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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Efficacy evaluation of giant cell arteritis (GCA) treatment is primarily based on non-specific symptoms and laboratory markers. We aimed to assess the change in vascular inflammation in patients with large vessel (LV)-GCA under different treatments using [18F]FDG PET/CT. METHODS: Observational study on patients with new-onset, active LV-GCA starting treatment with either prednisolone monotherapy (PRED) or combination with methotrexate (MTX) or tocilizumab (TOC). All patients underwent baseline and follow-up PET/CT. The aorta and its major branches were assessed using PET vascular activity score (PETVAS) by independent readers. Cumulative glucocorticoid doses and cessation of glucocorticoid treatment were documented in all patients. RESULTS: We included 88 LV-GCA patients, 27 were treated with PRED, 42 with MTX, and 19 with TOC. PETVAS decreased from 18.9-8.0 units at follow-up in the overall population (p< 0.001). PETVAS changes were numerically higher in patients receiving MTX (-12.3 units) or TOC (-11.7 units) compared with PRED (-8.7). Mean cumulative prednisolone dosages were 5637, 4418, and 2984 mg in patients treated with PRED, MTX, and TOC (p= 0.002). Risk ratios for glucocorticoid discontinuation at the time of follow-up PET/CT were 6.77 (95%CI 1.01-45.29; p= 0.049) and 16.25 (95%CI 2.60-101.73; p= 0.003) for MTX and TOC users compared with PRED users. CONCLUSION: Treatment of LV-GCA inhibits vascular inflammation in the aorta and its major branches. While similar control of vascular inflammation was achieved with PRED, MTX, and TOC treatments, TOC showed a strong glucocorticoid sparing effect, supporting the concept of initial combination therapy.

2.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Biologic drugs (bDMARD), especially TNF-α-inhibitors (TNFi), are used in refractory Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) patients. Up to 23% of patients are switched to a different bDMARD because of inefficacy. No data are available on which strategy is more efficient after TNFi failure. The aim of our study is to evaluate whether a switch or swap strategy should be preferred in TAK patients failing TNFis. METHODS: TAK patients treated with a second bDMARD after the failure of the first TNFi were identified from 3 referral centres. Patients were classified as switch if treated with a different TNFi, and swap if treated with a non-TNFi bDMARD. Baseline features were evaluated. Efficacy and safety of the second bDMARD at 6 and 12 months were assessed and a comparison between switch and swap patients was made. RESULTS: Twenty-four TAK patients were identified. Eleven patients (46%) were switched and 13 patients (54%) were swapped (12 to tocilizumab, 1 to ustekinumab). Baseline features of patients in the 2 groups were comparable. At 12 months, the second bDMARD was suspended in 4 switch (36%) and in 5 swap (42%) patients. Second biologic drug survival and relapse-free survival were equivalent between the two groups at 6 and 12 months. A vascular worsening was observed in 4 switch (40%) and 2 swap (25%) patients. Severe infections, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or cancer were recorded in no patient. CONCLUSIONS: Our retrospective study suggests that in first-line TNFi failure TAK patients both switch and swap strategies can be considered suitable approaches.

5.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38(6): 1215-1222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of clinical improvement and intubation/death in tocilizumab-treated severe COVID19, focusing on IL6 and CRP longitudinal monitoring. METHODS: 173 consecutive patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia receiving tocilizumab in Reggio Emilia province Hospitals between 11 March and 3 June 2020 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Clinical improvement was defined as status improvement on a six-category ordinal scale or discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. A composite outcome of intubation/death was also evaluated. CRP and IL-6 levels were determined before TCZ administration (T0) and after 3 (T3), and 7 (T7) days. RESULTS: At multivariate analysis T0 and T3 CRP levels were negatively associated with clinical improvement (OR 0.13, CI 0.03-0.55 and OR 0.11, CI 0.0-0.46) (p=0.006 and p=0.003) and positively associated with intubation/death (OR 17.66, CI 2.47-126.14 and OR 5.34, CI: 1.49-19.12) (p=0.01 and p=0.004). No significant associations with IL-6 values were observed. General linear model analyses for repeated measures showed significantly different trends for CRP from day 3 to day 7 between patients who improved and those who did not, and between patients who were intubated or died and those who were not (p<0.0001 for both). ROC analysis identified a baseline CRP level of 15.8 mg/dl as the best cut-off to predict intubation/death (AUC = 0.711, sensitivity = 0.67, specificity = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: CRP serial measurements in the first week of TCZ therapy are useful in identifying patients developing poor outcomes.

6.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-9, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report long term results of biologic treatment of severe and refractory Behçet's uveitis (BU) choosing a different biologic agent according to the uveitis clinical features. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of patients with BU refractory to conventional therapy, who received Interferon (IFN) alpha-2a or Infliximab (IFX) for at least 3 months. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were included (mean age 29 ± 10 years, 63% males); Fifteen received IFN and 7 IFX, for a mean treatment period of 30 ± 24(SD) months. Twenty (90%) patients discontinued treatment, in most cases for complete remission (77%). Seven patients (32%) showed relapses during treatment and five (23%) after discontinuation. Visual acuity improved significantly in IFN group and all eyes showed a significant decrease in central macular thickness at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Both IFX and IFN Alpha-2a were effective and well tolerated in the treatment of refractory BU using a customized approach based on the uveitis features.

7.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(5): 923-929, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare temporal artery biopsy (TAB)-positive giant cell arteritis (GCA) to TAB-negative GCA and patients with GCA mimics METHODS: PATIENTS DIAGNOSED WITH TAB-POSITIVE AND TAB-NEGATIVE GCA BETWEEN 1/1/1998 AND 12/31/2013 WERE: retrospectively identified. These two groups were compared to a cohort of patients with TAB performed between 1/1/2009 and 12/31/2010 in which the TAB was negative and alternative diagnosis was provided after a minimum of 6-months of follow-up. Baseline characteristics were compared between groups using chi-square and rank sum tests. RESULTS: 591 study subjects were identified (286 TAB-positive, 110 TAB-negative GCA and 195 TAB-negative GCA mimics) during the respective study periods. Compared to TAB-negative GCA, GCA mimics had similar rates of headache and vision loss but significantly less frequent jaw/limb claudication, arterial bruits and constitutional symptoms, as well as lower platelet levels. Compared to TAB-positive GCA patients, TAB-negative GCA were younger, had shorter time to diagnosis, met fewer 1990 ACR classification criteria and had lower frequencies of polymyalgia rheumatica, jaw claudication and temporal artery abnormalities; but, higher frequency of arm claudication and constitutional symptoms. Among 61 TAB-negative patients with advanced arterial imaging, 43 (69%) had at least one abnormality consistent with GCA. CONCLUSION: Consideration of alternative diagnoses is requisite in evaluating patients with negative TAB. Advanced imaging assists in identifying occult large-vessel vasculitis and should be employed in all TAB-negative patients with suspicion for GCA.

8.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(5): 1064-1072, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics and significance of inflammation restricted (RI) to the adventitial and/or periadventitial tissue on temporal artery biopsy (TAB). METHODS: We studied a retrospective cohort of 80 patients with RI, extending our earlier series of 39 patients. For comparison purposes, we collected the same data from 254 patients with transmural inflammation (TMI) and 81 TAB-negative patients. A review of the literature was also performed. RESULTS: A final diagnosis of giant cells arteritis (GCA) and/or polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) was observed in 86% of patients with RI. Compared to TMI, GCA diagnosis was significantly less frequently observed in patients with RI and in those TAB-negative (p < 0.0001), while cranial manifestations were significantly less frequent (p = 0.001) and ESR and CRP values at diagnosis significantly reduced (p < 0.0001). PMR, permanent visual loss, and large vessel involvement at diagnosis were equally present in the 3 subgroups. The median duration of prednisone therapy, the cumulative prednisone dosages, and the relapse and long-term remission rates were similar between patients with GCA-RI and those with TMI. The positive likelihood ratios (LRs) of pathological evidence of RI at TAB for GCA or GCA/PMR diagnoses were 0.88 (CI, 0.61-1.27) and 1.15 (CI, 0.67-1.99), while that of inflammation limited to adventitia was 1.37 (CI, 0.59-3.19) and 3.77 (CI, 0.53-26.72). In the literature review, the positive LR of RI for GCA diagnosis was 0.92 (CI, 0.68-1.25). CONCLUSION: A large part of the patients with RI have GCA/PMR, however, the diagnostic value of RI for GCA diagnosis is not relevant.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between specimen length and number of sections evaluated and the diagnostic yield of TAB for GCA. METHODS: A pathologist reviewed all TABs performed for suspected GCA between January 1991 and December 2012. The blocks of all the inadequate and negative biopsies were recut, and further slides at deeper levels were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, in order to avoid missing inflammatory changes. RESULTS: 662 TABs were included (71% female; mean age, 73.2 years). 427 (65%) TABs were classified as negative and 235 (35%) as positive for GCA. Compared with negative TAB, patients with positive TAB were older and more frequently female. There was no difference in post-fixation TAB length between TABs negative and positive for GCA (mean 6.5 vs 6.9 mm, p=0.068). Cuts of additional biopsy sections revealed inflammation at deeper levels in 26/408 (6.4%) TABs originally reported as uninflamed. The inflamed section was the second in 14 TABs, the third in 9 and the forth in 3. Piecewise logistic regression identified 5 mm as the TAB length change point for diagnostic sensitivity. Compared with TAB length of <5 mm, age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio for positive TAB in samples ≥5 mm long was 1.5 (95% CI 1.0-2.0), p=0.032. CONCLUSION: A post-fixation TAB length of at least 5 mm should be sufficient to make a histological diagnosis of GCA. In order not to miss inflammatory changes, at least 3 further sections at deeper levels should be evaluated in all negative TABs.

10.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with autoimmune conditions treated with antimalarials in a population-based study. METHODS: All residents treated with chloroquine (CQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) from July through December 2019 and living in 3 provinces of Regione Emilia-Romagna were identified by drug prescription registries and matched with the registry containing all residents living in the same areas who have had swabs and tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 4,408 patients were identified. The prevalence of patients receiving antimalarials was 0.85 per 1,000 men and 3.3 per 1,000 women. The cumulative incidence of testing during the study period was 2.7% in the general population and 3.8% among those receiving CQ or HCQ, while the cumulative incidence of testing positive was 0.55% in the general population and 0.70% among those receiving CQ/HCQ. Multivariate models showed that those receiving CQ/HCQ had a slightly higher probability of being tested compared to the general population (OR 1.09 [95% CI 0.94-1.28]), the same probability of being diagnosed as having COVID-19 (OR 0.94 [95% CI 0.66-1.34]), and a slightly lower probability of being positive once tested (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.56-1.23]). None of the differences were significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support the use of antimalarials as a prophylactic treatment of COVID-19.

12.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(4): 549-558, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate characteristics and predictors of relapses and long-term remission in an Italian cohort of patients with large-vessel (LV) giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS: We evaluated 87 consecutive patients with LV-GCA followed up at the Rheumatology Unit of Reggio Emilia Hospital (Italy) for at least 2 years. Patients with relapses and long-term remission were compared to those without. A group of 34 patients with biopsy proven GCA without LV vasculitis (LVV) at diagnosis was considered for comparison. PATIENTS: 37 patients (42.5%) experienced one or more relapses. Nineteen (37.2%) of the 51 relapses were experienced during the first year after diagnosis. The majority of relapses occurred with doses of prednisone (PDN) ≤ 10 mg/day (74.5%). Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) (41.2%) and worsening at imaging of LVV (39.2%) were the most frequently observed relapsing manifestations. The total cumulative prednisone dose was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) and the total duration of PDN treatment longer (p < 0.0001) in relapsing patients compared to those without relapses. Relapsing patients had at diagnosis more frequently fever ≥ 38°C (p = 0.03) and visual manifestations (p = 0.03), and less frequently long-term remission (p = 0.002). In the multivariate model fever ≥ 38°C (HR 2.30, 95%CI:1.11-4.78) and total cumulative PDN dose (HR 1.18, 95%CI: 1.08-1.30) were significantly associated with an increased risk of relapses, while aortic arch involvement at imaging at diagnosis (HR 0.26, 95%CI: 0.11-0.59) and long-term remission (HR 0.27, 95%CI: 0.11-0.65) with a reduced risk. 35/84 patients (41.6%) experienced long-term remission. PMR and disease relapses were less frequently observed (p = 0.04 and p = 0.002, respectively), and the total cumulative prednisone dose was lower (p < 0.001) in patients with long-term remission compared to those without. In the multivariate model the presence of relapses (HR 0.21, 95%CI: 0.07-0.62) and the total cumulative PDN dose (HR 0.85, 95%CI: 0.77-0.95) were significantly negatively associated with long-term remission. CONCLUSION: In our cohort of patients with LV GCA we identified predictors of a relapsing course and long-term remission, which were observed in around half of the patients.

13.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(7): 986-988, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467245
14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 358, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210963

RESUMO

Non-infectious uveitis are intraocular inflammatory conditions caused by dysregulated activation of the immune response without any detectable infectious agents. The aim of this study was to explore potential markers and therapeutic targets for two distinct types of non-infectious uveitis associated with Behçet's disease (BD) and Vogt Koyanagi Harada (VKH) disease. Concentrations of 27 cytokines were investigated in aqueous humor (AH) samples from patients with active uveitis vs. healthy controls (HC) (n = 10 patients with BD-associated uveitis; n = 10 patients with VKH-associated uveitis; n = 10 HC) using the Bio-Plex ProTM human cytokine group I panel. Additionally, leukocytes in AH samples were counted with hemocytometers and characterized by flow cytometry. Eleven cytokines were differentially expressed between patients with uveitis and HC with a median concentration greater than 10 pg/ml. IL-6, IP-10, G-CSF, and IFNγ showed higher concentrations in AH samples from both BD and VKH patients while IL-2, IL-8, IL-13, TNFα, eotaxin, IL-1ra showed statistically significant higher concentrations only in AH samples from BD patients. GM-CSF was the sole cytokine with an opposite profile showing decreased levels in AH samples from BD patients. IL-1ra and IL-6 were detected at higher frequencies in AH samples from BD and VKH patients compared with those from HC while IFNγ and TNFα were not detected in HC. The concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, G-CSF, IFNγ, TNFα, eotaxin, IL-1ra positively correlated with the concentrations of leukocytes in AH, suggesting that such cytokines can be produced by immune cells and/or attract and/or promote proliferation and survival of immune cells in these types of uveitis. The correlation matrix of cytokine concentrations in AH samples revealed that IFNγ, TNFα, eotaxin, IL-6, G-CSF highly correlated each other. The ratios of cytokine concentrations between AH and plasma intra-individuals showed that IL-2, IL-6, IP-10, GM-CSF were increased intraocularly. In conclusion, AH sampling followed by multiplex analysis of cytokines should be fostered in non-infectious uveitis to identify cytokines dysregulated intraocularly in each individual laying the groundwork for precision medicine.

15.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 124(2): 79-83, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of two population-based cohorts of patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis (GCA) from Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA (Olmsted cohort) and the Reggio Emilia area, Northern Italy (Reggio cohort). METHODS: All patients residing in Olmsted County and the Reggio Emilia area with a new diagnosis of biopsy-proven GCA in 1986-2007 were retrospectively identified. Patients were followed from GCA diagnosis to death, migration or September 2011. RESULTS: The study included 110 patients in the Olmsted and 144 in the Reggio cohort. Compared with the Olmsted cohort, patients from the Reggio cohort had longer duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis (median 1.4 months vs. 0.7, p<0.001) and were younger (mean 74.6 years vs. 77.8, p=0.002), more likely to have cranial symptoms (93% vs. 86%, p=0.048), permanent vision loss (21% vs. 6%, p=0.001) and systemic symptoms (67% vs. 46%, p=0.001). ESR and CRP were higher (mean 88 mm/h vs. 73, and 89.0 mg/L vs. 35.2, both p<0.001) in the Reggio cohort. Patients from the Olmsted cohort received a higher initial prednisone dose (mean 53.6 mg/day vs. 49.5, p=0.001). There were no differences in relapse rates, cumulative glucocorticoid (GC) dosages at 1, 2 and 5 years, and time to first GC discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Geographical, genetic and/or environmental factors may contribute to the different clinical features at onset of GCA observed in this study.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico , Arterite de Células Gigantes/fisiopatologia , Biópsia , Humanos , Itália , Minnesota , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Methods Protoc ; 3(1)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023996

RESUMO

Slow waves (SWs) are spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activity that occur both during natural sleep and anesthesia and are preserved across species. Even though electrophysiological recordings have been largely used to characterize brain states, they are limited in the spatial resolution and cannot target specific neuronal population. Recently, large-scale optical imaging techniques coupled with functional indicators overcame these restrictions, and new pipelines of analysis and novel approaches of SWs modelling are needed to extract relevant features of the spatio-temporal dynamics of SWs from these highly spatially resolved data-sets. Here we combined wide-field fluorescence microscopy and a transgenic mouse model expressing a calcium indicator (GCaMP6f) in excitatory neurons to study SW propagation over the meso-scale under ketamine anesthesia. We developed a versatile analysis pipeline to identify and quantify the spatio-temporal propagation of the SWs. Moreover, we designed a computational simulator based on a simple theoretical model, which takes into account the statistics of neuronal activity, the response of fluorescence proteins and the slow waves dynamics. The simulator was capable of synthesizing artificial signals that could reliably reproduce several features of the SWs observed in vivo, thus enabling a calibration tool for the analysis pipeline. Comparison of experimental and simulated data shows the robustness of the analysis tools and its potential to uncover mechanistic insights of the Slow Wave Activity (SWA).

18.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 124(2): 23-30, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate serum levels of a panel of angiogenic inducers (VEGF, FGF-2, Angiopoietin 1, -2, soluble VCAM-1) and inhibitors (angiostatin, endostatin, pentraxin-3) in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu's arteritis (TAK), in order to gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms driving angiogenesis dysregulation in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV). METHODS: Sera were obtained from 33 TAK patients and 14 GCA patients and from two groups of age-matched normal controls (NC). Disease activity was assessed using 18F-FDG PET/CT and clinical indices including NIH/Kerr criteria and ITAS. Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factor serum levels were evaluated using commercial ELISA kits. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) serum levels were evaluated by non-commercial ELISA, as already described. RESULTS: Among the angiogenic factors, only VEGF serum levels were significantly higher in TAK patients compared to NC. No difference was found between angiogenic factor levels in GCA patients compared to those detected in NC. Anti-angiogenic factor (Angiostatin, Endostatin, PTX3) serum levels were significantly higher in both GCA and TAK patients compared to NC. Significant associations were observed between VEGF and PTX3 levels and disease activity evaluated using PET scan and clinical indices. Cluster analysis based on PET scan scores in TAK patients showed significant ordered differences in VEGF and angiostatin serum levels. Indeed, we noted a progressive increase of VEGF and angiostatin from NC to the cluster including patients with the highest and more diffuse scan positivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our overall results demonstrate a circulating molecular profile characterised by a prevailing expression of anti-angiogenic soluble factors.


Assuntos
Proteínas Angiogênicas/sangue , Proteínas Angiostáticas/sangue , Arterite de Células Gigantes/sangue , Arterite de Takayasu/sangue , Angiopoietina-1 , Angiopoietina-2 , Angiostatinas , Proteína C-Reativa , Endostatinas , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Humanos , Neovascularização Patológica/sangue , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Componente Amiloide P Sérico , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
19.
Lung ; 197(3): 387-390, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941506

RESUMO

We report a rare case of a IgG4-related disease presenting with recurrent pleural effusion, pleural thickness and multiple mediastinal lymphadenopathies and no involvement of other extrathoracic organs. A 65-year-old man with a previous asbestos exposure presented with cough and pain discomfort. A large right pleural effusion was detected and evacuated (siero-haematic liquid). With the suspicious of a pleural mesothelioma, a CT-scan before and a 18F-FDG PET/CT-scan later were performed revealing multiple pleural thickenings and multiple mediastinal lymphadenopathies with radiotracer uptake. EBUS-TBNA EBUS-TBNA did not result in a formal pathological diagnosis; thus, multiple pleural biopsy were performed via right thoracoscopy. At pathology the pleura was markedly thickened by a chronic fibroinflammatory process with scattered lymphoid follicles and a large number of mature plasma cells. Immunohistochemistry shows a mixed B (CD20+) and T (CD3+) population of lymphocytes, without light chain restriction and an increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells. A presumptive diagnosis of IgG4-related disease was formulated. Total body CT-scan excluded other organ involvement. Blood test showed elevated serum IgG4 concentrations (253 mg/dL) and mild elevation of acute-phase reactants (C-reactive protein 10.7 mg/L). Autoimmune profile was negative. A diagnosis of definite IgG4-related disease was made, and treatment with prednisone 50 mg/day was started.


Assuntos
Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Idoso , Broncoscopia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Endossonografia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/complicações , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/patologia , Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico , Linfadenopatia/etiologia , Linfadenopatia/patologia , Masculino , Doenças Pleurais/complicações , Doenças Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pleurais/patologia , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prednisona/uso terapêutico
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