*Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4140, 2022 Jul 16.*

##### RESUMO

Master equations are one of the main avenues to study open quantum systems. When the master equation is of the Lindblad-Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan form, its solution can be "unraveled in quantum trajectories" i.e., represented as an average over the realizations of a Markov process in the Hilbert space of the system. Quantum trajectories of this type are both an element of quantum measurement theory as well as a numerical tool for systems in large Hilbert spaces. We prove that general time-local and trace-preserving master equations also admit an unraveling in terms of a Markov process in the Hilbert space of the system. The crucial ingredient is to weigh averages by a probability pseudo-measure which we call the "influence martingale". The influence martingale satisfies a 1d stochastic differential equation enslaved to the ones governing the quantum trajectories. We thus extend the existing theory without increasing the computational complexity.

*Phys Rev E ; 94(2-1): 022123, 2016 Aug.*

##### RESUMO

We discuss the energy distribution of free-electron Fermi-gas, a problem with a textbook solution of Gaussian energy fluctuations in the limit of a large system. We find that for a small system, characterized solely by its heat capacity C, the distribution can be solved analytically, and it is both skewed and it vanishes at low energies, exhibiting a sharp drop to zero at the energy corresponding to the filled Fermi sea. The results are relevant from the experimental point of view, since the predicted non-Gaussian effects become pronounced when C/k_{B}â²10^{3} (k_{B} is the Boltzmann constant), a regime that can be easily achieved for instance in mesoscopic metallic conductors at sub-kelvin temperatures.

*Phys Rev E ; 94(6-1): 062127, 2016 Dec.*

##### RESUMO

Motivated by proposed thermometry measurement on an open quantum system, we present a simple model of an externally driven qubit interacting with a finite-sized fermion environment acting as a calorimeter. The derived dynamics is governed by a stochastic Schrödinger equation coupled to the temperature change of the calorimeter. We prove a fluctuation relation and deduce from it a notion of entropy production. Finally, we discuss the first and second law associated with the dynamics.

*Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 90(6): 060102, 2014 Dec.*

##### RESUMO

Information processing machines at the nanoscales are unavoidably affected by thermal fluctuations. Efficient design requires understanding how nanomachines can operate at minimal energy dissipation. Here we focus on mechanical systems controlled by smoothly varying potential forces. We show that optimal control equations come about in a natural way if the energy cost to manipulate the potential is taken into account. When such a cost becomes negligible, an optimal control strategy can be constructed by transparent geometrical methods which recover the solution of optimal mass transport equations in the overdamped limit. Our equations are equivalent to hierarchies of kinetic equations of a form well known in the theory of dilute gases. From our results, optimal strategies for energy efficient nanosystems may be devised by established techniques from kinetic theory.

*Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 86(1 Pt 2): 016315, 2012 Jul.*

##### RESUMO

We study the renormalization group flow of the average action of the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation with power-law forcing. Using Galilean invariance, we introduce a nonperturbative approximation adapted to the zero-frequency sector of the theory in the parametric range of the Hölder exponent 4-2Îµ of the forcing where real-space local interactions are relevant. In any spatial dimension d, we observe the convergence of the resulting renormalization group flow to a unique fixed point which yields a kinetic energy spectrum scaling in agreement with canonical dimension analysis. Kolmogorov's -5/3 law is, thus, recovered for Îµ = 2 as also predicted by perturbative renormalization. At variance with the perturbative prediction, the -5/3 law emerges in the presence of a saturation in the Îµ dependence of the scaling dimension of the eddy diffusivity at Îµ = 3/2 when, according to perturbative renormalization, the velocity field becomes infrared relevant.

##### Assuntos

Modelos Teóricos , Reologia/métodos , Processos Estocásticos , Simulação por Computador*Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 85(2 Pt 1): 020103, 2012 Feb.*

##### RESUMO

We study the problem of optimizing released heat or dissipated work in stochastic thermodynamics. In the overdamped limit these functionals have singular solutions, previously interpreted as protocol jumps. We show that a regularization, penalizing a properly defined acceleration, changes the jumps into boundary layers of finite width. We show that in the limit of vanishing boundary layer width no heat is dissipated in the boundary layer, while work can be done. We further give an alternative interpretation of the fact that the optimal protocols in the overdamped limit are given by optimal deterministic transport (Burgers equation).

##### Assuntos

Modelos Estatísticos , Processos Estocásticos , Termodinâmica , Simulação por Computador*Phys Rev Lett ; 107(17): 174502, 2011 Oct 21.*

##### RESUMO

We inquire about the properties of 2D Navier-Stokes turbulence simultaneously forced at small and large scales. The background motivation comes by observational results on atmospheric turbulence. We show that the velocity field is amenable to the sum of two auxiliary velocity fields forced at large and small scale and exhibiting a direct enstrophy and an inverse-energy cascade, respectively. Remarkably, the two auxiliary fields reconcile universal properties of fluxes with positive statistical correlation in the inertial range.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 106(25): 250601, 2011 Jun 24.*

##### RESUMO

Thermodynamics of small systems has become an important field of statistical physics. Such systems are driven out of equilibrium by a control, and the question is naturally posed how such a control can be optimized. We show that optimization problems in small system thermodynamics are solved by (deterministic) optimal transport, for which very efficient numerical methods have been developed, and of which there are applications in cosmology, fluid mechanics, logistics, and many other fields. We show, in particular, that minimizing expected heat released or work done during a nonequilibrium transition in finite time is solved by the Burgers equation and mass transport by the Burgers velocity field. Our contribution hence considerably extends the range of solvable optimization problems in small system thermodynamics.

##### Assuntos

Processos Estocásticos , Transporte Biológico , Modelos Químicos , Pinças Ópticas , Termodinâmica*Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 80(2 Pt 2): 025301, 2009 Aug.*

##### RESUMO

We show that the statistics of a turbulent passive scalar at scales larger than the pumping may exhibit multiscaling due to a weaker mechanism than the presence of statistical conservation laws. We develop a general formalism to give explicit predictions for the large scale scaling exponents in the case of the Kraichnan model and discuss their geometric origin at small and large scale.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 99(14): 144502, 2007 Oct 05.*

##### RESUMO

We inquire into the scaling properties of the 2D Navier-Stokes equation sustained by a force field with Gaussian statistics, white noise in time, and with a power-law correlation in momentum space of degree 2 - 2 epsilon. This is at variance with the setting usually assumed to derive Kraichnan's classical theory. We contrast accurate numerical experiments with the different predictions provided for the small epsilon regime by Kraichnan's double cascade theory and by renormalization group analysis. We give clear evidence that for all epsilon, Kraichnan's theory is consistent with the observed phenomenology. Our results call for a revision in the renormalization group analysis of (2D) fully developed turbulence.