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1.
Zootaxa ; 4554(1): 1-62, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790979

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis using color pattern, morphology, and 1449 base pairs of the ND2 mitochondrial gene and its five flanking tRNAs demonstrated that eight species-level lineages occur within the Cyrtodactylus intermedius complex (Cyrtodactylus intermedius sensu stricto, C. phuquocensis and related populations) of the Cardamom mountains and associated highlands that have a sequence divergence ranging 3.4-8.9%. Additionally, each lineage is discretely diagnosable from one another based on morphology and color pattern and most occur in specific geographic regions (upland areas, karst formations or islands) that prevent or greatly restrict interpopulation gene flow. Six of these lineages were masquerading under the nomen C. intermedius and are described as the following: Cyrtodactylus auralensis sp. nov. endemic to Phnom Aural, the highest mountain in Cambodia; C. bokorensis sp. nov. endemic to the Bokor Plateau, Cambodia; C. cardamomensis sp. nov. from the main block of the Cardamom mountains; C. thylacodactylus sp. nov. endemic to Phnom Dalai the northernmost peak of the Cardamom mountains; C. laangensis sp. nov. endemic to the Phnom Laang karst formation, Cambodia; and C. septimontium sp. nov. from the Bay Núi Hills of southwest Vietnam.


Assuntos
Elettaria , Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Camboja , Filogenia , Vietnã
2.
Zootaxa ; 4500(4): 553-573, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486050

RESUMO

A phylogenetic taxonomic analysis of a monophyletic subgroup of the salamandrid genus Tylototriton revealed that a newly discovered population from Ngar Su Village, 1 km south of Ywangan, Shan State, Myanmar is a new species and most closely related to T. shanorum from approximately 80 km to the west in the vicinity of Taunggyi, Shan State. Tylototriton ngarsuensis sp. nov. differs from other closely related species of Tylototriton on basis of varying combinations of characteristics associated with it shorter head, larger size, rib nodule morphology, and overall drab, very dark, coloration, along with its genetic differentiation. Tylototriton ngarsuensis sp. nov. also appears to breed later in the year than most other species. Unfortunately, this species like many other Asian newts, is being harvested for the pet and medicinal trade and given its restricted distribution, this could pose a serious threat to its long-term survival.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Filogenia , Animais , Mianmar , Salamandridae
3.
Zootaxa ; 4483(2): 295-316, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313789

RESUMO

An integrative phylogenetic analysis recovers two new species of the gekkonid genus Hemiphyllodactylus (Bleeker) from the Shan Hills of eastern Myanmar. Hemiphyllodactylus ywanganensis sp. nov. and H. uga sp. nov. are nested within the eastern Myanmar clade of a previous genus-wide phylogenetic analysis and form a more exclusive monophyletic group with H. linnwayensis. These species differ from each other and all other Hemiphyllodactylus in having unique combinations of character states involving postmental and subcaudal scale morphology; maximum SVL; digital formulae; numbers of chin scales, circumnasals, intersupranasals (=postrostrals), labials, longitudinally arranged dorsal and ventral scales, and pore-bearing femoroprecloacal scales; as well as subtle differences in coloration and pattern. The phylogenetic affinities of the eastern Myanmar clade are similar to those of an endemic clade of Cyrtodactylus from the Shan Hills in that both are more closely related to Indochinese taxa east of Myanmar as opposed to other Indo-Burmese species. The discovery of these new species underscores the underappreciated herpetological diversity of limestone ecosystems as well as the remote nature of the rugged uplands of the Shan Hills and emphasizes the need for continued field work in this region.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Ecossistema , Mianmar
4.
Zootaxa ; 4446(4): 477-500, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313871

RESUMO

A phylogenetic taxonomic analysis indicates that a newly discovered population of Cyrtodactylus from the vicinity of Ywangan Town in the Shan Hills, Shan State, Myanmar is a new species (C. ywanganensis sp. nov.) and the earliest diverging member of the linnwayensis group within the previously defined Indochinese clade. The DIVALIKE+J model of a BioGeoBEARS biogeographic analysis indicates that the Indochinese clade evolved in the Shan Hills and Salween Basin of eastern Myanmar and dispersed into Indochina on at least three separate occasions from 18.6-13.4 mya. Once there, uplift of the Tenasserim Mountains and Thai Highlands created the intermedius group, the oldhami group, and C. tigroides of western and southern Thailand which form sister lineages to the linnwayensis group, yathepyanensis group, and the sinyineensis group, respectively, of eastern Myanmar. Diverging lineages within the Indochinese clade highlight the importance of the Thai Highlands and Tenasserim Mountains in that group's evolution and speciation. The discovery of C. ywanganensis sp. nov. in karstic habitats in the Shan Hills continues to underscore the unrealized karst-associated herpetological diversity of this vast, relatively unexplored, upland region and the need for additional field studies.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Ecossistema , Mianmar , Tailândia
5.
PeerJ ; 6: e5575, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258710

RESUMO

A phylogenetic taxonomy of species in the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group from the Ayeyarwady Basin of Myanmar is constructed based on color pattern, morphology, and molecular systematic analyses using the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2. Newly collected samples from the type locality of C. peguensis and other localities indicate that this clade is endemic to central Myanmar and contains at least seven species, four of which are undescribed. Three species, including C. peguensis occur in the low hills of the Bago Yoma Range within the central portion of the Ayeyarwady Basin. Two of these, C. myintkyawthurai sp. nov. from the northern and central Bago Yoma and C. meersi sp. nov. which is syntopic with C. peguensis in the southern Bago Yoma are described herein. As more lowland hilly areas bordering, and within the Ayeyarwady Basin are surveyed, more new species of this group are likely to be discovered. These discoveries continue the recent surge of descriptions of new species of Cyrtodactylus that are being discovered in Myanmar.

6.
Zootaxa ; 4238(4): 571-582, 2017 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28603251

RESUMO

A newly discovered species of homalopsid snake from the genus Gyiophis Murphy & Voris is described from the lowlands of Mawlamyine District in Mon state, southeastern Myanmar. Gyiophis salweenensis sp. nov. is presumed to be closely related to G. maculosa Blanford and G. vorisi Murphy based on the similarities in pholidosis and patterning but can be separated from G. maculosa by the shape of its first three dorsal scale rows that are square, ventral scale pattern that lacks a central spot, and a faint stripe on dorsal scale rows 1-4. It can be further distinguished from G. vorisi by its lower number of ventral scales (129 vs. 142-152), lower number of subcaudals (30/29 vs. 41-58), narrow rostral scale, and having more rows of spots on the dorsum (four vs. three). A preliminary molecular analysis using 1050 base pairs of cytochrome b (cytb) recovered G. salweenensis sp. nov. as the sister species to the Chinese Mud Snake (Myrrophis chinensis). G. maculosa and G. vorisi were unavailable for the analysis. The discovery of G. salweenensis sp. nov. highlights the need for more surveys into the herpetological diversity of eastern Myanmar which remains very much underestimated.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Animais , Ecossistema , Mianmar , Filogenia
7.
PeerJ ; 5: e2884, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28149678

RESUMO

Three new species of Rock Geckos Cnemaspis lineogularis sp. nov., C. phangngaensis sp. nov., and C. thachanaensis sp. nov. of the chanthaburiensis and siamensis groups are described from the Thai portion of the Thai-Malay Peninsula. These new species are distinguished from all other species in their two respective groups based on a unique combination of morphological characteristics, which is further supported by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2). Cnemaspis lineogularis sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species in the chanthaburiensis group by having a smaller maximum SVL 38 mm, 13 paravertebral tubercles, enlarged femoral scales, no caudal bands, and a 19.5-23.0% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2). Cnemaspis phangngaensis sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species in the siamensis group by having the unique combination of 10 infralabial scales, four continuous pore-bearing precloacal scales, paravertebral tubercles linearly arranged, lacking tubercles on the lower flanks, having ventrolateral caudal tubercles anteriorly present, caudal tubercles restricted to a single paraveterbral row on each side, a single median row of keeled subcaudals, and a 8.8-25.2% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2). Cnemaspis thachanaensis sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species in the siamensis group by having 10 or 11 supralabial scales 9-11 infralabial scales, paravertebral tubercles linearly arranged, ventrolateral caudal tubercles anteriorly, caudal tubercles restricted to a single paravertebral row on each side, a single median row of keeled subcaudal scales, lacking a single enlarged subcaudal scale row, lacking postcloaclal tubercles in males, the presence of an enlarged submetatarsal scale at the base if the 1st toe, and a 13.4-28.8% pairwise sequence divergence (ND2). The new phylogenetic analyses place C. punctatonuchalis and C. vandeventeri in the siamensis group with C. punctatonuchalis as the sister species to C. huaseesom and C. vandeventeri as the sister species to C. siamensis, corroborating previous hypotheses based on morphology. The discovery of three new karst-dwelling endemics brings the total number of nominal Thai Cnemaspis species to 15 and underscores the need for continued field research in poorly known areas of the Thai-Malay Peninsula, especially those that are threatened and often overlooked as biodiversity hot spots.

8.
Zootaxa ; 4136(3): 461-90, 2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27395729

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis is used to delimit and describe three new species of Pseudocalotoes from the sky island archipelago of the Banjaran (=mountain range) Titiwangsa of Peninsular Malaysia. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov., from Fraser's Hill, Pahang is basal to the sister species P. larutensis from Bukit Larut, Perak in the Banjaran Bintang and the new species P. rhaegal sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang. Pseudocalotes drogon sp. nov. is differentiated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a flat rostrum; seven postrostrals; an interparietal; 11 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one scale between the rostral and nasal; nine supralabials; eight infralabials; 10 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; five or six sublabials; five or six chinshields; 47 smooth, wide, gular scales; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; enlarged upper and lower posttemporals; a single enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; three large scales bordering the dorsal margin of the ear opening; large pretympanic scales; eight scales in the nuchal crest not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the tip of the tail; keeled and non-plate-like scales on flanks; 51 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on third toe enlarged and spinose; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.52; HL/SVL 0.31; no elbow or knee patches; and a male dewlap color of lime-green bearing a central yellow spot. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. is differentiated from all other Psuedocalotes by having the combination of a convex rostrum; 6-8 postrostrals; an interparietal; nine or 10 circumorbitals; five canthals; 7-10 superciliaries; one or two scales between the rostral and nasal scales; eight or nine supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; 11 or 12 postnasal-suborbital scales; four postmentals; four or five chinshields; 40-45 smooth, wide, gular scales; no transverse gular fold; a weak antehumeral fold; three or four enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; no large scales bordering the upper margin of the ear opening or in the pretympanic region; 6-8 enlarged nuchal crest scales not separated by a gap; enlarged vertebral scales extending to the base of the tail; weakly keeled, non-plate-like scales on the flanks; 52-58 midbody scales; midventrals smaller than dorsals; 19-21 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 22-26 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on the third enlarged and rounded; subdigital lamellae not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.50-0.54; HL/SVL 0.28-0.30; no elbow or knee patches; and female dewlap color yellow bearing a purple base. The analyses also indicated that the new species, P. viserion sp. nov. from Genting Highlands, Pahang in the southern section of the Banjaran Titiwangsa is the sister species of P. flavigula from Cameron Highlands 121 km to the north and can be separated from all other species of Psuedocalotes by having the combination of three postrostrals; 10 circumorbitals; four or five canthals; 5-7 superciliaries; rostral and nasals in contact; supralabials contacting the nasal; six or seven supralabials; six or seven infralabials; two or three postmentals; 47 or 48 smooth, flat, gular scales; three chinshields; weak transverse gular and antehumeral folds; two enlarged scales between the ear and eye; an enlarged upper and lower posttemporal; an enlarged supratympanic; no enlarged postrictals; 7-9 nuchal crest scales lacking gaps and not extending beyond midbody; weakly keeled and plate-like scales on the flanks; 35-38 midbody scales; ventrals smaller than dorsals; 22 or 23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 26 or 27 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; preaxial scales on the third toe not modified; subdigital scales not unicarinate; HW/HL 0.62; no white marking below the eye; dewlap in males yellow; and no elbow or knee patches. Pseudocalotes rhaegal sp. nov. most likely occurs in syntopy with P. flavigula in Tanah Rata at Cameron Highlands and its discovery adds to a growing body of literature detailing the recent descriptions of several new, upland, closely related, sympatric species in Peninsular Malaysia. Another new population referred to here as Pseudocalotes sp. nov. from the Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, Betong District, Yala Province, Thailand is discussed. The discovery and description of these three new Pseudocalotes from the upland regions of Peninsular Malaysia continues to underscore the remarkably high herpetological diversity and ecological complexity in this sky island archipelago that is still underestimated, unappreciated, and unprotected.


Assuntos
Lagartos/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malásia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Simpatria
9.
Zootaxa ; 4105(5): 401-29, 2016 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27394789

RESUMO

A new species of limestone cave-adapted gecko of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex, C. hidupselamanya sp. nov., is described from an isolated karst formation at Felda Chiku 7, Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia. This formation is scheduled to be completely quarried for its mineral content. From what we know about the life history of C. hidupselamanya sp. nov., this will result in its extinction. A new limestone forest-adapted species, C. lenggongensis sp. nov., from the Lenggong Valley, Perak was previously considered to be conspecific with C. bintangrendah but a re-evaluation of morphological, color pattern, molecular, and habitat preference indicates that it too is a unique lineage worthy of specific recognition. Fortunately C. lenggongensis sp. nov. is not facing extinction because its habitat is protected by the UNESCO Archaeological Heritage of the Lenggong Valley due to the archaeological significance of that region. Both new species can be distinguished from all other species of Cyrtodactylus based on molecular evidence from the mitochondrial gene ND2 and its flanking tRNAs as well as having unique combinations of morphological and color pattern characteristics. Using a time-calibrated BEAST analysis we inferred that the evolution of a limestone habitat preference and its apparently attendant morphological and color pattern adaptations evolved independently at least four times in the C. pulchellus complex between 26.1 and 0.78 mya.


Assuntos
Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Carbonato de Cálcio , Ecossistema , Feminino , Florestas , Genes Mitocondriais , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/genética , Malásia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
10.
Zootaxa ; 3980(1): 106-26, 2015 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26249941

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis of the distantly related Cyrtodactylus condorensis and intermedius species complexes of the Mekong Delta revealed that C. paradoxus is a junior synonym of C. condorensis and that C. thochuensis is a junior synonym of C. leegrismeri. Additionally, the analysis revealed that a cave-dwelling ecomorpholgy has evolved independently early on in the evolution of both complexes (represented by C. hontreensis in the intermedius complex and C. grismeri and C. eisenmani in the condorensis complex) and cave ecomorphs exist in sympatry-but not syntopy-with general scansorial ecomorphs. Multiple, recent, cyclical, glacioeustatic driven changes in sea levels across the Sunda Shelf are hypothesized to account for the evolution and distribution of the widely separated, conspecific insular populations of C. condorensis and C. leegrismeri. The independent evolution of cave ecomorphology is proposed to have been driven by competition avoidance. Habitat islands across the Mekong Delta are an important source of endemism and in need of protection.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Cavernas , Lagartos/classificação , Animais , Ecossistema , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Lagartos/genética , Lagartos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tailândia
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