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1.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; : 1-12, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prehospital obstetric population that utilizes emergency medical services (EMS) and their association with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective evaluation of one year of all medical calls from a large, municipal, midwestern fire department. Inclusion criteria included all pregnant patients transported to a hospital by EMS. Descriptive statistics were calculated to evaluate prehospital event information (e.g., zip code, time, and duration of call), patient characteristics, and clinical management data regarding blood pressure. Census data were used to compare neighborhood information with poverty rates. RESULTS: Of the 1,575 identified patients, 64.4% (1015/1575) presented with obstetric complaints, 57.4% (700/1220) were in their third trimester and 72.7% (686/944) were multiparous. The median call duration was 17 (interquartile range 12-22) minutes. In the areas where EMS usage was highest, one quarter of individuals lived below the poverty level. Of the studied population, 32.0% (504/1575) were found to be hypertensive; 14.9% (75/504) of hypertensive patients were found to have severe hypertension. Only one patient (1/1575, 0.06%) presented with a chief complaint of hypertension; the rest were discovered by EMS. The highest rates of hypertension were noted in wealthier areas of the city. Patients with severe hypertension were more likely to present with seizures, consistent with eclampsia. CONCLUSION: Hypertension is common in the obstetric population using EMS. Prehospital management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy may focus on identification and treatment of severe pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. Areas with longer call times may consider treatment of severe hypertension. Prehospital treatment of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy could be optimized.

2.
J Pediatr Surg ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indocyanine green (ICG), a water-soluble tricarbocyanine fluorophore, is being increasingly used for tumor localization based on its passive intra-tumoral accumulation due to enhanced permeability and retention in tumor tissue. Therefore, we hypothesized that ICG can provide contrast to facilitate accurate, real-time recognition of renal tumors at the time of nephron-sparing surgery in children. METHODS: This retrospective study examined the feasibility of ICG in guiding nephron-sparing surgery for pediatric renal tumors. RESULTS: We reviewed the medical records of 8 pediatric patients with renal tumors in 12 kidneys. Intraoperative localization of tumor with near infrared guidance was successful in all 12 kidneys. However, we consistently found an inverse pattern of near infrared signal in which the normal kidney demonstrated increased fluorescent signal relative to the kidney tumor. CONCLUSIONS: Fluorescence-guided renal tumor delineation is unique because it has an inverse pattern of near infrared signal in which the normal kidney demonstrates increased signal relative to the adjacent tumor. Nevertheless fluorescence-guided distinguishing of renal tumor from surrounding normal kidney is feasible.

3.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534269

RESUMO

Neutrophils, the most abundant of all leukocytes and the first cells to arrive at the sites of sterile inflammation/injury act as a double-edged sword. On one hand, they inflict a significant collateral damage to the tissues and on the other hand they help facilitate wound healing by a number of mechanisms. Recent studies have drastically changed the perception of neutrophils from being simple one-dimensional cells with an un-restrained mode of action to a cell type that display maturity and complex behavior. It is now recognized that neutrophils are transcriptionally active and respond to plethora of signals by deploying a wide variety of cargo to influence the activity of other cells in the vicinity. Neutrophils can regulate macrophage behavior, display innate immune memory, and play a major role in the resolution of inflammation in a context-dependent manner. In this review, we provide an update on the factors that regulate neutrophil production and the emerging dichotomous role of neutrophils in the context of cardiovascular diseases, particularly in atherosclerosis and the ensuing complications, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Deciphering the complex behavior of neutrophils during inflammation and resolution may provide novel insights and in turn facilitate the development of potential therapeutic strategies to manage cardiovascular disease.

4.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(20): 9878-9883, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558178

RESUMO

NASH is a chronic liver disease that affects 3%-6% of individuals and requires urgent therapeutic developments. Isolating the key cell types in the liver is a necessary step towards understanding their function and roles in disease pathogenesis. However, traditional isolation methods through gradient centrifugation can only collect one or a few cell types simultaneously and pose technical difficulties when applied to NASH livers. Taking advantage of identified cell surface markers from liver single-cell RNAseq, here we established the combination of gradient centrifugation and antibody-based cell sorting techniques to isolate five key liver cell types (hepatocytes, endothelial cells, stellate cells, macrophages and other immune cells) from a single mouse liver. This method yielded high purity of each cell type from healthy and NASH livers. Our five-in-one protocol simultaneously isolates key liver cell types with high purity under normal and NASH conditions, enabling for systematic and accurate exploratory experiments such as RNA sequencing.

5.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 216-226, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of and risk factors for late-onset kidney failure among survivors over the very long term remains understudied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 25,530 childhood cancer survivors (median follow-up 22.3 years, interquartile range 17.4-28.8) diagnosed between 1970 and 1999, and 5045 siblings from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study were assessed for self-reported late-onset kidney failure, defined as dialysis, renal transplantation, or death attributable to kidney disease. Piecewise exponential models evaluated associations between risk factors and the rate of late-onset kidney failure. RESULTS: A total of 206 survivors and 10 siblings developed late-onset kidney failure, a 35-year cumulative incidence of 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-1.9) and 0.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1-0.4), respectively, corresponding to an adjusted rate ratio (RR) of 4.9 (95% CI = 2.6-9.2). High kidney dose from radiotherapy (≥15Gy; RR = 4.0, 95% CI = 2.1-7.4), exposure to high-dose anthracycline (≥250 mg/m2; RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.6) or any ifosfamide chemotherapy (RR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.2-5.7), and nephrectomy (RR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.4) were independently associated with elevated risk for late-onset kidney failure among survivors. Survivors who developed hypertension, particularly in the context of prior nephrectomy (RR = 14.4, 95% CI = 7.1-29.4 hypertension with prior nephrectomy; RR = 5.9, 95% CI = 3.3-10.5 hypertension without prior nephrectomy), or diabetes (RR = 2.2, 95%CI = 1.2-4.2) were also at elevated risk for late-onset kidney failure. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for late-onset kidney failure. Kidney dose from radiotherapy ≥15 Gy, high-dose anthracycline, any ifosfamide, and nephrectomy were associated with increased risk of late-onset kidney failure among survivors. Successful diagnosis and management of modifiable risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension may mitigate the risk for late-onset kidney failure. The association of late-onset kidney failure with anthracycline chemotherapy represents a novel finding that warrants further study.

6.
Mol Ther ; 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400331

RESUMO

Lysosomal diseases are a class of genetic disorders predominantly caused by loss of lysosomal hydrolases, leading to lysosomal and cellular dysfunction. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), where recombinant enzyme is given intravenously, internalized by cells, and trafficked to the lysosome, has been applied to treat several lysosomal diseases. However, current ERT regimens do not correct disease phenotypes in all affected organs because the biodistribution of enzyme uptake does not match that of the affected cells that require the enzyme. We present here targeted ERT, an approach that utilizes antibody-enzyme fusion proteins to target the enzyme to specific cell types. The antibody moiety recognizes transmembrane proteins involved in lysosomal trafficking and that are also preferentially expressed in those cells most affected in disease. Using Pompe disease (PD) as an example, we show that targeted ERT is superior to ERT in treating the skeletal muscle phenotypes of PD mice both as a protein replacement therapeutic and as a gene therapy.

7.
J Pediatr Surg ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452755

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the oncologic and surgical management of bilateral Wilms tumor or Wilms tumor arising in a horseshoe kidney with intravenous tumor thrombus to help pediatric surgeons negotiate this rare and difficult anatomic circumstance. METHODS: A single-institution, retrospective medical record review identified 4 cases of bilateral WT and one case of WT arising in a horseshoe kidney with intravenous tumor thrombus between 2009 and 2021. The presentation, imaging, chemotherapy regimen, intraoperative approach, and surgical and oncologic outcomes were reviewed for each of these patients. RESULTS: All patients received a total of 12 weeks of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In two patients, a staged approach to the bilateral tumors was undertaken with the first side being operated on after six weeks of therapy and the other side undergoing surgery after an additional six weeks of therapy. Of five patients, four underwent nephron-sparing surgery of all tumors and one underwent unilateral radical nephroureterectomy with contralateral nephron-sparing surgery. Tumor thrombectomy was performed in four of five cases; one patient demonstrated a complete response of the intravenous tumor thrombus to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and did not require thrombectomy. Three patients received adjuvant flank radiotherapy. Three patients developed medically managed stage II or III chronic kidney disease and no patient required renal replacement therapy or kidney transplant to date. CONCLUSION: Nephron-sparing surgery is feasible and safe to perform in selected cases of bilateral Wilms tumor with intravascular thrombus by utilizing three-drug neoadjuvant chemotherapy, staged approaches to each kidney when appropriate, and detailed preoperative and/or intraoperative mapping of renal venous anatomy. Successful nephron-sparing surgery with tumor thrombectomy is dependent on a branched renal venous system or the presence of accessory renal veins.

8.
J Pediatr Surg ; 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456040

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to identify clinical features associated with difficult subcutaneous port removals in children. METHODS: Ports placed between April 2014 and September 2017 at our institution were prospectively tracked for difficult removals. A case-control analysis was performed. Patients with ports that were difficult to remove (stuck; cases) were compared to biological sex and age-matched controls in a ratio of 1:3. Logistic regression determined the association between case/control status and clinical features adjusting for biological sex and age as covariates. A multivariable analysis was performed to identify independent associations. RESULTS: 57 stuck ports (28 extreme [10 endovascular intervention] and 29 moderate) and 171 controls were analyzed. Stuck ports were associated with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (86% cases versus 22.2% controls; p < 0.001) and a longer placement duration (median 2.6 years [interquartile range (IQR) 2.5-2.6] versus 0.8 years [IQR 0.5-1.4]; p < 0.001). On univariate analysis, procedural and device features associated with stuck ports included subclavian access (71.9% cases versus 48.5% controls; p = 0.0126), a polyurethane versus silicone catheter (96.5% cases versus 79.9% controls; p = 0.001), and a rough catheter appearance at removal (92.6% cases versus 9.4% controls; p < 0.0001). A diagnosis of ALL and duration of line placement were associated with having a stuck port on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Polyurethane central venous catheters placed for the two-year treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia may become difficult to remove. This constellation of factors warrants more extensive preoperative discussion of risk, endovascular backup availability, and scheduling for longer operating room time.

9.
Science ; 373(6550)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210852

RESUMO

Large-scale human exome sequencing can identify rare protein-coding variants with a large impact on complex traits such as body adiposity. We sequenced the exomes of 645,626 individuals from the United Kingdom, the United States, and Mexico and estimated associations of rare coding variants with body mass index (BMI). We identified 16 genes with an exome-wide significant association with BMI, including those encoding five brain-expressed G protein-coupled receptors (CALCR, MC4R, GIPR, GPR151, and GPR75). Protein-truncating variants in GPR75 were observed in ~4/10,000 sequenced individuals and were associated with 1.8 kilograms per square meter lower BMI and 54% lower odds of obesity in the heterozygous state. Knock out of Gpr75 in mice resulted in resistance to weight gain and improved glycemic control in a high-fat diet model. Inhibition of GPR75 may provide a therapeutic strategy for obesity.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Exoma/genética , Obesidade/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ganho de Peso/genética
10.
Diabetes ; 70(8): 1754-1766, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285121

RESUMO

Half of the mortality in diabetes is seen in individuals <50 years of age and commonly predicted by the early onset of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). In type 1 diabetes, increased urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) during adolescence defines this risk, but the pathological factors responsible remain unknown. We postulated that early in diabetes, glucose variations contribute to kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) release from circulating T cells, elevating uACR and DKD risk. DKD risk was assigned in youth with type 1 diabetes (n = 100; 20.0 ± 2.8 years; males/females, 54:46; HbA1c 66.1 [12.3] mmol/mol; diabetes duration 10.7 ± 5.2 years; and BMI 24.5 [5.3] kg/m2) and 10-year historical uACR, HbA1c, and random blood glucose concentrations collected retrospectively. Glucose fluctuations in the absence of diabetes were also compared with streptozotocin diabetes in apolipoprotein E -/- mice. Kidney biopsies were used to examine infiltration of KIM-1-expressing T cells in DKD and compared with other chronic kidney disease. Individuals at high risk for DKD had persistent elevations in uACR defined by area under the curve (AUC; uACRAUC0-10yrs, 29.7 ± 8.8 vs. 4.5 ± 0.5; P < 0.01 vs. low risk) and early kidney dysfunction, including ∼8.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher estimated glomerular filtration rates (modified Schwartz equation; Padj < 0.031 vs. low risk) and plasma KIM-1 concentrations (∼15% higher vs. low risk; P < 0.034). High-risk individuals had greater glycemic variability and increased peripheral blood T-cell KIM-1 expression, particularly on CD8+ T cells. These findings were confirmed in a murine model of glycemic variability both in the presence and absence of diabetes. KIM-1+ T cells were also infiltrating kidney biopsies from individuals with DKD. Healthy primary human proximal tubule epithelial cells exposed to plasma from high-risk youth with diabetes showed elevated collagen IV and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 expression, alleviated with KIM-1 blockade. Taken together, these studies suggest that glycemic variations confer risk for DKD in diabetes via increased CD8+ T-cell production of KIM-1.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/sangue , Rim/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(10): 669-679, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285393

RESUMO

Cardiometabolic disorders were originally thought to be driven primarily by changes in lipid metabolism that cause the accumulation of lipids in organs, thereby impairing their function. Thus, in the setting of cardiovascular disease, statins - a class of lipid-lowering drugs - have remained the frontline therapy. In the past 20 years, seminal discoveries have revealed a central role of both the innate and adaptive immune system in driving cardiometabolic disorders. As such, it is now appreciated that immune-based interventions may have an important role in reducing death and disability from cardiometabolic disorders. However, to date, there have been a limited number of clinical trials exploring this interventional strategy. Nonetheless, elegant preclinical research suggests that immune-targeted therapies can have a major impact in treating cardiometabolic disease. Here, we discuss the history and recent advancements in the use of immunotherapies to treat cardiometabolic disorders.

12.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 913, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312491

RESUMO

Tissue-resident γδ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) orchestrate innate and adaptive immune responses to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. Epithelia-specific butyrophilin-like (Btnl) molecules induce perinatal development of distinct Vγ TCR+ IELs, however, the mechanisms that control γδ IEL maintenance within discrete intestinal segments are unclear. Here, we show that Btnl2 suppressed homeostatic proliferation of γδ IELs preferentially in the ileum. High throughput transcriptomic characterization of site-specific Btnl2-KO γδ IELs reveals that Btnl2 regulated the antimicrobial response module of ileal γδ IELs. Btnl2 deficiency shapes the TCR specificities and TCRγ/δ repertoire diversity of ileal γδ IELs. During DSS-induced colitis, Btnl2-KO mice exhibit increased inflammation and delayed mucosal repair in the colon. Collectively, these data suggest that Btnl2 fine-tunes γδ IEL frequencies and TCR specificities in response to site-specific homeostatic and inflammatory cues. Hence, Btnl-mediated targeting of γδ IEL development and maintenance may help dissect their immunological functions in intestinal diseases with segment-specific manifestations.

13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111668, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243630

RESUMO

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex and multifactorial condition often characterised by obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and fasting hyperglycaemia. Collectively, MetS can increase the risk of atherosclerotic-cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. However, no animal model currently exists to study MetS in the context of atherosclerosis. In this study we developed a pre-clinical mouse model that recapitulates the spectrum of MetS features while developing atherosclerosis. When BPHx mice were placed on a western type diet for 16 weeks, all the classical characteristics of MetS were observed. Comprehensive metabolic analyses and atherosclerotic imaging revealed BPHx mice to be obese and hypertensive, with elevated total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, that accelerated atherosclerosis. Altogether, we demonstrate that the BPHx mouse has all the major components of MetS, and accelerates the development of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/patologia , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148367

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Neutrophil behavior and function is altered by hyperglycemia associated with diabetes. Aberrant activation by hyperglycemia causes neutrophils to respond with increased production of reactive oxidative species (ROS). Excess ROS, a signature of primed neutrophils, can intracellularly induce neutrophils to undergo NETosis, flooding surrounding tissues with ROS and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as S100 calcium binding proteins (S100A8/A9). The cargo associated with NETosis also attracts more immune cells to the site and signals for increased immune cell production. This inflammatory response to diabetes can accelerate other associated conditions such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent Advances: As the prevalence of diabetes continues to grow, more attention has been focused on developing effective treatment options. Currently, glucose-lowering medications and insulin injections are the most widely utilized treatments. As the disease progresses, medications are usually stacked to maintain glucose at desired target levels, but this approach often fails and does not effectively reduce cardiovascular risk, even with the latest drugs. CRITICAL ISSUES: Despite advances in treatment options, diabetes remains a progressive disease as glucose lowering alone has failed to abolish the associated cardiovascular complications. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Significant interest is being generated in developing treatments that do not solely focus on glucose control but rather mitigate glucotoxicity. Several therapies have been proposed that target cellular dysfunction downstream of hyperglycemia, such as using antioxidants to scavenge ROS, inhibiting ROS production from NOX, and suppressing neutrophil release of S100A8/A9 proteins.

15.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 116, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is associated with a significantly elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and its specific pathophysiology remains unclear. Recent studies have changed our understanding of cardiac cellularity, with cellular changes accompanying diabetes yet to be examined in detail. This study aims to characterise the changes in the cardiac cellular landscape in murine diabetes to identify potential cellular protagonists in the diabetic heart. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in male FVB/N mice by low-dose streptozotocin and a high-fat diet for 26-weeks. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography at endpoint. Flow cytometry was performed on cardiac ventricles as well as blood, spleen, and bone-marrow at endpoint from non-diabetic and diabetic mice. To validate flow cytometry results, immunofluorescence staining was conducted on left-ventricles of age-matched mice. RESULTS: Mice with diabetes exhibited hyperglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance at endpoint. Echocardiography revealed reduced E:A and e':a' ratios in diabetic mice indicating diastolic dysfunction. Systolic function was not different between the experimental groups. Detailed examination of cardiac cellularity found resident mesenchymal cells (RMCs) were elevated as a result of diabetes, due to a marked increase in cardiac fibroblasts, while smooth muscle cells were reduced in proportion. Moreover, we found increased levels of Ly6Chi monocytes in both the heart and in the blood. Consistent with this, the proportion of bone-marrow haematopoietic stem cells were increased in diabetic mice. CONCLUSIONS: Murine diabetes results in distinct changes in cardiac cellularity. These changes-in particular increased levels of fibroblasts-offer a framework for understanding how cardiac cellularity changes in diabetes. The results also point to new cellular mechanisms in this context, which may further aid in development of pharmacotherapies to allay the progression of cardiomyopathy associated with diabetes.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blocking the major cat allergen, Fel d 1, with mAbs was effective in preventing an acute cat allergic response. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to extend the allergen-specific antibody approach and demonstrate that a combination of mAbs targeting Bet v 1, the immunodominant and most abundant allergenic protein in birch pollen, can prevent the birch allergic response. METHODS: Bet v 1-specific mAbs, REGN5713, REGN5714, and REGN5715, were isolated using the VelocImmune platform. Surface plasmon resonance, x-ray crystallography, and cryo-electron microscopy determined binding kinetics and structural data. Inhibition of IgE-binding, basophil activation, and mast cell degranulation were assessed via blocking ELISA, flow cytometry, and the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis mouse model. RESULTS: REGN5713, REGN5714, and REGN5715 bind with high affinity and noncompetitively to Bet v 1. A cocktail of all 3 antibodies, REGN5713/14/15, blocks IgE binding to Bet v 1 and inhibits Bet v 1- and birch pollen extract-induced basophil activation ex vivo and mast cell degranulation in vivo. Crystal structures of the complex of Bet v 1 with immunoglobulin antigen-binding fragments of REGN5713 or REGN5715 show distinct interaction sites on Bet v 1. Cryo-electron microscopy reveals a planar and roughly symmetrical complex formed by REGN5713/14/15 bound to Bet v 1. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm the immunodominance of Bet v 1 in birch allergy and demonstrate blockade of the birch allergic response with REGN5713/14/15. Structural analyses show simultaneous binding of REGN5713, REGN5714, and REGN5715 with substantial areas of Bet v 1 exposed, suggesting that targeting specific epitopes is sufficient to block the allergic response.

17.
Cell ; 184(15): 3949-3961.e11, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161776

RESUMO

Monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are a clinically validated therapeutic option against COVID-19. Because rapidly emerging virus mutants are becoming the next major concern in the fight against the global pandemic, it is imperative that these therapeutic treatments provide coverage against circulating variants and do not contribute to development of treatment-induced emergent resistance. To this end, we investigated the sequence diversity of the spike protein and monitored emergence of virus variants in SARS-COV-2 isolates found in COVID-19 patients treated with the two-antibody combination REGEN-COV, as well as in preclinical in vitro studies using single, dual, or triple antibody combinations, and in hamster in vivo studies using REGEN-COV or single monoclonal antibody treatments. Our study demonstrates that the combination of non-competing antibodies in REGEN-COV provides protection against all current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern/interest and also protects against emergence of new variants and their potential seeding into the population in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Mutação/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19/virologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Testes de Neutralização , Células Vero , Carga Viral
18.
J Lipid Res ; 62: 100092, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146594

RESUMO

Plasmalogens are membrane glycerophospholipids with diverse biological functions. Reduced plasmalogen levels have been observed in metabolic diseases; hence, increasing their levels might be beneficial in ameliorating these conditions. Shark liver oil (SLO) is a rich source of alkylglycerols that can be metabolized into plasmalogens. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of SLO supplementation on endogenous plasmalogen levels in individuals with features of metabolic disease. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study, the participants (10 overweight or obese males) received 4-g Alkyrol® (purified SLO) or placebo (methylcellulose) per day for 3 weeks followed by a 3-week washout phase and were then crossed over to 3 weeks of the alternate placebo/Alkyrol® treatment. SLO supplementation led to significant changes in plasma and circulatory white blood cell lipidomes, notably increased levels of plasmalogens and other ether lipids. In addition, SLO supplementation significantly decreased the plasma levels of total free cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein. These findings suggest that SLO supplementation can enrich plasma and cellular plasmalogens and this enrichment may provide protection against obesity-related dyslipidemia and inflammation.

19.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 37(9): 1201-1206, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830298

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to determine the benefits of epidural anesthesia (EA) in pediatric surgical patients. METHODS: This study is a single-institution retrospective review of EA for pediatric patients undergoing thoracotomy or laparotomy from 2015 to 2020. Patients with recent or chronic opioid use were excluded. Urgent or emergent cases, patients with hemodynamic instability, or those with surgical complications that significantly impacted their post-operative course were also excluded. The primary objectives were comparison of pain scores and systemic opioid use between those patients with EA and those without EA. RESULTS: Epidural anesthesia was used in 151 (81.6%) laparotomies and 58 (77.3%) thoracotomies. EA use was associated with lower mean systemic opioid administration during the early post-operative period for laparotomy (POD#0-0.33 ± 0.3 oral morphine equivalents per kilogram (OME/Kg) with EA vs 0.93 ± 1.53, p < 0.001, POD#1-1.34 ± 1.79 OME/Kg with EA vs 2.61 ± 2.60, p < 0.001) and thoracotomy (POD#0-0.40 ± 0.37 OME/Kg with EA vs 0.68 ± 0.41, p = 0.008, POD#1-0.89 ± 0.86 OME/Kg with EA vs 2.02 ± 1.92, p < 0.001). There were no differences seen by POD#2. Average pain scores were significantly lower in patients with EA following laparotomy (POD#0-1.22 ± 0.99 with EA vs 1.75 ± 1.33, p = 0.008) and thoracotomy (POD#0-1.71 ± 1.13 with EA vs 2.40 ± 1.52, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The use of EA in pediatric surgery patients was associated with lower pain scores despite lower systemic opioid requirements in the early post-operative period.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural , Analgésicos Opioides , Criança , Humanos , Morfina , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Sci Immunol ; 6(58)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837124

RESUMO

Although radiotherapy has been used for over a century to locally control tumor growth, alone it rarely induces an abscopal response or systemic antitumor immunity capable of inhibiting distal tumors outside of the irradiation field. Results from recent studies suggest that combining immune checkpoint blockades to radiotherapy may enhance abscopal activity. However, the treatment conditions and underlying immune mechanisms that consistently drive an abscopal response during radiation therapy combinations remain unknown. Here, we analyzed the antitumor responses at primary and distal tumor sites, demonstrating that the timing of αPD-1 antibody administration relative to radiotherapy determined the potency of the induced abscopal response. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway after local tumor irradiation resulted in the expansion of polyfunctional intratumoral CD8+ T cells, a decrease in intratumoral dysfunctional CD8+ T cells, expansion of reprogrammable CD8+ T cells, and induction of potent abscopal responses. However, administration of αPD-1 before irradiation almost completely abrogated systemic immunity, which associated with increased radiosensitivity and death of CD8+ T cells. The subsequent reduction of polyfunctional effector CD8+ T cells at the irradiated tumor site generated a suboptimal systemic antitumor response and the loss of abscopal responses. Therefore, this report maximizes the potential synergy between radiotherapy and αPD-1 immunotherapy, information that will benefit clinical combinations of radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockade.

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