitinib, one of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is effective for treating lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutation; but later, most cases acquire a resistance to gefitinib. One of the mechanisms conferring gefitinib resistance to lung adenocarcinoma is the amplification of the MET gene, which is observed in 5-22% of gefitinib-resistant tumors. A previous study suggested that MET amplification could cause gefitinib resistance by driving ErbB3-dependent activation of the PI3K pathway. In this study, we built a mathematical model of gefitinib resistance caused by MET amplification using lung adenocarcinoma HCC827-GR (gefitinib resistant) cells. The molecular reactions involved in gefitinib resistance consisted of dimerization and phosphorylation of three molecules, EGFR, ErbB3, and MET were described by a series of ordinary differential equations. To perform a computer simulation, we quantified each molecule on the cell surface using flow cytometry and estimated unknown parameters by dimensional analysis. Our simulation showed that the number of active ErbB3 molecules is around a hundred-fold smaller than that of active MET molecules. Limited contribution of ErbB3 in gefitinib resistance by MET amplification is also demonstrated using HCC827-GR cells in culture experiments. Our mathematical model provides a quantitative understanding of the molecular reactions underlying drug resistance.

10.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 379-386, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718926

RESUMO

To understand the genetics of type 2 diabetes in people of Japanese ancestry, we conducted A meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS; 36,614 cases and 155,150 controls of Japanese ancestry). We identified 88 type 2 diabetes-associated loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8) with 115 independent signals (P < 5.0 × 10-6), of which 28 loci with 30 signals were novel. Twenty-eight missense variants were in linkage disequilibrium (r2 > 0.6) with the lead variants. Among the 28 missense variants, three previously unreported variants had distinct minor allele frequency (MAF) spectra between people of Japanese and European ancestry (MAFJPN > 0.05 versus MAFEUR < 0.01), including missense variants in genes related to pancreatic acinar cells (GP2) and insulin secretion (GLP1R). Transethnic comparisons of the molecular pathways identified from the GWAS results highlight both ethnically shared and heterogeneous effects of a series of pathways on type 2 diabetes (for example, monogenic diabetes and beta cells).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209096, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557369

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified greater than 30 variants associated with ovarian cancer, but most of these variants were investigated in European populations. Here, we integrated GWAS and subsequent functional analyses to identify the genetic variants with potential regulatory effects. We conducted GWAS for ovarian cancer using 681 Japanese cases and 17,492 controls and found that rs137672 on 22q13.1 exhibited a strong association with a P-value of 1.05 × 10(-7) and an odds ratio of 0.573 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.466-0.703. In addition, three previously reported SNPs, i.e., rs10088218, rs9870207 and rs1400482, were validated in the Japanese population (P < 0.05) with the same risk allele as noted in previous studies. Functional studies including regulatory feature analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed two regulatory SNPs in 22q13.1, rs2072872 and rs6509, that affect the binding affinity to some nuclear proteins in ovarian cancer cells. The plausible regulatory proteins whose motifs could be affected by the allele changes of these two SNPs were also proposed. Moreover, the protective G allele of rs6509 was associated with a decreased SYNGR1 expression level in normal ovarian tissues. Our findings elucidated the regulatory variants in 22q13.1 that are associated with ovarian cancer risk.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Cancer Sci ; 109(12): 4015-4024, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281874

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality in Japan and worldwide. Although previous studies identify various genetic variations associated with gastric cancer, host genetic factors are largely unidentified. To identify novel gastric cancer loci in the Japanese population, herein, we carried out a large-scale genome-wide association study using 6171 cases and 27 178 controls followed by three replication analyses. Analysis using a total of 11 507 cases and 38 904 controls identified two novel loci on 12q24.11-12 (rs6490061, P = 3.20 × 10-8 with an odds ratio [OR] of 0.905) and 20q11.21 (rs2376549, P = 8.11 × 10-10 with an OR of 1.109). rs6490061 is located at intron 19 of the CUX2 gene, and its expression was suppressed by Helicobacter pylori infection. rs2376549 is included within the gene cluster of DEFB families that encode antibacterial peptides. We also found a significant association of rs7849280 in the ABO gene locus on 9q34.2 (P = 2.64 × 10-13 with an OR of 1.148). CUX2 and ABO expression in gastric mucosal tissues was significantly associated with rs6490061 and rs7849280 (P = 0.0153 and 8.00 × 10-11 ), respectively. Our findings show the crucial roles of genetic variations in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.

13.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 6: 86, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131958

RESUMO

The cell adhesion molecule (CADM) family of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) comprises four members, CADM1-CADM4, and participates in the formation of epithelial and synaptic adhesion through cell-cell homophilic and heterophilic interactions. To identify the partners that interact with each member of the CADM family proteins, we set up a platform for multiple detection of the extracellular protein-protein interactions using surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) and analyzed the interactions between the CADM family proteins and 10 IgSF of their structurally related cell adhesion molecules. SPRi analysis identified a new interaction between CADM1 and CADM4, where this heterophilic interaction was shown to be involved in morphological spreading of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells expressing CADM1 when incubated on CADM4-coated glass. Moreover, class-I MHC-restricted T-cell-associated molecule (CRTAM) was identified to show the highest affinity to CADM1 among its binding partners by comparing the dissociation constants calculated from the SPR sensorgrams. These results suggest that the SPRi platform would provide a novel screening tool to characterize extracellular protein-protein interactions among cell-surface and secreted proteins, including IgSF molecules.

14.
Clin Chem ; 64(10): 1463-1473, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although circulating exosomes in blood play crucial roles in cancer development and progression, difficulties in quantifying exosomes hamper their application for reliable clinical testing. By combining the properties of nanobeads with optical disc technology, we have developed a novel device named the ExoCounter to determine the exact number of exosomes in the sera of patients with various types of cancer. METHOD: In this system, individual exosomes were captured in the groove of an optical disc coated with antibodies against exosome surface antigens. The captured exosomes were labeled with antibody-conjugated magnetic nanobeads, and the number of the labeled exosomes was counted with an optical disc drive. RESULTS: We showed that the ExoCounter could detect specific exosomes derived from cells or human serum without any enrichment procedures. The detection sensitivity and linearity with this system were higher than those with conventional detection methods such as ELISA or flow cytometry. In addition to the ubiquitous exosome markers CD9 and CD63, the cancer-related antigens CD147, carcinoembryonic antigen, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) were also used to quantify cancer cell line-derived exosomes. Furthermore, analyses of a cross-sectional cohort of sera samples revealed that HER2-positive exosomes were significantly increased in patients with breast cancer or ovarian cancer compared with healthy individuals and those with noncancer diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The ExoCounter system exhibits high performance in the direct detection of exosomes in cell culture and human sera. This method may enable reliable analysis of liquid biopsies.

15.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 6: 52, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892598

RESUMO

Pulmonary emphysema usually arises in cigarette smokers, and often progresses after smoking cessation and even in ex-smokers. Lung-epithelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), an immunoglobulin superfamily member, is extracellularly shed to produce a proapoptotic C-terminal fragment (CTF) within the cell and contribute to the development of emphysema. Here, we made an ex-smoker model using C57BL/6 mice; mice (6-week-old; 5 mice per group) were exposed to passive smoke of eight cigarettes twice a day 5 days a week until 18 weeks of age, and were then left untreated until 30 weeks of age. We calculated the mean linear intercept (Lm) and the alveolar septal thickness in the lung histologic sections to estimate the alveolar space dilatation. At 18 weeks of age, Lm was marginally enlarged (P = 0.023) with a marked increase in the septal thickness (P < 0.001) in comparison with age-matched control mice (5 mice per group), while at 30 weeks, the increase in Lm was much more prominent (P = 0.006) and the septal thickness was normalized, suggesting that emphysema progressed with septal remodeling during smoking cessation. Western blot analyses of the lungs were performed for CADM1, a possible CADM1 sheddase ADAM10, an epithelial marker pan-cytokeratin, and a myofibroblastic marker α-smooth muscle actin to estimate the expression levels of CTF and ADAM10 per epithelial cell and the levels of pan-cytokeratin and αSMA per tissue. CADM1 shedding was increased in the treated mice than in control mice at both ages, in association with an increase in the CTF level at 30 weeks (P = 0.021). In total of the treated and control mice of 30 weeks of age, Lm was positively correlated with the CTF and ADAM10 levels, and pan-cytokeratin was negatively correlated with CTF, suggesting an involvement of CADM1 shedding in emphysema progression. Positive correlations were also found between CTF and ADAM10, and between ADAM10 and αSMA, suggesting that increased septal myofibroblasts might be involved in increased CADM1 shedding. Taken together, persisting increase in ectodomain shedding of CADM1 appeared to contribute to the progression of emphysema in ex-smokers, and might be accounted for by alveolar septal remodeling.

16.
Oncol Lett ; 15(2): 2401-2406, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29434950

RESUMO

Cell adhesion molecule (CADM) genes encode immunoglobulin superfamily molecules, which are involved in cell-cell adhesion in a number of human epithelia. Through the maintenance of epithelia, CADM genes protect against malignant conversion and metastasis. Whilst numerous in vitro studies have investigated the molecular characteristics of CADM1 and CADM4 and in vivo studies have investigated CADM1 and CADM4 expression in a number of tumor types, the roles of CADM1 and CADM4 have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, CADM1 and CADM4 expression levels were evaluated using immunohistochemistry staining in 208 patients with breast cancer and compared with clinicopathological factors. CADM1 and CADM4 expression levels were negative in 160 (76.9%) and 166 (79.8%) of the 208 cases, respectively. The lack of expression in these cases was associated with advanced tumor stage, suggesting that inactivation of CADM1 and CADM4 promotes breast cancer development. The prognostic role of CADM1 and CADM4 in breast cancer was also evaluated and the expression of CADM1 and CADM4 were not associated with cancer-specific survival or overall survival rate in the cohort of patients in the present study. Whilst these results suggested that CADM1 and CADM4 possess tumor suppressive roles, further functional experiments are required to address the important mechanisms involving CADM1 and CADM4.

17.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(5): 652-660, 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471430

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified more than 50 CRC loci. However, most of the previous studies were conducted in European population, and host genetic factors among Japanese population are largely remained to be identified. To identify novel loci in the Japanese population, here, we performed a large-scale GWAS using 6692 cases and 27 178 controls followed by a replication analysis using more than 11 000 case-control samples. We found the significant association of 10 loci (P < 5 × 10-8), including 2 novel loci on 16q24.1 (IRF8-FOXF1, rs847208, P = 3.15 × 10-9 and odds ratio = 1.107 with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.071-1.145) and 20q13.12 (TOX2, rs6065668, P = 4.47 × 10-11 and odds ratio = 0.897 with 95% CI of 0.868-0.926). Moreover, 35 previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 24 regions were validated in the Japanese population (P < 0.05) with the same risk allele as in the previous studies. SNP rs6065668 was significantly associated with TOX2 expression in the sigmoid colon. In addition, nucleotide substitutions in the regulatory region of TOX2 were predicted to alter the binding of several transcription factors, including KLF5. Our findings elucidate the important role of genetic variations in the development of CRC in the Japanese population.

18.
Int J Oncol ; 52(1): 155-165, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29115586

RESUMO

Oral cancer has a high mortality rate, and its incidence is increasing gradually worldwide. As the effectiveness of standard treatments is still limited, the development of new therapeutic strategies is eagerly awaited. Kinesin family member 11 (KIF11) is a motor protein required for establishing a bipolar spindle in cell division. The role of KIF11 in oral cancer is unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the role of KIF11 in oral cancer and evaluate its role as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for treating oral cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that KIF11 was expressed in 64 of 99 (64.6%) oral cancer tissues but not in healthy oral epithelia. Strong KIF11 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis among oral cancer patients (P=0.034), and multivariate analysis confirmed its independent prognostic value. In addition, inhibition of KIF11 expression by transfection of siRNAs into oral cancer cells or treatment of cells with a KIF11 inhibitor significantly suppressed cell proliferation, probably through G2/M arrest and subsequent induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that KIF11 could be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for oral cancer.


Assuntos
Cinesina/biossíntese , Neoplasias Bucais/enzimologia , Idoso , Apoptose/fisiologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Processos de Crescimento Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromonas/farmacologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Queratinócitos/enzimologia , Cinesina/antagonistas & inibidores , Cinesina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Prognóstico , Análise Serial de Tecidos
19.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0181342, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786996

RESUMO

Decreased cell-substratum adhesion is crucially involved in metastasis. Previous studies demonstrated that lung cancer with floating cell clusters in histology is more likely to develop metastasis. In the present study, we investigated whether cancer cells in long-term, three-dimensional low attachment cultures acquire high metastatic potential; these cells were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying metastasis. Two KRAS-mutated adenocarcinoma cell lines (A549 and H441) were cultured and selected on ultra-low attachment culture dishes, and the resulting cells were defined as FL (for floating) sublines. Cancer cells were inoculated into NOD/SCID mice via an intracardiac injection, and metastasis was evaluated using luciferase-based imaging and histopathology. In vitro cell growth (in attachment or suspension cultures), migration, and invasion were assayed. A whole genomic analysis was performed to identify key molecular alterations in FL sublines. Upon detachment on low-binding dishes, parental cells initially formed rounded spheroids with limited growth activity. However, over time in cultures, cells gradually formed smaller spheroids that grew slowly, and, after 3-4 months, we obtained FL sublines that regained prominent growth potential in suspension cultures. On ordinary dishes, FL cells reattached and exhibited a more spindle-shaped morphology than parental cells. No marked differences were observed in cell growth with attachment, migration, or invasion between FL sublines and parental cell lines; however, FL cells exhibited markedly increased growth potential under suspended conditions in vitro and stronger metastatic abilities in vivo. A genomic analysis identified epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and c-Myc amplification in A549-FL and H441-FL cells, respectively, as candidate mechanisms for metastasis. The growth potential of FL cells was markedly inhibited by lentiviral ZEB1 knockdown in A549-FL cells and by the inhibition of c-Myc through lentiviral knockdown or the pharmacological inhibitor JQ1 in H441-FL cells. Long-term three-dimensional low attachment cultures may become a useful method for investigating the mechanisms underlying metastasis mediated by decreased cell-substratum adhesion.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/fisiopatologia , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Adesão Celular , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/instrumentação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/fisiologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Genes myc , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Neoplasias , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/genética , Homeobox 1 de Ligação a E-box em Dedo de Zinco/metabolismo
20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 490(3): 688-692, 2017 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28634075

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women in the world. Although breast cancer is well treatable at the early stage, patients with distant metastases show a poor prognosis. Data from recent studies using transplantation models indicate that Mint3/APBA3 might promote breast cancer malignancy. However, whether Mint3 indeed contributes to tumor development, progression, or metastasis in vivo remains unclear. To address this, here we examined whether Mint3 depletion affects tumor malignancy in MMTV-PyMT breast cancer model mice. In MMTV-PyMT mice, Mint3 depletion did not affect tumor onset and tumor growth, but attenuated lung metastases. Experimental lung metastasis of breast cancer Met-1 cells derived from MMTV-PyMT mice also decreased in Mint3-depleted mice, indicating that host Mint3 expression affected lung metastasis of MMTV-PyMT-derived breast cancer cells. Further bone marrow transplant experiments revealed that Mint3 in bone marrow-derived cells promoted lung metastasis in MMTV-PyMT mice. Thus, targeting Mint3 in bone marrow-derived cells might be a good strategy for preventing metastasis and improving the prognosis of breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Pulmão/patologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/análise , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Pulmão/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
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