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1.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is some controversy about the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE). However, the incidence of CVE among patients with both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) ans resistant hypertension (HR) has not been evaluated. Our objective was to analyze the long-term effect of CPAP treatment in patients with RH and OSA on the incidence of CVE. METHODS: Multi-center, observational and prospective study of patients with moderate-severe OSA and RH. All the patients were followed up every 3-6 months and the CVE incidence was measured. Patients adherent to CPAP (at least 4h/day) were compared with those with not adherent or those who had not been prescribed CPAP. RESULTS: Valid data were obtained from 163 patients with 64 CVE incidents. Treatment with CPAP was offered to 82%. After 58 months of follow-up, 58.3% of patients were adherent to CPAP. Patients not adherent to CPAP presented a non-significant increase in the total CVE incidence (HR:1.6; 95%CI: 0.96-2.7; p=0.07). A sensitivity analysis showed that patients not adherent to CPAP had a significant increase in the incidence of cerebrovascular events (HR: 3.1; CI95%: 1.07-15.1; p=0.041) and hypertensive crises (HR: 5.1; CI95%: 2.2-11.6; p=0.006), but the trend went in the opposite direction with respect to coronary events (HR: 0.22; CI95%: 0.05-1.02; p=0.053). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with RH and moderate-severe OSA, an uneffective treatment with CPAP showed a trend toward an increase in the incidence of CVE (particularly neurovascular events and hypertensive crises) without any changes with respect to coronary events.

2.
Intensive Care Med ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912203

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Variations in clinical characteristics and management and in the mortality of mechanically ventilated patients have not been sufficiently evaluated. We hypothesized that mortality shows a variability associated with country after adjustment for clinical characteristics and management. METHODS: Analysis of four studies carried out at 6-year intervals over an 18-year period. The studies included 26,024 patients (5183 in 1998, 4968 in 2004, 8108 in 2010, and 7765 in 2016) admitted to 1253 units from 38 countries. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. We performed analyses using multilevel logistic modeling with mixed-random effects, including country as a random variable. To evaluate the effect of management strategies on mortality, a mediation analysis was performed. RESULTS: Adjusted 28-day mortality decreased significantly over time (first study as reference): 2004: odds ratio 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.93); 2010: 0.63 (95% CI 0.53-0.75); 2016: 0.49 (95% CI 0.39-0.61). A protective ventilatory strategy and the use of continuous sedation mediated a moderate fraction of the effect of time on mortality in patients with moderate hypoxemia and without hypoxemia, respectively. Logistic multilevel modeling showed a significant effect of country on mortality: median odds ratio (MOR) in 1998: 2.02 (95% CI 1.57-2.48); in 2004: 1.76 (95% CI 1.47-2.06); in 2010: 1.55 (95% CI 1.37-1.74), and in 2016: 1.39 (95% CI 1.25-1.54). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that country could contribute, independently of confounder variables, to outcome. The magnitude of the effect of country decreased over time. Clinical trials registered with http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02731898).

4.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of HCV infection in the general population of a health area through an intervention in Primary Care, differentiating between new diagnoses and infections previously diagnosed but not treated. METHODS: Participants were selected through a risk assessment questionnaire, with all those who gave at least one affirmative answer and all those over 50 years of age undergoing a rapid test. Positive tests were confirmed in the lab by determination of anti-HCV antibodies by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and determination of viraemia. RESULTS: Of the 7,991 participants, 36.2% presented a positive HCV risk questionnaire. 4,717 tests were performed, finding an anti-HCV percentage of 0.65% in the screened population, with 0.46% of active infections. Among the individuals with a positive test result, 51.9% had a known prior diagnosis but had not received treatment, because they were not aware of it or were not linked to the health system, and 19.2% had a positive result for the first time. The prevalence of hidden infection was higher in men, those over 50 years of age and people from Eastern Europe. CONCLUSION: We found a prevalence of active infections higher than recently described nationwide, and a higher percentage of newly diagnosed infections than recent similar studies in other areas. These differences justify the need to perform local assessments of the prevalence of HCV infection in each of the health areas where it is planned to implement and monitor a microelimination programme.

5.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859019

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An increased incidence of stroke in HIV-infected patients has already been reported, suggesting that HIV infection may be a cerebrovascular risk factor. The objective of this study was to assess temporal trends in the proportion of HIV infection among patients with stroke in Spain. METHODS: Data were obtained from the minimum basic dataset (MBDS) of all patients hospitalized in Spain between 1997 and 2012 with a primary or secondary diagnosis of stroke. The annual proportion of HIV infection and time trends (stratifying by type of stroke and HIV stage) were calculated, and predictors of HIV infection and the social and economic impact of HIV-infected (HIV+) and non-infected (HIV-) patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 857,371 patients hospitalized with an incident stroke, 2134 (0.25%) had HIV infection. A 2.5% year-on-year increase (OR 1.025, 95% CI 1.015-1.036, p<0.0001) of the proportion of HIV-infected patients was observed due to an increase in the asymptomatic stage of the infection (per year OR 1.077, 95% CI 1.057-1.097, p<0.0001), as the proportion of patients with AIDS remained stable. Factors independently associated with HIV infection and stroke were active smoking, stimulating drugs and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A higher mortality rate, longer hospital stay and a higher cost per hospitalized patient was observed among HIV+ patients. CONCLUSIONS: From 1997 to 2012, there was an increase in the proportion of HIV infection among patients hospitalized with stroke irrespective of the classical vascular risk factors, reinforcing the role of HIV infection as a cerebrovascular risk factor.

6.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 620, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop models for predicting the evolution of a neck pain (NP) episode. METHODS: Three thousand two hundred twenty-five acute and chronic patients seeking care for NP, were recruited consecutively in 47 health care centers. Data on 37 variables were gathered, including gender, age, employment status, duration of pain, intensity of NP and pain referred down to the arm (AP), disability, history of neck surgery, diagnostic procedures undertaken, imaging findings, clinical diagnosis, and treatments used. Three separate multivariable logistic regression models were developed for predicting a clinically relevant improvement in NP, AP and disability at 3 months. RESULTS: Three thousand one (93.5%%) patients attended follow-up. For all the models calibration was good. The area under the ROC curve was ≥0.717 for pain and 0.664 for disability. Factors associated with a better prognosis were: a) For all the outcomes: pain being acute (vs. chronic) and having received neuro-reflexotherapy. b) For NP: nonspecific pain (vs. pain caused by disc herniation or spinal stenosis), no signs of disc degeneration on imaging, staying at work, and being female. c) For AP: nonspecific NP and no signs of disc degeneration on imaging. d) For disability: staying at work and no signs of facet joint degeneration on imaging. CONCLUSIONS: A prospective registry can be used for developing valid predictive models to quantify the odds that a given patient with NP will experience a clinically relevant improvement.

7.
Otol Neurotol ; 40(10): e947-e954, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the hearing handicap inventory for adults scale (HHIA) to the Spanish language. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary neurotologic referral center. PATIENTS: The study included 104 hearing impaired persons. Inclusion criteria were adults with untreated hearing loss, diagnosed in the past 12 months. A control group of 30 normal hearing subjects was also recruited. INTERVENTION: HHIA was translated and translated back, and a pretest trial was performed. Feasibility, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and ceiling and floor effects were assessed for the present study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The mean overall score of the HHIA was 31.9 (0-100 scale, lowest to highest handicap). Cronbach's α was 0.95. Intraclass correlation coefficient was performed for each item, with an overall score of 0.95. The k coefficient scores ranged between moderate and almost perfect in all patients. The emotional score of the HHIA was correlated with the mental component of the SF-12. CONCLUSIONS: Feasibility, internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity outcomes in the current study support the validity of the Spanish version of the HHIA.

9.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629691

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a genetic risk score (GRS) improves prediction of recurrent events in young nondiabetic patients presenting with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and identifies a more aggressive form of atherosclerosis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study with consecutive nondiabetic patients aged <55 years presenting with AMI. We performed a genetic test, cardiac computed tomography, and analyzed several biomarkers. We studied the association of a GRS composed of 11 genetic variants and a primary composite endpoint (cardiovascular mortality, a recurrent event, and cardiac hospitalization). RESULTS: A total of 81 patients were studied and followed up for a median of 4.1 years. There were 24 recurrent cardiovascular events. Compared with the general population, study participants had a higher prevalence of 9 out of 11 risk alleles. The GRS was significantly associated with recurrent cardiovascular events, especially when baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were elevated. Compared with the low-risk GRS tertile, the multivariate-adjusted HR for recurrences was 10.2 (95%CI, 1.1-100.3; P=.04) for the intermediate-risk group and was 20.7 (2.4-181.0; P=.006) for the high-risk group when LDL-C was≥2.8mmol/L (≥ 110mg/dL). Inclusion of the GRS improved the C-statistic (ΔC-statistic=0.086), cNRI (continuous net reclassification improvement) (30%), and the IDI (integrated discrimination improvement) index (0.05). Cardiac computed tomography frequently detected coronary calcified atherosclerosis but had limited value for prediction of recurrences. No association was observed between metalloproteinases, GRS and recurrences. CONCLUSIONS: A multilocus GRS may identify individuals at increased risk of long-term recurrences among young nondiabetic patients with AMI and improve clinical risk stratification models, particularly among patients with high baseline LDL-C levels.

10.
Eur J Intern Med ; 70: 18-23, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening disease. We evaluated the prognostic utility of Model for End-stage Liver Disease excluding INR (MELD-XI) score for predicting mortality in a cohort of critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation. METHODS: In total, 11,091 mechanically ventilated patients were included in our post-hoc retrospective analysis, a subgroup of the VENTILA study (NCT02731898). Evaluation of associations with mortality was done by logistic and Cox regression analysis, an optimal cut-off was calculated using the Youden Index. We divided the cohort in two sub-groups based on their MELD-XI score at the optimal cut-off (12 score points). RESULTS: Peak-, plateau- and positive end-expiratory pressure were higher in patients with MELD-XI>12. Patients with MELD-XI>12 had higher driving pressures (14 ±â€¯6 cmH2O versus 13 ±â€¯6; p < 0.001). MELD-XI was associated with 28-day mortality after correction for relevant cofounders including SAPS II and ventilation pressures (HR 1.04 95%CI 1.03-1.05; p < 0.001. Patients with MELD-XI>12 evidenced both increased hospital (46% versus 27%; p < 0.001) and 28-day mortality (39% versus 22%). CONCLUSIONS: MELD-XI is independently associated with mortality and constitutes a useful and easily applicable tool for risk stratification in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02731898, registered 4 April 2016.

11.
J Emerg Med ; 57(6): 780-790, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nontraumatic headache is a frequent complaint in the emergency department (ED). Cranial computed tomography (CT) is a widely available test for the diagnostic work-up, despite the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation. OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and evaluate a cranial CT request computerized decision support system (CDSS) for adults with their first presentation of unusual severe nontraumatic headache in the ED. METHODS: Electronic database searches identified clinical decision and prediction rules and studies delineating risk factors in nontraumatic headache. A long list of risk factors extracted from these articles was reduced by a 30-member multidisciplinary expert panel (radiologists, emergency physicians, methodologists), using a 90% agreement threshold. This shortlist was used to develop the algorithm for the cranial CT request CDSS, which was implemented in March 2016. Impact evaluation compared CT scan frequency and diagnostic yield of pathologic findings before (March-August 2015) and after (March-August 2016) implementation. RESULTS: From the 10 selected studies, 10 risk factors were shortlisted to activate a request for cranial CT. Before implementation, 377 cranial CTs were ordered (15.3% of 2469 CT scans) compared with 244 after (9.5% of 2561 CT scans; pre-post difference 5.74%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.92-7.56%; p < 0.001), corresponding to a 37.6% relative reduction in the test ordering rate (95% CI 25.7-49.5%; p < 0.001). Despite the reduction in cranial CT scans, we did not observe an increase in pathological findings after introducing the decision support system (70 cases before [18.5%] vs. 35 cases after [14.3%]; pre-post difference -4.0% [95% CI -10.0 to 1.6%]; p = 0.170). CONCLUSION: In nontraumatic headache among adults seen in the ED, CDSS decreased the cranial CT request rate but the diagnostic yield did not improve.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220375, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369594

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV testing guidelines are poorly implemented in most clinical settings. The best screening strategy and healthcare scenario are still unknown. The aim of our study is to evaluate the impact of a structured HIV testing intervention (DRIVE), compared to HIV testing as routinely performed in clinical practice, in two different clinical settings: a primary care center and an emergency department. METHODS: Prospective evaluation of an HIV testing strategy in two clinical settings from the same healthcare area. The DRIVE program included trained nurse practitioners to perform the screening, a questionnaire to assess the risk of exposure and HIV indicator conditions (RE&IC), and rapid HIV tests. The main variables between the DRIVE program and clinical practice were the absolute number of newly diagnosed HIV infections and testing coverage. RESULTS: The DRIVE program included 5,329 participants, of which 51.2% reported at least one positive answer in the questionnaire. The estimated HIV testing coverage was significantly higher in the DRIVE program than in the routine clinical practice (7.17% vs. 0.96%, p < 0.001), and was better in the primary care center than in the emergency department with the two strategies. Twenty-two HIV-positive people were identified, with a rate of 8.6‰ in the emergency department vs. 2.2‰ in the primary care center (p = 0.001). A higher rate of new HIV diagnoses was found in the DRIVE program compared to routine clinical practice (29.6 vs. 3.1 per 100,000 patients attended; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: An easy-to-implement, structured intervention increased the absolute number of new HIV diagnoses and HIV tests, compared to routine clinical practice.

13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012247, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluid therapy is one of the main interventions provided for critically ill patients, although there is no general consensus regarding the type of solution. Among crystalloid solutions, 0.9% saline is the most commonly administered. Buffered solutions may offer some theoretical advantages (less metabolic acidosis, less electrolyte disturbance), but the clinical relevance of these remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of buffered solutions versus 0.9% saline for resuscitation in critically ill adults and children. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases to July 2018: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and four trials registers. We checked references, conducted backward and forward citation searching of relevant articles, and contacted study authors to identify additional studies. We imposed no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with parallel or cross-over design examining buffered solutions versus intravenous 0.9% saline in a critical care setting (resuscitation or maintenance). We included studies on participants with critical illness (including trauma and burns) or undergoing emergency surgery during critical illness who required intravenous fluid therapy. We included studies of adults and children. We included studies with more than two arms if they fulfilled all of our inclusion criteria. We excluded studies performed in persons undergoing elective surgery and studies with multiple interventions in the same arm. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used Cochrane's standard methodological procedures. We assessed our intervention effects using random-effects models, but when one or two trials contributed to 75% of randomized participants, we used fixed-effect models. We reported outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). MAIN RESULTS: We included 21 RCTs (20,213 participants) and identified three ongoing studies. Three RCTs contributed 19,054 participants (94.2%). Four RCTs (402 participants) were conducted among children with severe dehydration and dengue shock syndrome. Fourteen trials reported results on mortality, and nine reported on acute renal injury. Sixteen included trials were conducted in adults, four in the paediatric population, and one trial limited neither minimum or maximum age as an inclusion criterion. Eight studies involving 19,218 participants were rated as high methodological quality (trials with overall low risk of bias according to the domains: allocation concealment, blinding of participants/assessors, incomplete outcome data, and selective reporting), and in the remaining trials, some form of bias was introduced or could not be ruled out.We found no evidence of an effect of buffered solutions on in-hospital mortality (odds ratio (OR) 0.91, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.01; 19,664 participants; 14 studies; high-certainty evidence). Based on a mortality rate of 119 per 1000, buffered solutions could reduce mortality by 21 per 1000 or could increase mortality by 1 per 1000. Similarly, we found no evidence of an effect of buffered solutions on acute renal injury (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.00; 18,701 participants; 9 studies; low-certainty evidence). Based on a rate of 121 per 1000, buffered solutions could reduce the rate of acute renal injury by 19 per 1000, or result in no difference in the rate of acute renal injury. Buffered solutions did not show an effect on organ system dysfunction (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.61; 266 participants; 5 studies; very low-certainty evidence). Evidence on the effects of buffered solutions on electrolyte disturbances varied: potassium (mean difference (MD) 0.09, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.27; 158 participants; 4 studies; very low-certainty evidence); chloride (MD -3.02, 95% CI -5.24 to -0.80; 351 participants; 7 studies; very low-certainty evidence); pH (MD 0.04, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.06; 200 participants; 3 studies; very low-certainty evidence); and bicarbonate (MD 2.26, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.27; 344 participants; 6 studies; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no effect of buffered solutions on preventing in-hospital mortality compared to 0.9% saline solutions in critically ill patients. The certainty of evidence for this finding was high, indicating that further research would detect little or no difference in mortality. The effects of buffered solutions and 0.9% saline solutions on preventing acute kidney injury were similar in this setting. The certainty of evidence for this finding was low, and further research could change this conclusion. Patients treated with buffered solutions showed lower chloride levels, higher levels of bicarbonate, and higher pH. The certainty of evidence for these findings was very low. Future research should further examine patient-centred outcomes such as quality of life. The three ongoing studies once published and assessed may alter the conclusions of the review.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Hidratação/métodos , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Criança , Cuidados Críticos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Soluções para Reidratação
14.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(12): 2120-2132, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349061

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ROS1 gene rearrangement has become an important biomarker in NSCLC. The College of American Pathologists/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/Association for Molecular Pathology testing guidelines support the use of ROS1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a screening test, followed by confirmation with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or a molecular test in all positive results. We have evaluated a novel anti-ROS1 IHC antibody (SP384) in a large multicenter series to obtain real-world data. METHODS: A total of 43 ROS1 FISH-positive and 193 ROS1 FISH-negative NSCLC samples were studied. All specimens were screened by using two antibodies (clone D4D6 from Cell Signaling Technology and clone SP384 from Ventana Medical Systems), and the different interpretation criteria were compared with break-apart FISH (Vysis). FISH-positive samples were also analyzed with next-generation sequencing (Oncomine Dx Target Test Panel, Thermo Fisher Scientific). RESULTS: An H-score of 150 or higher or the presence of at least 70% of tumor cells with an intensity of staining of 2+ or higher by the SP384 clone was the optimal cutoff value (both with 93% sensitivity and 100% specificity). The D4D6 clone showed similar results, with an H-score of at least 100 (91% sensitivity and 100% specificity). ROS1 expression in normal lung was more frequent with use of the SP384 clone (p < 0.0001). The ezrin gene (EZR)-ROS1 variant was associated with membranous staining and an isolated green signal FISH pattern (p = 0.001 and p = 0.017, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The new SP384 ROS1 IHC clone showed excellent sensitivity without compromising specificity, so it is another excellent analytical option for the proposed testing algorithm.

15.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218380, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late HIV diagnosis remains one of the challenges in combating the epidemic. Primary care providers play an important role in screening for HIV infection. Our study aims to evaluate the relationship between knowledge and barriers to HIV testing and screening outcomes. The impact of an education program for primary care providers, towards improving HIV testing and late diagnosis rates, is also assessed. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire that was developed within the framework of the European project OptTEST was used to examine HIV knowledge and barriers to HIV testing scores before and after being involved in an HIV education program. A quasi-experimental design with pre- and post-intervention measures was performed to investigate its impact. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess the relationship between variables for the HIV testing offer. RESULTS: A total of 20 primary care centers and 454 primary care staff were included. Baseline OptTEST results showed that more knowledgeable staff offered an HIV test more frequently (OR 1.07; CI 95% 1.01-1.13; p = 0.027) and had lower barrier scores (OR 0.89; CI 95% 0.77-0.95; p = 0.005). Nurses had lower scores in knowledge-related items (OR 0.28; CI 95% 0.17-0.46; p<0.001), but higher scores in barrier-related items than physicians (OR 3.28; CI 95% 2.01-5.46; p<0.001). Specific centers with more knowledgeable staff members had a significant association with a greater level of new HIV diagnosis rates (OR 1.61; CI 95% 1.04-2.49; p = 0.032). After the intervention, we found that 12 out of 14 individual questions showed improved scores. In the 6 months after the training program, we similarly found a higher HIV testing rate (OR 1.19; CI 1.02-1.42; p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the association between knowledge and barriers to HIV testing, including HIV testing rates. It shows that it is possible to modify knowledge and reduce perceived barriers through educational programs, subsequently improving HIV screening outcomes.

16.
BMJ ; 366: l4416, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between experience in the management of acute pulmonary embolism, reflected by hospital case volume, and mortality. DESIGN: Multinational population based cohort study using data from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) registry between 1 January 2001 and 31 August 2018. SETTING: 353 hospitals in 16 countries. PARTICIPANTS: 39 257 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pulmonary embolism related mortality within 30 days after diagnosis of the condition. RESULTS: Patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism admitted to high volume hospitals (>40 pulmonary embolisms per year) had a higher burden of comorbidities. A significant inverse association was seen between annual hospital volume and pulmonary embolism related mortality. Admission to hospitals in the highest quarter (that is, >40 pulmonary embolisms per year) was associated with a 44% reduction in the adjusted odds of pulmonary embolism related mortality at 30 days compared with admission to hospitals in the lowest quarter (<15 pulmonary embolisms per year; adjusted risk 1.3% v 2.3%; adjusted odds ratio 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.95); P=0.03). Results were consistent in all sensitivity analyses. All cause mortality at 30 days was not significantly reduced between the two quarters (adjusted odds ratio 0.78 (0.50 to 1.22); P=0.28). Survivors showed little change in the odds of recurrent venous thromboembolism (odds ratio 0.76 (0.49 to 1.19)) or major bleeding (1.07 (0.77 to 1.47)) between the low and high volume hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism, admission to high volume hospitals was associated with significant reductions in adjusted pulmonary embolism related mortality at 30 days. These findings could have implications for management strategies.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais com Baixo Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Eur Respir J ; 54(2)2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164429

RESUMO

The efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in elderly patients with nonsevere obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of CPAP treatment in elderly patients with moderate OSA in terms of clinical, quality-of-life and neurocognitive measures.This was an open-label, randomised, multicentre clinical trial in 145 elderly patients (≥70 years old) with confirmed moderate OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index 15-29.9 events·h-1) randomised to receive CPAP (n=73) or no CPAP (n=72) for 3 months. The primary end-point was the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score, and the secondary end-points included quality of life (Quebec Sleep Questionnaire (QSQ) domain scores), sleep-related symptoms, presence of anxiety/depression, office-based blood pressure measurements and some neurocognitive tests. The analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle.Mean±sd age was 74.9±4.6 years. The CPAP group achieved a greater improvement in the ESS score (adjusted difference of 2.6 (95% CI 3.6-1.6) points; effect size 1) in some sleep-related symptoms and in some dimensions of the QSQ questionnaire (nocturnal symptoms: -0.7 (95% CI -0.3--1.0) points; p<0.0001 and emotions: -0.4 (95% CI -0.1--0.7) points; p=0.023). However, CPAP did not demonstrate any effect on either neurocognitive tests (including anxiety and depression) or blood pressure levels. There was a positive correlation between the effect of CPAP and the improvement in ESS scores and quality of life domains.CPAP treatment resulted in a significant improvement in diurnal hypersomnia and some sleep-related symptoms and quality of life domains in elderly patients with moderate OSA.

18.
Hypertens Res ; 42(11): 1708-1715, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209397

RESUMO

Refractory hypertension (RfH) is defined as a lack of blood pressure control despite the administration of at least 5 anti-hypertensive drugs. The factors associated with its natural history are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate both the incidence of RfH in an cohort of patients with resistant hypertension (RH) and the factors involved in that progression. This was an observational prospective multicenter study (24 centers) with 172 patients with confirmed RH (24-h ABPM) who underwent a further 24 h ABPM study at the end of the follow-up. Prospective information was obtained from all patients in their corresponding Hypertension Units via a standard clinical protocol, and they all underwent a sleep study. Thirty patients were diagnosed with RfH (17.4%) after a mean follow-up of 57 months, despite the prescription of a greater number of long-acting thiazide-like diuretics and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. The factors associated with progression to RfH were: a longer period since the diagnosis of RH (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.1, p = 0.007); the HbA1c concentration (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.42-1.8; p = 0.005); the initial heart rate (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.09, p = 0.004); and poor adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in cases of obstructive sleep apnea (OR: 3.36, 95% CI: 1.47-7.7, p = 0.004). In conclusion, a considerable percentage of patients evolved from the RH to the RfH phenotype despite changes in their treatment. Some easily measurable variables, such as heart rate, the time since the diagnosis, the HbA1c level, and the presence of untreated obstructive sleep apnea (or poor adherence to CPAP) have been demonstrated to be prognostic factors in the progression to RfH.

19.
Chest ; 155(4): 689-698, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether propensity score-adjusted observational studies produce results comparable to those of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that address similar VTE treatment issues. METHODS: The PubMed and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for propensity score-adjusted observational studies, RCTs, and meta-analyses of RCTs that estimated all-cause mortality following VTE treatment. After identifying distinct clinical treatment issues evaluated in the eligible observational studies, a standardized algorithm was used to identify and match at least one RCT or RCT meta-analysis publication for paired study design analyses. Meta-analyses were used to summarize groups of studies. Treatment efficacy statistics (relative ORs) were compared between the paired observational and RCT studies, and the summary relative ORs for all study design pairs were also calculated. RESULTS: The observational and RCT study pairs assessed seven clinical treatment issues. Overall, the observational study-RCT pairs did not exhibit significantly different mortality estimates (summary relative OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.32-1.46; I2 = 23%). However, two of the seven treatment issue study pairs (thrombolysis vs anticoagulation for pulmonary embolism; once- vs twice-daily enoxaparin for VTE) exhibited a significantly different treatment effect direction, and there was a substantial (nonsignificant) difference in the magnitude of the effect in another two of the study pairs (rivaroxaban vs vitamin K antagonists for VTE; home treatment vs hospitalization for DVT). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic comparison across seven VTE treatment topics suggests that propensity score-adjusted observational studies and RCTs often exhibit similar all-cause mortality, although differences in the direction or the magnitude of estimated treatment effects may occasionally occur. TRIAL REGISTRY: PROSPERO; CRD42018087819; URL: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Pontuação de Propensão , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Causas de Morte/tendências , Saúde Global , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
20.
J Hypertens ; 37(6): 1269-1275, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676482

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can significantly reduce blood pressure (BP) levels in patients with resistant hypertension and sleep apnea (OSA); however, the effect on patients with refractory hypertension (RfH) is not known. This study seeks to evaluate the effect of CPAP treatment on BP levels in patients with OSA and RfH, compared with those with OSA and resistant hypertension. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of the HIPARCO randomized clinical trial on the effect of CPAP treatment on BP levels in patients with resistant hypertension. Those patients with uncontrolled 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring readings (>130 and/or >80 mmHg) in SBP or DBP were considered to have resistant hypertension (if they were taking three or four antihypertensive drugs) or RfH (if they were taking at least five drugs). OSA patients were randomized to receive CPAP or usual care for 3 months. They underwent a second 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring study to establish the effect of CPAP treatment on BP levels in both groups. RESULTS: A total of 98 patients were randomized to CPAP (19 RfH/79 resistant hypertension) and 96 to usual care (21 RfH/75 resistant hypertension). BP readings dropped more marked in patients with RfH than resistant hypertension, in both 24-h SBP (-9 vs. -1.6 mmHg, P = 0.021) and 24-h DBP (-7.3 vs. -2.3 mmHg, P = 0.074), especially at night (-11.3 vs. -3.8, P = 0.121 and -8.8 vs. -2.2, P = 0.054) respectively. Adjusted difference between groups was statistically significant in 24-h SBP levels (-7.4 mmHg, P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: CPAP lowers BP levels in both resistant hypertension and RfH patients although the degree of this reduction is higher in those with RfH especially during the night.

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