Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 51
Filtrar
2.
Respirology ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513770

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is caused by exposure to noxious particles and gases. Smoking is the main risk factor, but other factors are also associated with COPD. Occupational exposure to vapours, gases, dusts and fumes contributes to the development and progression of COPD, accounting for a population attributable fraction of 14%. Workplace pollutants, in particular inorganic dust, can initiate airway damage and inflammation, which are the hallmarks of COPD pathogenesis. Occupational COPD is still underdiagnosed, mainly due to the challenges of assessing the occupational component of the disease in clinical settings, especially if other risk factors are present. There is a need for specific education and training for clinicians, and research with a focus on evaluating the role of occupational exposure in causing COPD. Early diagnosis and identification of occupational causes is very important to prevent further decline in lung function and to reduce the health and socio-economic burden of COPD. Establishing details of the occupational history by general practitioners or respiratory physicians could help to define the occupational burden of COPD for individual patients, providing the first useful interventions (smoking cessation, best therapeutic management, etc.). Once patients are diagnosed with occupational COPD, there is a wide international variation in access to specialist occupational medicine and public health services, along with limitations in workplace and income support. Therefore, a strong collaboration between primary care physicians, respiratory physicians and occupational medicine specialists is desirable to help manage COPD patients' health and social issues.

3.
Mol Metab ; 61: 101507, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity, a growing threat to the modern society, represents an imbalance of metabolic queues that normally signal to the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, a critical brain region sensing and regulating energy homeostasis. This is achieved by various neurons many of which developmentally originate from the proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing lineage. Within the mature neurons originating from this lineage, we aimed to identify non-coding genes in control of metabolic function in the adulthood. METHODS: In this work, we used microRNA mimic delivery and POMCCre-dependent CRISPR-Cas9 knock-out strategies in young or aged mice. Importantly, we also used CRISPR guides directing suicide cleavage of Cas9 to limit the off-target effects. RESULTS: Here we found that mature neurons originating from the POMC lineage employ miR-29a to protect against insulin resistance obesity, hyperphagia, decreased energy expenditure and obesity. Moreover, we validated the miR-29 family as a prominent regulator of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway. Within the latter, we identified a direct target of miR-29a-3p, Nras, which was up-regulated in those and only those mature POMCCreCas9 neurons that were effectively transduced by anti-miR-29 CRISPR-equipped construct. Moreover, POMCCre-dependent co-deletion of Nras in mature neurons attenuated miR-29 depletion-induced obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the first to our knowledge case of in situ Cre-dependent CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knock-out of microRNAs in a specific hypothalamic neuronal population helped us to decipher a critical metabolic circuit in adult mice. This work significantly extends our understanding about the involvement of neuronal microRNAs in homeostatic regulation.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262802

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Occupational exposure to inorganic dust and fumes in the year preceding disease has been associated with increased pneumococcal pneumonia risk, but the impact of prior cumulative exposure has not been characterized. METHODS: We studied 3184 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease with pneumonia. The case index date was the day the infection was diagnosed. We selected six controls for each case from the Swedish population registry; each control was assigned the index date of their corresponding case. We linked job histories to a job-exposure matrix to calculate a cumulative exposure index, intensity-years, by multiplying the duration (maximum 5 years) of each exposure with the level of exposure (0 for unexposed, 1 for low and 4 for high). We used conditional logistic analyses to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of invasive pneumococcal disease with pneumonia adjusted for comorbidities, educational level, income and other occupational exposures. RESULTS: Taking other occupational exposures into account, greater than 5 intensity-years of exposure to silica dust or to fumes was each associated with increased odds for invasive pneumococcal disease with pneumonia (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.49-4.32) and (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.41-3.55), respectively. Five intensity-years or less of exposure to silica dust or fumes manifested lower odds (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.20-1.76) and (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.16), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study adds evidence that the risk of pneumococcal pneumonia increases with increasing cumulative exposure to dust and fumes, indicating the importance of cumulative exposure.

5.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 12(2): e12096, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35145632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Co-exposures and polysensitization to several pollen species are very common in real life practice. However, little information exists on allergic symptoms and airway inflammation related to natural pollen exposure in large general population samples. OBJECTIVE: To assess the combined effect of sensitization and/or exposure to one or more pollen species on Fraction of exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) levels. METHODS: Within Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD) multicase-control study, 1070 adults from the general population of Verona, Italy, underwent a clinical evaluation including standardized interview, spirometry, skin prick test to inhalants and FeNO measurement. Pollen exposure was assumed, when the mean pollen concentration in the previous week was above the cutoff established by the Italian Aerobiological Monitoring Network. RESULTS: Subjects sensitized to one or more pollen species were respectively 15.5% and 29.6%. FeNO levels were directly related to the number of both pollen species around and pollen-related sensitizations. Median FeNO levels were directly related to number of pollen species around and pollen sensitization. FeNO levels increased from 15.4 ppb (p. 25-p. 75 = 9.9-21.0) outside the pollen season to 17.5 ppb (11.2-30.5) when there were ≥3 pollen species around. Likewise FeNO levels rose from 14.8 ppb (10.0-22.3) in not sensitized subjects, to 16.7 (10.1-25.0) in monosensitized and further to 20.4 (12.3-40.6) in poly-sensitized. According to multivariable quantile regression, median FeNO was 17.9 ppb higher (p. 25-p. 75 = 12.5-23.3) for subjects sensitized and exposed to more than one pollen species, compared to subjects who were neither sensitized nor exposed. Differences in FEV1/FVC between groups were less pronounced (-2.0%, -4.1 to 0.1). Median FeNO level was 15.1 ppb (p. 25-p. 75 = 10.0-23.2) in subjects without pollen-related symptoms, 17.8 ppb (12.1-40.2) in those with nasal symptoms only, and 22.7 ppb (14.7-43.0) in those with asthma-like symptoms (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Airways inflammation, evaluated by FeNO, increases in dose-dependent manner from subjects monosensitized to pollen species to those poly-sensitized, especially when asthma-like symptoms on pollen exposure are also reported. This should be considered by allergists during natural pollen seasons when evaluating both pulmonary function and airways inflammation.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162850

RESUMO

Studies investigating the association between urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and asthma in children provided inhomogeneous results. We aimed to use Mediation Analysis to discover whether a link between urinary PAHs and lung function exists and if it might be ascribed to a direct or a symptom-mediated (indirect) effect in children with asthma. This single-center prospective study was conducted in Palermo, Italy, between March and July 2017 and involved 50 children with persistent mild-moderate asthma, aged 6-11 years. At each time visit (day 0, 30, 60, and 90), physical examination, spirometry, and urine collection for detection of urinary cotinine and PAHs were performed. A symptom score was computed. The sum of individually calculated molar mass of nine PAH metabolites (ΣPAH), naphthalene metabolites (ΣPAHn) and phenanthrene metabolites (ΣPAHp) were calculated. Three children withdrew from the study due to technical problems (n = 1) and adverse events (n = 2). PAHs indirect effects on FEV1 (ΣPAH: -0.011, p = 0.04; ΣPAHn: -0.011, p = 0.04; ΣPAHp: -0.012, p < 0.001) and FVC (ΣPAH: -0.012, p = 0.02; ΣPAHn: -0.0126, p = 0.02; ΣPAHp: -0.013, p < 0.001) were statistically significant. In conclusion, PAHs exposures have significant indirect (symptom-mediated) effects on lung function, emphasizing the role of PAHs-induced respiratory morbidity in decreasing lung function in children with asthma.


Assuntos
Asma , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Humanos , Pulmão , Análise de Mediação , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 11): 36-39, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862888

RESUMO

People with intellectual disability or psychiatric disorders are commonly excluded from Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) because of explicit exclusion to the trials or because of inaccessible research protocols. We analyzed the exclusion rate of persons with cognitive impairment, psychiatric disorders and inability to give informed consent in interventional RCTs about the first 10 causes of global DALYs (disability- adjusted life-years) according to the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) utilizing the website Clinicaltrials.gov. A total of 2809 studies in the 10 selected categories were reviewed. "Cognitive impairment" was present in 488 (17.4%) studies, "Behavioural and psychiatric disorders" was present in 616 (21.9%) studies, "Inability to grant informed consent" was present in 498 (17.7%) studies and the three explicit criteria were present, alone or in combination, in 1076 studies (38.3%). Other disability-related exclusion criteria were considered to be implicit exclusion criteria and were present in 1233 (43.9%) studies. A judgement was made on the correlation between the exclusion criteria and the primary objectives of the studies analyzed. The low level of representation of people with disabilities in RCTs, in addition to being an ethical problem, is a limitation of scientific knowledge because it considerably reduces the external validity of a significant part of medical research. There is a need to review the way scientific research designs are constructed, seeking to promote greater inclusiveness of people with disabilities.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Deficiência Intelectual , Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Med Lav ; 112(6): 486-495, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression, anxiety, psychological distress, and poor sleep quality increased in healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was to assess levels of psychological distress in Umbrian HCWs during the COVID-19 Phase 1 lockdown along with exploring the relationship between sociodemographic/occupational factors. METHODS: Data on sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, change of job description, economic losses and emergency involvement and SARS-CoV2 infections in the workplace were collected using an anonymous online survey sent by healthcare professional associations. Data concerning psychological healthcare distress, were collected anonymously using BIAS 20 (stress balance) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). RESULTS: One thousand and one healthcare workers responded to the questionnaire. Biological risk at work was perceived by all HCWs, less so from psychologists and more so from those working in hospitals. Stress symptoms (DASS21 >14) were associated with a younger age group (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and less work experience (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.96-0.99). Younger age was also associated with anxiety symptoms (DASS 21 >7) (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99), as well as graduate/post graduate education level (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.14-3.63). Working as an independent contractor was a risk factor for high stress health impact (OR 2.00; CI 1.40-2.86) and stress (OR 1.87; CI 1.20-2.92), anxiety (OR 1.89; CI 1.22-2.92) and depression (OR 1.57; CI 1.10-2.22) symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a possible relationship between healthcare type of employment and distress symptoms during Covid19 pandemic phase 1. Results of our study should be confirmed in other Italian healthcare settings and could serve as a preliminarily baseline for multidisciplinary Italian collaboration.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estresse Ocupacional , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Pandemias , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831540

RESUMO

The increasing incidence of extreme wildfire is becoming a concern for public health. Although long-term exposure to wildfire smoke is associated with respiratory illnesses, reports on the association between short-term occupational exposure to wildfire smoke and lung function remain scarce. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from 218 Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers (mean age: 38 ± 9 years) deployed at the Fort McMurray wildfires in 2016. Individual exposure to air pollutants was calculated by integrating the duration of exposure with the air quality parameters obtained from the nearest air quality monitoring station during the phase of deployment. Lung function was measured using spirometry and body plethysmography. Association between exposure and lung function was examined using principal component linear regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders. In our findings, the participants were predominantly male (71%). Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and residual volume (RV) were 76.5 ± 5.9 and 80.1 ± 19.5 (% predicted). A marginal association was observed between air pollution and higher RV [ß: 1.55; 95% CI: -0.28 to 3.37 per interquartile change of air pollution index], but not with other lung function indices. The association between air pollution index and RV was significantly higher in participants who were screened within the first three months of deployment (2.80; 0.91 to 4.70) than those screened later (-0.28; -2.58 to 2.03), indicating a stronger effect of air pollution on peripheral airways. Acute short-term exposure to wildfire-associated air pollutants may impose subtle but clinically important deleterious respiratory effects, particularly in the peripheral airways.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Incêndios Florestais , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Pulmão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Polícia , Fumaça/análise
12.
Infez Med ; 29(2): 229-235, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061788

RESUMO

Interferon-γ releasing assays (IGRAs) are currently widely employed in the initial work up of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, as well as in suspected tuberculosis (TB). These assays are commonly utilized over the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) in high resource and low TB burden settings, despite the unclear benefits shown in such contexts. The debate on the use of TST and IGRAs is of current interest also in Italy due to the increasing presence of immigrants from countries with a high incidence of TB and the rising attention of health care institutions to economic costs. The aim of this study was to compare QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) and TST results in active TB. We evaluated QFT results and TST reactions from 245 consecutive patients having both tests, registered among 411 patients admitted for TB at the Infectious Disease Clinic, Department of Medicine of the University of Perugia (Italy). We compared the rates of positive QFT and TST tests and noted no statistically significant differences overall or in relation to age, gender, HIV status and TB localization. Among foreign-born patients with confirmed TB, we observed a lower rate of positive TST results. The results of our study indicated that both QFT and TST can be used in the work up of TB having special attention when evaluating foreign-born patients.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente , Teste Tuberculínico , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos
13.
Multidiscip Respir Med ; 16(1): 741, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene-environment interactions are relevant for several respiratory diseases. This communication raises the hypothesis that the severity of COVID-19, a complex disease where the individual response to the infection may play a significant role, could partly result from a gene-environment interaction between air-pollution and Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) genes. METHODS: To evaluate the impact of the AAT and air pollution interaction on COVID-19, we introduced an AAT*air pollution global risk score summing together, in each country, an air pollution score (ozone, nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter) and an AAT score (which sums the ranked frequency of MZ, SZ, MS). We compared this global score with the ranking of European countries in terms of death number per million persons. RESULTS: The ranking of the AAT*air pollution global risk score matched the ranking of the countries in terms of the observed COVID-19 deaths per 1M inhabitants, namely in the case of the first European countries: Belgium, UK, Spain, Italy, Sweden, France. We observed parallelism between the number of COVID deaths and the AAT*air pollution global risk in Europe. AAT anti-protease, immune-modulating and coagulation-modulating activities may explain this finding, although very speculatively. CONCLUSIONS: Even if further studies taking into account genetic background, population density, temporal dynamics of individual epidemics, access to healthcare, social disparities and immunological response to SARS-CoV2 are needed, our preliminary observation urges to open a discussion on gene-environment interactions in COVID-19.

14.
Am J Ind Med ; 64(7): 576-584, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airway obstruction is a key feature of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Smoking habits and workplace exposures to vapors, gas, dusts, and fumes (VGDF) could cause or exacerbate airway obstruction. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of airway obstruction due to smoking and workplace exposure, and their interaction, in a large population-based study. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a sample (n = 6153) of the Swedish population aged between 24 and 76 years underwent a questionnaire, clinical examination, blood test, and spirometry to gather information on airway obstruction classified by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria or American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) criteria, risk factors, and confounders. Occupational exposures to VGDF were rated according to a specific job-exposure matrix. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate risk factors for airway obstruction in smokers and nonsmokers. RESULTS: In total, 9.8% had airway obstruction by GOLD criteria and 10.3% by ATS/ERS. Smokers with a high likelihood of exposure to VGDF had a higher risk of airway obstruction than those not exposed (odds ratio [OR]: 1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-2.65 by GOLD; OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.06-2.37 by ATS/ERS) especially those >50 years of age. In smokers highly exposed to VGDF, risk estimates were higher than in the whole population, and the interaction between high exposure to VGDF and smoking further increased the risk of airway obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests a possible role for interaction between cigarette smoking and VGDF exposure on the risk of airway obstruction.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Exposição Ocupacional , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Adulto , Idoso , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Espirometria , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Asthma Allergy ; 14: 149-161, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654412

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severe eosinophilic asthma (SEA) is characterized by high eosinophilia, severe symptoms, important comorbidities, frequent exacerbations, and poor asthma control. Benralizumab, targeting the interleukin-5 receptor alpha, proved effective in inducing rapid eosinophil depletion and amelioration of symptoms and lung function; it also allowed to reduce exacerbations and the use of oral corticosteroids (OCS). The present case series, spanning different subtypes of SEA, aimed at expanding the real-world experience with benralizumab in Italy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We collected data from SEA patients treated with benralizumab, at baseline and during treatment. We focused on the effects of benralizumab in the following conditions and endpoints: i) overlap between high-IgE and high-eosinophilic asthma; ii) presence of nasal polyposis as comorbidity; iii) corticosteroid-sparing effect; iv) patient perception. RESULTS: Ten SEA patients (females: N=7; age range: 19-70 years) referred to 8 Italian Centers and treated with benralizumab were included, presenting with several comorbidities such as non-allergic disease (8/10), atopy (3/10), high IgE (5/10) and nasal polyposis (6/10). Overall, benralizumab yielded optimal disease control in all patients, particularly in terms of rapid clinical and functional improvement, decreased systemic steroid need (OCS therapy was completely discontinued in 7 cases) and amelioration of patient quality of life, except for 1 case, in whom other conditions not related to benralizumab therapy interfered with the patient perception. CONCLUSION: Our findings further support the efficacy and safety of benralizumab observed in randomized clinical trials, providing even better results for lung function improvement.

17.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 53, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been reported to be significantly associated with chronic rhinosinusitis, but the strength of the association is still debated. AIMS: To evaluate the strength of the association between gastritis/GERD and non-allergic rhinitis (NAR)/allergic rhinitis (AR)/sinusitis. METHODS: We investigated 2887 subjects aged 20-84 years, who underwent a clinical visit in seven Italian centres (Ancona, Palermo, Pavia, Terni, Sassari, Torino, Verona) within the study on Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases, a population-based multicase-control study between 2008 and 2014. Subjects were asked if they had doctor-diagnosed "gastritis or stomach ulcer (confirmed by gastroscopy)" or "gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia or esophagitis". The association between NAR/AR/sinusitis and either gastritis or GERD was evaluated through relative risk ratios (RRR) by multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of gastritis/GERD increased from subjects without nasal disturbances (22.8% = 323/1414) to subjects with AR (25.8% = 152/590) and further to subjects with NAR (36.7% = 69/188) or sinusitis (39.9% = 276/691). When adjusting for centre, sex, age, education level, BMI, smoking habits and alcohol intake, the combination of gastritis and GERD was associated with a four-fold increase in the risk of NAR (RRR = 3.80, 95% CI 2.56-5.62) and sinusitis (RRR = 3.70, 2.62-5.23) with respect to controls, and with a much smaller increase in the risk of AR (RRR = 1.79, 1.37-2.35).. CONCLUSION: The study confirmed the association between gastritis/GERD and nasal disturbances, which is stronger for NAR and sinusitis than for AR.


Assuntos
Gastrite/epidemiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Sinusite/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Rinite/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lung ; 199(1): 13-19, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427972

RESUMO

Tobacco worker's lung (TWL) is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) affecting workers exposed to tobacco leaves and molds in the humidified environment of the tobacco production industry. Limited epidemiological data point to a prevalence of TWL that is not negligible and probably underestimated. As in other types of HP, an acute vs. chronic presentation depends on the pattern of the exposure. Therefore, the clinical presentation can vary from an acute influenza-like syndrome, mostly self-limiting with the removal of the exposure, to an insidious onset of cough, exertional dyspnea, fatigue and weight loss in chronic presentations, where fibrotic changes may be observed. The main treatment strategy is the removal of the exposure to tobacco dust and molds, while the main aim of corticosteroid therapy is to reduce morbidity and prevent complications, namely the development of pulmonary fibrosis and permanent lung dysfunction. Despite the fact that TWL is quite well described, preventive measures are not usually adopted in the tobacco production industry. We present here a state of the art review of this neglected, preventable, but still prevalent and occupational-related subtype of HP.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Indústria do Tabaco , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/epidemiologia , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/terapia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/terapia , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória
19.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(2): 112-116, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Wheat flour exposure in bakers can elicit respiratory and skin symptoms. Scarce data are available on the prevalence of such conditions in bakers. We investigated the prevalence of work-related rhinitis, asthma-like symptoms and dermatitis in bakers according to job task and type of allergens involved. METHODS: Of the 229 traditional bakeries in Verona area who were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey, 211 (92%) accepted; 727 employees in these bakeries answered a modified version of a questionnaire on job tasks; allergen exposure within the bakery; and work-related nasal, asthma-like and skin symptoms during 2010-2014. Determinants of work-related nasal, asthma-like or skin disorders were separately evaluated using different logistic models. RESULTS: The prevalence of work-related nasal and asthma-like symptoms was, respectively, 15.1% and 4.2% in bakery shop assistants, increasing to 25.7% and 9.5% in bakers using only wheat flour, and further to 31.8% and 13.6% in bakers using flour and additives, and then to 34.1% and 18.2% in bakers using flour with additives and multigrain (p<0.001). The risk of work-related asthma-like symptoms was more than doubled in bakers using additives without or with multigrain than in shop assistants (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 5.5 and OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.8, respectively). Making bread with additives alone or with multigrain significantly increased the risk of work-related nasal symptoms in shop assistants, while the risk of skin symptoms was not significantly affected. CONCLUSIONS: Bakers using additives alone or with multigrain are at a high risk of experiencing nasal and asthma-like symptoms.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Farinha , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/imunologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Asma Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Asma Ocupacional/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Dermatite/epidemiologia , Dermatite/imunologia , Poeira/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Rinite/epidemiologia , Rinite/imunologia , Triticum/imunologia
20.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(4): 311-318, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether mepolizumab is differently effective in allergic and nonallergic severe eosinophilic asthmatics (SEA) in real life. OBJECTIVE: We tested mepolizumab effectiveness in allergic/nonallergic SEA in real life. A strict criterion to identify the 2 phenotypes was used. METHOD: We retrospectively considered 134 consecutive patients divided into allergic, with a positivity to at least 1 allergen to prick tests and/or IgE values ≥100 UI/mL (severe allergic eosinophilic asthma [SAEA]; n: 97-72.4%), and nonallergic, with no prick test results and normal IgE levels <100 UI/mL (severe nonallergic eosinophilic asthma [SNAEA]; n: 37-27.6%). They had taken mepolizumab for at least 6 months. RESULTS: After 10.9 ± 3.7 months, improvements in FEV1%, FEF25-75%, exacerbation numbers, blood eosinophil (BE) counts, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) (ppb), percentages of patients that stopped/reduced short-acting ß2-agonists (SABAs) or oral corticosteroid (OC), observed after treatment, were similar in both groups. Only Asthma Control Test (ACT) increases were higher in SNAEA (8 [5-9]) than in SAEA (5 [2.5-8.5]; p = 0.016). However, no differences were found after treatment in percentages of subjects with ACT ≥20, as well as with FEV1 >80%, FEF25-75 >65%, exacerbations ≤2, BE <300 cells/µL, and FENO <25 ppb between SAEA and SNAEA. Besides, no significant relationships were found, comparing SNAEA with SAEA, for FEV1% (ß = -0.110; p = 0.266), FEF25-75% (ß = -0.228; p = 0.06), BE counts (ß = -0.012; p = 0.918), FENO (ß = 0.234; p = 0.085), ACT (ß = 0.046; p = 0.660), and exacerbations (ß = -0.070; p = 0.437). No different associations between lung function and SNAEA occurrence when compared to SAEA condition (FEV1 >80%: OR = 1.04 [95% CI: 0.43-2.55], p = 0.923; FEF25-75 >65%: OR = 0.41 [95% CI: 0.08-2.03], p = 0.272) were detected. Neither all other parameters, such as ACT >20 (OR = 0.73 [95% CI: 0.32-1.63], p = 0.440), presence of exacerbations (OR = 1.35 [95% CI: 0.55-3.27], p = 0.512), SABA discontinuation (OR = 1.16 [95% CI: 0.40-3.39], p = 0.790), and OC cessation/reduction (OR = 3.44 [95% CI: 0.40-29.27], p = 0.258), were differently associated with 1 or the other phenotype. CONCLUSION: Mepolizumab can be considered as a valid therapeutic choice for either allergic or nonallergic SEA in real life.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/etiologia , Biomarcadores , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eosinófilos/patologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...