Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 91
Filtrar
1.
PLoS Med ; 18(12): e1003877, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India began COVID-19 vaccination in January 2021, initially targeting healthcare and frontline workers. The vaccination strategy was expanded in a phased manner and currently covers all individuals aged 18 years and above. India experienced a severe second wave of COVID-19 during March-June 2021. We conducted a fourth nationwide serosurvey to estimate prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the general population aged ≥6 years and healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We did a cross-sectional study between 14 June and 6 July 2021 in the same 70 districts across 20 states and 1 union territory where 3 previous rounds of serosurveys were conducted. From each district, 10 clusters (villages in rural areas and wards in urban areas) were selected by the probability proportional to population size method. From each district, a minimum of 400 individuals aged ≥6 years from the general population (40 individuals from each cluster) and 100 HCWs from the district public health facilities were included. The serum samples were tested for the presence of IgG antibodies against S1-RBD and nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 using chemiluminescence immunoassay. We estimated the weighted and test-adjusted seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, along with 95% CIs, based on the presence of antibodies to S1-RBD and/or nucleocapsid protein. Of the 28,975 individuals who participated in the survey, 2,892 (10%) were aged 6-9 years, 5,798 (20%) were aged 10-17 years, and 20,285 (70%) were aged ≥18 years; 15,160 (52.3%) participants were female, and 21,794 (75.2%) resided in rural areas. The weighted and test-adjusted prevalence of IgG antibodies against S1-RBD and/or nucleocapsid protein among the general population aged ≥6 years was 67.6% (95% CI 66.4% to 68.7%). Seroprevalence increased with age (p < 0.001) and was not different in rural and urban areas (p = 0.822). Compared to unvaccinated adults (62.3%, 95% CI 60.9% to 63.7%), seroprevalence was significantly higher among individuals who had received 1 vaccine dose (81.0%, 95% CI 79.6% to 82.3%, p < 0.001) and 2 vaccine doses (89.8%, 95% CI 88.4% to 91.1%, p < 0.001). The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies among 7,252 HCWs was 85.2% (95% CI 83.5% to 86.7%). Important limitations of the study include the survey design, which was aimed to estimate seroprevalence at the national level and not at a sub-national level, and the non-participation of 19% of eligible individuals in the survey. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly two-thirds of individuals aged ≥6 years from the general population and 85% of HCWs had antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 by June-July 2021 in India. As one-third of the population is still seronegative, it is necessary to accelerate the coverage of COVID-19 vaccination among adults and continue adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 59-67, 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968773

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: India experienced 2 waves of COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 and reported the second highest caseload globally. Seroepidemiologic studies were done to track the course of the pandemic. We systematically reviewed and synthesized the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the Indian population. METHODS: We included studies reporting seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 from March 1, 2020 to August 11, 2021 and excluded studies done only among patients with COVID-19 and vaccinated individuals. We searched published databases, preprint servers, and government documents using a combination of keywords and medical subheading (MeSH) terms of "Seroprevalence AND SARS-CoV-2 AND India". We assessed risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, the appraisal tool for cross-sectional studies (AXIS), the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tool, and WHO's statement on the Reporting of Seroepidemiological Studies for SARS-CoV-2 (ROSES-S). We calculated pooled seroprevalence along with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) during the first (March 2020 to February 2021) and second wave (March to August 2021). We also estimated seroprevalence by selected demographic characteristics. RESULTS: We identified 3821 studies and included 53 studies with 905379 participants after excluding duplicates, screening of titles and abstracts and full-text screening. Of the 53, 20 studies were of good quality. Some of the reviewed studies did not report adequate information on study methods (sampling = 24% (13/53); laboratory = 83% [44/53]). Studies of 'poor' quality had more than one of the following issues: unjustified sample size, nonrepresentative sample, nonclassification of nonrespondents, results unadjusted for demographics and methods insufficiently explained to enable replication. Overall pooled seroprevalence was 20.7% in the first (95% CI = 16.1 to 25.3) and 69.2% (95% CI = 64.5 to 73.8) in the second wave. Seroprevalence did not differ by age in first wave, whereas in the second, it increased with age. Seroprevalence was slightly higher among women in the second wave. In both the waves, the estimate was higher in urban than in rural areas. CONCLUSION: Seroprevalence increased by 3-fold between the 2 waves of the pandemic in India. Our review highlights the need for designing and reporting studies using standard protocols.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261529, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for the development of severe COVID-19 disease and death have been widely reported across several studies. Knowledge about the determinants of severe disease and mortality in the Indian context can guide early clinical management. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based case control study across nine sites in India to identify the determinants of severe and critical COVID-19 disease. FINDINGS: We identified age above 60 years, duration before admission >5 days, chronic kidney disease, leucocytosis, prothrombin time > 14 sec, serum ferritin >250 ng/mL, d-dimer >0.5 ng/mL, pro-calcitonin >0.15 µg/L, fibrin degradation products >5 µg/mL, C-reactive protein >5 mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase >150 U/L, interleukin-6 >25 pg/mL, NLR ≥3, and deranged liver function, renal function and serum electrolytes as significant factors associated with severe COVID-19 disease. INTERPRETATION: We have identified a set of parameters that can help in characterising severe COVID-19 cases in India. These parameters are part of routinely available investigations within Indian hospital settings, both public and private. Study findings have the potential to inform clinical management protocols and identify patients at high risk of severe outcomes at an early stage.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Hospitais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e051491, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of contacts of patients with COVID-19 case in terms of time, place and person, to calculate the secondary attack rate (SAR) and factors associated with COVID-19 infection among contacts. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Contacts of cases identified by the health department from 14 March 2020to 30 May 2020, in 9 of 38 administrative districts of Tamil Nadu. Significant proportion of cases attended a religious congregation. OUTCOME MEASURE: Attack rate among the contacts and factors associated with COVID-19 positivity. RESULTS: We listed 15 702 contacts of 931 primary cases. Of the contacts, 89% (n: 14 002) were tested for COVID-19. The overall SAR was 4% (599/14 002), with higher among the household contacts (13%) than the community contacts (1%). SAR among the contacts of primary cases with congregation exposure were 5 times higher than the contacts of non-congregation primary cases (10% vs 2%). Being a household contact of a primary case with congregation exposure had a fourfold increased risk of getting COVID-19 (relative risk (RR): 16.4; 95% CI: 13 to 20) than contact of primary case without congregation exposure. Among the symptomatic primary cases, household contacts of congregation primaries had higher RR than household contacts of other cases ((RR: 25.3; 95% CI: 10.2 to 63) vs (RR: 14.6; 95% CI: 5.7 to 37.7)). Among asymptomatic primary case, RR was increased among household contacts (RR: 16.5; 95% CI: 13.2 to 20.7) of congregation primaries compared with others. CONCLUSION: Our study showed an increase in disease transmission among household contacts than community contacts. Also, symptomatic primary cases and primary cases with exposure to the congregation had more secondary cases than others.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607310

RESUMO

Serological surveillance for vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles and rubella, can provide direct measures of population immunity across age groups, identify gaps in immunity, and document changes in immunity over time. Rigorously conducted, representative household serosurveys provide high-quality estimates with minimal bias. However, they can be logistically challenging, expensive, and have higher refusal rates than vaccine coverage surveys. This article shares lessons learned through implementing nine measles and rubella household serosurveys in five districts in India-the challenges faced, the potential impact on results, and recommendations to facilitate the conduct of serosurveys. Specific lessons learned arose from challenges related to community mobilization owing to lack of cooperation in certain settings and populations, limitations of outdated census information, nonresponse due to refusal or unavailability during survey enumeration and enrollment, data collection issues, and specimen collection and handling issues. Although some experiences are specific to serosurveys in India, these lessons are generalizable to other household surveys, particularly vaccination coverage and serosurveys conducted in low- and middle-income settings.

7.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(5&6): 671-676, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528524

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is a recommendation from the World Health Organization as the foremost preference in the current situation to control the COVID-19 pandemic. BBV152 is one of the approved vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in India. In this study, we determined SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels at day 0 (baseline, before vaccination), day 28 ± 2 post-first dose (month 1) and day 56 ± 2 post-first dose (month 2) of BBV152 whole-virion-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 recipients, and compared the antibody responses of individuals with confirmed pre-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection to those individuals without prior evidence of infection. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 114 healthcare professionals and frontline workers who received BBV152 vaccine from February to May & June 2021. Prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 was determined at baseline. Serum samples were used to estimate SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein-specific IgG [IgG (N)], spike protein-specific IgG [IgG (S)] and neutralizing antibodies (NAb). Results: Participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection after a single vaccine dose elicited IgG (N) and IgG (S) antibody levels along with NAb binding inhibition responses levels were similar to infection-naïve vaccinated participants who had taken two doses of vaccine. Interpretation & conclusions: Our preliminary data suggested that a single dose of BBV152-induced humoral immunity in previously infected individuals was equivalent to two doses of the vaccine in infection-naïve individuals. However, these findings need to be confirmed with large sized cohort studies.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , SARS-CoV-2
8.
mSphere ; 6(4): e0049021, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259563

RESUMO

Blood collection using dried blood spots (DBS) provides an easier alternative to venipuncture for sample collection, transport, and storage but requires additional processing that can cause variability in results. Whole-blood samples spotted on four DBS devices and respective paired serum samples were tested for antimeasles and antirubella IgG antibody concentrations by enzyme immunoassay. Elution protocols for DBS devices were optimized for comparability relative to serum samples using 12 adult volunteers. Stability of DBS collected on HemaSpot HF was assessed under various temperature conditions (+4, 22 to 25, and 45°C) at six time points (0, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days) in a controlled laboratory setting using six adult volunteers. Devices were shipped and stored for 30 days at four settings with variable temperature and humidity conditions to assess the impact on antibody concentrations. Three DBS devices demonstrated comparable antibody concentrations with paired sera following optimization. Antibodies recovered from DBS were stable for at least 90 days at 4°C and for 30 days at ambient temperature (22 to 25°C) using the HemaSpot HF device. A drastic decline in antibody concentrations was observed at 45°C, resulting in quantitative and qualitative discrepancies by day 7. HemaSpot HF devices shipped to field sites and stored at ambient temperature and humidity resulted in quantitative, but not qualitative, variability. Measurement of antimeasles and antirubella IgG antibodies with DBS devices is an accurate alternative to testing serum, provided elution protocols are optimized. Stability of HemaSpot HF devices at ambient temperature enables broader use in surveys when serum processing and cold storage are not feasible. IMPORTANCE Dried blood spot (DBS) collection offers various advantages over conventional methods of blood collection, especially when collecting and transporting samples for a serosurvey. Yet use of DBS requires additional processing steps in the laboratory that can add to variability in results. We optimized a protocol to elute IgG antibodies against measles and rubella viruses in four DBS devices, demonstrating high concordance with paired venous sera for most devices. Extensive stability studies with various temperature and storage conditions in the laboratory and in the field were conducted using HemaSpot HF DBS devices prior to its use in one of the largest community-based measles and rubella serological surveys in the world.

9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009608, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India has set a goal to eliminate measles and rubella/Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) by 2023. Towards this goal, India conducted nationwide supplementary immunization activity (SIA) with measles-rubella containing vaccine (MRCV) targeting children aged between 9 months to <15 years and established a hospital-based sentinel surveillance for CRS. Reliable data about incidence of CRS is necessary to monitor progress towards the elimination goal. METHODS: We conducted serosurveys in 2019-20 among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of 6 hospitals, which were also sentinel sites for CRS surveillance, to estimate the prevalence of IgG antibodies against rubella. We systematically sampled 1800 women attending antenatal clinics and tested their sera for IgG antibodies against rubella. We used rubella seroprevalence data from the current survey and the survey conducted in 2017 among antenatal women from another 6 CRS surveillance sites to construct a catalytic models to estimate the incidence and burden of CRS. RESULT: The seroprevalence of rubella antibodies was 82.3% (95% CI: 80.4-84.0). Rubella seropositivity did not differ by age group and educational status. Based on the constant and age-dependent force of infection models, we estimated that the annual incidence of CRS in India was 225.58 per 100,000 live births (95% CI: 217.49-232.41) and 65.47 per 100,000 live births (95% CI: 41.60-104.16) respectively. This translated to an estimated 14,520 (95% CI: 9,225-23,100) and 50,028 (95% CI: 48,234-51,543) infants with CRS every year based on age-dependent and constant force of infection models respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that about one fifth of women in the reproductive age group in India were susceptible for rubella. The estimates of CRS incidence will serve as a baseline to monitor the impact of MRCV SIAs, as well progress towards the elimination goal of rubella/CRS.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/patologia , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/sangue , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
10.
Vaccine ; 39(35): 4973-4978, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains the major etiology of encephalitis throughout Asia. In India, the state of Assam alone contributes more than one-third of the national burden of JE. Between 2011 and 2014, a single dose of JE vaccine SA 14-14-2 (LAJEV) was administered among adults aged 15-65 years residing in Sivasagar and Dibrugarh districts of Assam, India. We monitored the trend of JE incidence between 2009 and 2018 using JE surveillance data, estimated the long-term effectiveness of the single dose of LAJEV and estimated the coverage of JE vaccine in two districts. METHODS: We compared the JE vaccination status of laboratory-confirmed hospitalized JE patients (case) and age, sex and locality matched healthy individuals (controls) to estimate the effectiveness of single dose of JE vaccine. We used surveillance data for 2009-2018 to calculate the incidence of JE among adults. We conducted a community-based survey to estimate the coverage of JE vaccine in the two districts. RESULTS: A total of 452 laboratory-confirmed JE case-patients and 904 matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study between 2012 and 2018. The effectiveness of a single dose of JE vaccine over the 7-year period was 77.0 (95% CI: 67.0-83.0). Vaccine effectiveness decreased from 91% (95% CI: 73.0-97.0) in first year of vaccination to 71% (95% CI: 21.0-90.0) at six years post-vaccination. The incidence of adults JE cases declined from 10.5 per 100,000 in the pre-vaccination period to 5.7 per 100,000 in the years following vaccination. The coverage of vaccine among adults in two districts was 40.1% (36.8-43.5). CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of JE vaccine offered adequate protection for at least six years. Conducting mass vaccination campaigns periodically would further reduce the incidence of JE in endemic districts in Assam.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Encefalite Japonesa , Vacinas contra Encefalite Japonesa , Adulto , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Índia/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 145-155, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier serosurveys in India revealed seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) of 0.73% in May-June 2020 and 7.1% in August-September 2020. A third serosurvey was conducted between December 2020 and January 2021 to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the general population and healthcare workers (HCWs) in India. METHODS: The third serosurvey was conducted in the same 70 districts as the first and second serosurveys. For each district, at least 400 individuals aged ≥10 years from the general population and 100 HCWs from subdistrict-level health facilities were enrolled. Serum samples from the general population were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S1-RBD) proteins of SARS-CoV-2, whereas serum samples from HCWs were tested for anti-S1-RBD. Weighted seroprevalence adjusted for assay characteristics was estimated. RESULTS: Of the 28,598 serum samples from the general population, 4585 (16%) had IgG antibodies against the N protein, 6647 (23.2%) had IgG antibodies against the S1-RBD protein, and 7436 (26%) had IgG antibodies against either the N protein or the S1-RBD protein. Weighted and assay-characteristic-adjusted seroprevalence against either of the antibodies was 24.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.0-25.3%]. Among 7385 HCWs, the seroprevalence of anti-S1-RBD IgG antibodies was 25.6% (95% CI 23.5-27.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one in four individuals aged ≥10 years from the general population as well as HCWs in India had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 by December 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
13.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 33(5): 516-522, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018413

RESUMO

A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to estimate seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against scrub typhus, spotted fever group rickettsiae, and typhus group rickettsiae in randomly selected 48 clusters in 12 districts of 3 Northeast states of India: Assam, Meghalaya, and Tripura. Individuals in 3 age groups (5-8, 9-17, and 18-45 years) were selected from each cluster. Sera (N = 2360) tested were collected as part of a national survey on dengue seroprevalence conducted between September 2017 and February 2018. Overall, seroprevalence of 2.5% was detected against rickettsioses, with highest positivity against spotted fever group rickettsiae, followed by scrub typhus and typhus group rickettsiae. Seroprevalence was highest in Tripura (3.7%), followed by Assam (2.6%) and Meghalaya (1.04%). Adults of 18 to 45 years of age were found to be most affected (3.8%). The study findings indicate the need for increasing testing facilities for active case detection at hospital levels. Efforts on implementing effective preventing strategies are suggested to be targeted in disease-specific endemic foci.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rickettsia/imunologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(3): 375-381, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907001

RESUMO

Gorakhpur division consisting of Gorakhpur and neighboring districts Deoria, Kushinagar and Maharajganj in Uttar Pradesh, India, have been witnessing seasonal outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) among children for the last three decades. Investigations conducted during 2005 identified Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus as an aetiology of AES. With the introduction of JE vaccination and other control strategies, the incidence of JE in the region declined, however, outbreaks of acute febrile illness with neurological manifestations continued to occur. Subsequent investigations identified Orientia tsutsugamushi, as the major aetiology of AES outbreaks in the region. This review details clinical, epidemiological, animal and entomological investigations conducted for AES due to O. tsutsugamushi during 2015 and 2017 in Gorakhpur region. Surveillance of acute febrile illness among children attending peripheral health facilities identified scrub typhus as an important aetiology of febrile illness during monsoon and post-monsoon months. Population-based serosurveys indicated high endemicity of scrub typhus. Entomological studies demonstrated natural infection of O. tsutsugamushi in small animal hosts and vector mites. Children acquired this infection through recent exposure to outdoor environment, while playing, or visiting fields or defecating in open fields. A few of the children with scrub typhus progress to develop CNS manifestations. Hence, early administration of appropriate antibiotics is crucial in preventing progression of AFI due to scrub typhus to AES. The investigations conducted by the multi-disciplinary team helped understand the transmission dynamics of scrub typhus in Gorakhpur division and recommend strategies for its control.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Aguda Febril , Saúde Única , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Tifo por Ácaros , Encefalopatia Aguda Febril/complicações , Encefalopatia Aguda Febril/epidemiologia , Animais , Criança , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Orientia , Tifo por Ácaros/complicações , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
16.
Indian J Public Health ; 65(Supplement): S29-S33, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753589

RESUMO

Background: Two suspected shellfish poisoning events were reported in Cuddalore District in Tamil Nadu, India, between January and April 2015. Objectives: The study was conducted to confirm the outbreaks and to identify the source and risk factors. Methods: For both outbreaks, a case was defined as a person with nausea, vomiting, or dizziness. Sociodemographic details and symptoms were noted down. Data were also collected in a standard 3-day food frequency questionnaire, along with a collection of clam samples. A case-control study was initiated in the April outbreak. Stool samples were collected from cases, and clam vendors were interviewed. Results: In an outbreak that happened in January, all the twenty people reported to be consumed clams were diagnosed as cases (100% attack rate, 100% exposure rate). In the April outbreak, we identified 199 cases (95% attack rate). In both outbreaks, the clams were identified as genus Meretrix meretrix. The most common reported symptoms were dizziness and vomiting. The clams heated and consumed within 30-60 min. No heavy metals or chemicals were detected in the clams, but assays for testing shellfish toxins were unavailable. All 64 selected cases reported clam consumption (100% exposure rate) as did 11 controls (17% exposure rate). Illness was associated with a history of eating of clams (odds ratio = 314, 95% confidence interval = 39-512). Of the six stool samples tested, all were culture negative for Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio cholerae. The water at both sites was contaminated with garbage and sewage. Conclusion: Coordinated and timely efforts by a multidisciplinary team of epidemiologists, marine biologists, and food safety officers led to the outbreaks' containment.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia
17.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11: 100718, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754133

RESUMO

Background: Early detection of symptoms of loss of smell and taste lately added for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has the potential for improving pandemic response. In the Indian context, we compared proportion experiencing new loss of smell or taste among COVID-19 positive and negative individuals in Chennai city, Southern India. Methods: We did an analytical cross-sectional study among individuals aged 18-80 years undergoing testing at COVID-19 sample collection centres. We ascertained loss of smell and taste using standardised self-reporting and clinical examination procedures. We administered Sino Nasal Outcome (SNOT 22) questionnaire for comprehensive understanding of these symptoms. We compared proportion having symptoms between COVID-19 positive and negative persons. We compared the two assessment methods to compute diagnostic validity indicators. Results: Of the 277 participants, 169 (61%) were men and mean age of 40.7 years [SD = 13.3]. Fifty eight (21%) had COVID-19 and 12 (36%) of them were asymptomatic. Predominantly reported symptoms were fever (30%), headache (18%) and cough (18%). Self-reported or clinically identified new loss of smell or taste was higher among COVID-19 positive (n = 13; 22%) than negative persons (n = 23; 11%) [p = 0.02]. Sensitivity was higher for self-reported or clinically identified loss of smell (17.2%) than that of loss of taste (6.9%). Negative predictive value for loss of smell or taste, self-reported or clinically identified was 81%. Likelihood ratio of positive test was 2.13. Conclusion: Loss of smell or taste are predominantly reported by COVID-19 confirmed individuals. Objective and subjective assessments of smell and taste may be required to identify those requiring COVID-19 testing.

18.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(3): e257-e266, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first national severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serosurvey in India, done in May-June, 2020, among adults aged 18 years or older from 21 states, found a SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody seroprevalence of 0·73% (95% CI 0·34-1·13). We aimed to assess the more recent nationwide seroprevalence in the general population in India. METHODS: We did a second household serosurvey among individuals aged 10 years or older in the same 700 villages or wards within 70 districts in India that were included in the first serosurvey. Individuals aged younger than 10 years and households that did not respond at the time of survey were excluded. Participants were interviewed to collect information on sociodemographics, symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, exposure history to laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases, and history of COVID-19 illness. 3-5 mL of venous blood was collected from each participant and blood samples were tested using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay. Seroprevalence was estimated after applying the sampling weights and adjusting for clustering and assay characteristics. We randomly selected one adult serum sample from each household to compare the seroprevalence among adults between the two serosurveys. FINDINGS: Between Aug 18 and Sept 20, 2020, we enrolled and collected serum samples from 29 082 individuals from 15 613 households. The weighted and adjusted seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in individuals aged 10 years or older was 6·6% (95% CI 5·8-7·4). Among 15 084 randomly selected adults (one per household), the weighted and adjusted seroprevalence was 7·1% (6·2-8·2). Seroprevalence was similar across age groups, sexes, and occupations. Seroprevalence was highest in urban slum areas followed by urban non-slum and rural areas. We estimated a cumulative 74·3 million infections in the country by Aug 18, 2020, with 26-32 infections for every reported COVID-19 case. INTERPRETATION: Approximately one in 15 individuals aged 10 years or older in India had SARS-CoV-2 infection by Aug 18, 2020. The adult seroprevalence increased approximately tenfold between May and August, 2020. Lower infection-to-case ratio in August than in May reflects a substantial increase in testing across the country. FUNDING: Indian Council of Medical Research.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/sangue , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(6): 868-875, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diphtheria is re-emerging as a public health problem in several Indian states. Most diphtheria cases are among children older than 5 years. In this study, we aimed to estimate age-specific immunity against diphtheria in children aged 5-17 years in India. METHODS: We used residual serum samples from a cross-sectional, population-based serosurvey for dengue infection done between June 19, 2017, and April 12, 2018, to estimate the age-group-specific seroprevalence of antibodies to diphtheria in children aged 5-17 years in India. 8309 serum samples collected from 240 clusters (122 urban and 118 rural) in 60 selected districts of 15 Indian states spread across all five geographical regions (north, northeast, east, west, and south) of India were tested for the presence of IgG antibodies against diphtheria toxoid using an ELISA. We considered children with antibody concentrations of 0·1 IU/mL or greater as immune, those with levels less than 0·01 IU/mL as non-immune (and hence susceptible to diphtheria), and those with levels in the range of 0·01 to less than 0·1 IU/mL as partially immune. We calculated the weighted proportion of children who were immune, partially immune, and non-immune, with 95% CIs, for each geographical region by age group, sex, and area of residence (urban vs rural). FINDINGS: 29·7% (95% CI 26·3-33·4) of 8309 children aged 5-17 years were immune to diphtheria, 10·5% (8·6-12·8) were non-immune, and 59·8% (56·3-63·1) were partially immune. The proportion of children aged 5-17 years who were non-immune to diphtheria ranged from 6·0% (4·2-8·3) in the south to 16·8% (11·2-24·4) in the northeast. Overall, 9·9% (7·7-12·5) of children residing in rural areas and 13·1% (10·2-16·6) residing in urban areas were non-immune to diphtheria. A higher proportion of girls than boys were non-immune to diphtheria in the northern (17·7% [12·6-24·2] vs 7·1% [4·1-11·9]; p=0·0007) and northeastern regions (20·0% [12·9-29·8] vs 12·9% [8·6-19·0]; p=0·0035). INTERPRETATION: The findings of our serosurvey indicate that a substantial proportion of children aged 5-17 years were non-immune or partially immune to diphtheria. Transmission of diphtheria is likely to continue in India until the immunity gap is bridged through adequate coverage of primary and booster doses of diphtheria vaccine. FUNDING: Indian Council of Medical Research.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Toxoide Diftérico/administração & dosagem , Difteria/imunologia , Vigilância da População , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Difteria/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(3)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607585

RESUMO

Seasonal outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome have been occurring in Gorakhpur division in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh during monsoon and post-monsoon months. Orientia tsutsugamushi was identified as the major aetiology of these outbreaks. Orientia tsutsugamushi was also identified as one of the important aetiology of febrile illness among children attending peripheral health facilities. The present study was undertaken to detect antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) among children with acute febrile illness presenting at peripheral health facilities in Gorakhpur district. Of the 224 blood samples tested, SFGR infection was detected in 13 (6%) patients. None of the samples tested positive for TGR.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Aguda Febril , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Rickettsia , Tifo por Ácaros , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Criança , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Tifo por Ácaros/complicações , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/diagnóstico , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...