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1.
Lancet ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional imaging using CT and bone scan has insufficient sensitivity when staging men with high-risk localised prostate cancer. We aimed to investigate whether novel imaging using prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET-CT might improve accuracy and affect management. METHODS: In this multicentre, two-arm, randomised study, we recruited men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and high-risk features at ten hospitals in Australia. Patients were randomly assigned to conventional imaging with CT and bone scanning or gallium-68 PSMA-11 PET-CT. First-line imaging was done within 21 days following randomisation. Patients crossed over unless three or more distant metastases were identified. The primary outcome was accuracy of first-line imaging for identifying either pelvic nodal or distant-metastatic disease defined by the receiver-operating curve using a predefined reference-standard including histopathology, imaging, and biochemistry at 6-month follow-up. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ANZCTR12617000005358. FINDINGS: From March 22, 2017 to Nov 02, 2018, 339 men were assessed for eligibility and 302 men were randomly assigned. 152 (50%) men were randomly assigned to conventional imaging and 150 (50%) to PSMA PET-CT. Of 295 (98%) men with follow-up, 87 (30%) had pelvic nodal or distant metastatic disease. PSMA PET-CT had a 27% (95% CI 23-31) greater accuracy than that of conventional imaging (92% [88-95] vs 65% [60-69]; p<0·0001). We found a lower sensitivity (38% [24-52] vs 85% [74-96]) and specificity (91% [85-97] vs 98% [95-100]) for conventional imaging compared with PSMA PET-CT. Subgroup analyses also showed the superiority of PSMA PET-CT (area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve 91% vs 59% [32% absolute difference; 28-35] for patients with pelvic nodal metastases, and 95% vs 74% [22% absolute difference; 18-26] for patients with distant metastases). First-line conventional imaging conferred management change less frequently (23 [15%] men [10-22] vs 41 [28%] men [21-36]; p=0·008) and had more equivocal findings (23% [17-31] vs 7% [4-13]) than PSMA PET-CT did. Radiation exposure was 10·9 mSv (95% CI 9·8-12·0) higher for conventional imaging than for PSMA PET-CT (19·2 mSv vs 8·4 mSv; p<0·001). We found high reporter agreement for PSMA PET-CT (κ=0·87 for nodal and κ=0·88 for distant metastases). In patients who underwent second-line image, management change occurred in seven (5%) of 136 patients following conventional imaging, and in 39 (27%) of 146 following PSMA PET-CT. INTERPRETATION: PSMA PET-CT is a suitable replacement for conventional imaging, providing superior accuracy, to the combined findings of CT and bone scanning. FUNDING: Movember and Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140802

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We analysed quantitative biomarkers derived from both baseline whole-body imaging and blood serum to identify prognostic markers in patients treated within the lutetium-177 prostate-specific membrane antigen (LuPSMA) phase 2 trial. METHODS: PET image analysis was carried out using whole-body segmentation quantifying molecular tumour volume (SUV > 3 threshold for PSMA, SUV > liver+2sd for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) including SUVmax and SUVmean. For baseline bone scans, EXINI bone scan index (BSI) was used to calculate the percentage of involved bone. Baseline alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), prostate specific antigen (PSA) and PSA doubling time were also used in this analysis. We used univariate cox regression analysis and log-rank comparison with optimised cut-offs to find suitable biomarkers prognostic of overall survival from time of enrolment. RESULTS: This analysis identified FDG-positive tumour volume (FDGvol; HR 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4-4.8), mean intensity of PSMA-avid tumour uptake (PSMAmean; HR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.8-0.98), bone scan index (BSI; HR 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.4), ALP (HR 1.1; 95% CI, 1-1.2) and LDH (HR 1.2; 95% CI, 1-1.5) as biomarkers prognostic of overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to established biomarkers, both FDG and PSMA PET/CT parameters have prognostic significance for survival in men undergoing LuPSMA therapy.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(533)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132214

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a common malignancy, but only some tumors are lethal. Accurately identifying these tumors will improve clinical practice and instruct research. Aggressive cancers often have distinctive pathologies, including intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) and ductal adenocarcinoma. Here, we review the importance of these pathologies because they are often overlooked, especially in genomics and preclinical testing. Pathology, genomics, and patient-derived models show that IDC-P and ductal adenocarcinoma accompany multiple markers of poor prognosis. Consequently, "knowing what is growing" will help translate preclinical research to pinpoint and treat high-risk prostate cancer in the clinic.

5.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201919060583, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is among the strongest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported variable alterations in subcortical brain structures in 22q11DS. To better characterize subcortical alterations in 22q11DS, including modulating effects of clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the authors studied a large multicenter neuroimaging cohort from the ENIGMA 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Group. METHODS: Subcortical structures were measured using harmonized protocols for gross volume and subcortical shape morphometry in 533 individuals with 22q11DS and 330 matched healthy control subjects (age range, 6-56 years; 49% female). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the 22q11DS group showed lower intracranial volume (ICV) and thalamus, putamen, hippocampus, and amygdala volumes and greater lateral ventricle, caudate, and accumbens volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.90 to 0.93). Shape analysis revealed complex differences in the 22q11DS group across all structures. The larger A-D deletion was associated with more extensive shape alterations compared with the smaller A-B deletion. Participants with 22q11DS with psychosis showed lower ICV and hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.91 to 0.53) compared with participants with 22q11DS without psychosis. Shape analysis revealed lower thickness and surface area across subregions of these structures. Compared with subcortical findings from other neuropsychiatric disorders studied by the ENIGMA consortium, significant convergence was observed between participants with 22q11DS with psychosis and participants with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest neuroimaging study of 22q11DS to date, the authors found widespread alterations to subcortical brain structures, which were affected by deletion size and psychotic illness. Findings indicate significant overlap between 22q11DS-associated psychosis, idiopathic schizophrenia, and other severe neuropsychiatric illnesses.

7.
Mol Autism ; 11(1): 17, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition with key deficits in social functioning. It is widely assumed that the biological underpinnings of social impairment are neurofunctional alterations in the "social brain," a neural circuitry involved in inferring the mental state of a social partner. However, previous evidence comes from small-scale studies and findings have been mixed. We therefore carried out the to-date largest study on neural correlates of mentalizing in ASD. METHODS: As part of the Longitudinal European Autism Project, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging at six European sites in a large, well-powered, and deeply phenotyped sample of individuals with ASD (N = 205) and typically developing (TD) individuals (N = 189) aged 6 to 30 years. We presented an animated shapes task to assess and comprehensively characterize social brain activation during mentalizing. We tested for effects of age, diagnosis, and their association with symptom measures, including a continuous measure of autistic traits. RESULTS: We observed robust effects of task. Within the ASD sample, autistic traits were moderately associated with functional activation in one of the key regions of the social brain, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. However, there were no significant effects of diagnosis on task performance and no effects of age and diagnosis on social brain responses. Besides a lack of mean group differences, our data provide no evidence for meaningful differences in the distribution of brain response measures. Extensive control analyses suggest that the lack of case-control differences was not due to a variety of potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to prior reports, this large-scale study does not support the assumption that altered social brain activation during mentalizing forms a common neural marker of ASD, at least with the paradigm we employed. Yet, autistic individuals show socio-behavioral deficits. Our work therefore highlights the need to interrogate social brain function with other brain measures, such as connectivity and network-based approaches, using other paradigms, or applying complementary analysis approaches to assess individual differences in this heterogeneous condition.

8.
Eur Urol ; 77(4): 508-547, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innovations in treatments, imaging, and molecular characterisation in advanced prostate cancer have improved outcomes, but there are still many aspects of management that lack high-level evidence to inform clinical practice. The Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2019 addressed some of these topics to supplement guidelines that are based on level 1 evidence. OBJECTIVE: To present the results from the APCCC 2019. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Similar to prior conferences, experts identified 10 important areas of controversy regarding the management of advanced prostate cancer: locally advanced disease, biochemical recurrence after local therapy, treating the primary tumour in the metastatic setting, metastatic hormone-sensitive/naïve prostate cancer, nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, bone health and bone metastases, molecular characterisation of tissue and blood, inter- and intrapatient heterogeneity, and adverse effects of hormonal therapy and their management. A panel of 72 international prostate cancer experts developed the programme and the consensus questions. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The panel voted publicly but anonymously on 123 predefined questions, which were developed by both voting and nonvoting panel members prior to the conference following a modified Delphi process. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Panellists voted based on their opinions rather than a standard literature review or formal meta-analysis. The answer options for the consensus questions had varying degrees of support by the panel, as reflected in this article and the detailed voting results reported in the Supplementary material. CONCLUSIONS: These voting results from a panel of prostate cancer experts can help clinicians and patients navigate controversial areas of advanced prostate management for which high-level evidence is sparse. However, diagnostic and treatment decisions should always be individualised based on patient-specific factors, such as disease extent and location, prior lines of therapy, comorbidities, and treatment preferences, together with current and emerging clinical evidence and logistic and economic constraints. Clinical trial enrolment for men with advanced prostate cancer should be strongly encouraged. Importantly, APCCC 2019 once again identified important questions that merit assessment in specifically designed trials. PATIENT SUMMARY: The Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference provides a forum to discuss and debate current diagnostic and treatment options for patients with advanced prostate cancer. The conference, which has been held three times since 2015, aims to share the knowledge of world experts in prostate cancer management with health care providers worldwide. At the end of the conference, an expert panel discusses and votes on predefined consensus questions that target the most clinically relevant areas of advanced prostate cancer treatment. The results of the voting provide a practical guide to help clinicians discuss therapeutic options with patients as part of shared and multidisciplinary decision making.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925327

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a number of volumetric brain abnormalities. The syndrome is also associated with an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. An earlier meta-analysis showed reduced grey and white matter volumes in individuals with 22q11.2DS. Since this analysis was conducted, the number of studies has increased markedly, permitting more precise estimates of effects and more regions to be examined. Although 22q11.2DS is clinically heterogeneous, it is not known to what extent this heterogeneity is mirrored in neuroanatomy. The aim of this study was thus to investigate differences in mean brain volume and structural variability within regions, between 22q11.2DS and typically developing controls. We examined studies that reported measures of brain volume using MRI in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and PsycINFO from inception to 1 May 2019. Data were extracted from studies in order to calculate effect sizes representing case-control difference in mean volume, and in the variability of volume (as measured using the log variability ratio (lnVR) and coefficient of variation ratio (CVR)). We found significant overall decreases in mean volume in 22q11.2DS compared with control for: total brain (g = -0.96; p < 0.001); total grey matter (g = -0.81, p < 0.001); and total white matter (g = -0.81; p < 0.001). There was also a significant overall reduction of mean volume in 22q11.2DS subjects compared with controls in frontal lobe (g = -0.47; p < 0.001), temporal lobe (g = -0.84; p < 0.001), parietal lobe (g = -0.73; p = 0.053), cerebellum (g = -1.25; p < 0.001) and hippocampus (g = -0.90; p < 0.001). Significantly increased variability in 22q11.2DS individuals compared with controls was found only for the hippocampus (VR, 1.14; p = 0.036; CVR, 1.30; p < 0.001), and lateral ventricles (VR, 1.56; p = 0.004). The results support the notion that structural abnormalities in 22q11.2DS and schizophrenia are convergent, and also to some degree with findings in autism spectrum disorder. Finally, the increased variability seen in the hippocampus in 22q11.2DS may underlie some of the heterogeneity observed in the neuropsychiatric phenotype.

10.
Nat Rev Urol ; 17(2): 107-118, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937920

RESUMO

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) is rapidly being established as arguably the leading contemporary imaging modality in the management of prostate cancer. Outside of its conventional use in the de novo staging of localized disease and detection of biochemical recurrence, additional applications for the use of PSMA PET are emerging. Uptake of PSMA tracers in other genitourinary malignancies, particularly renal cell carcinoma, has led to new fields of investigation. Therapeutic delivery of radiolabelled PSMA small molecules has shown considerable promise in advanced prostate cancer. The ability to use the same molecule for imaging and therapy - theranostics - enables a highly personalized approach. PSMA PET can also have a considerable influence in the selection and guidance of radiotherapy fields for high-risk and recurrent disease. Intriguingly, changes in intensity of PSMA uptake during systemic therapy might provide early response assessment or novel insight into the biological responses of genitourinary malignancies to treatment. An evolving range of radiolabelled PSMA radiopharmaceuticals is emerging in the multiple facets of modern clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície , Glutamato Carboxipeptidase II , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Traçadores Radioativos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligantes , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
12.
Tech Coloproctol ; 24(2): 181-190, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extensive multi-visceral resection, including components of the urinary tract, is often required to achieve clear resection margins, which is now well established as a key predictor of long-term survival for locally advanced pelvic tumours. The aims of this study were to analyse major morbidity and factors predicting complications and long-term outcomes following a urological procedure within extended radical resections. METHODS: Data were collected from prospective databases at two high-volume institutions specialising in extended radical resections for locally advanced and recurrent pelvic malignancies between 1990 and 2015. The primary endpoints were general major complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥ 3) and factors influencing complications and overall survival after urological resection. RESULTS: A total of 646 consecutive patients requiring an extended radical resection for locally advanced or recurrent pelvic malignancies were identified. The median age was 63 years (range 19-89 years) and the majority were female (371; 57.4%). A urological resection was performed as part of the resection in 226 patients (35.0%). The overall 30-day major complication rate was significantly higher in the urological intervention group (23%; n = 52) compared to the non-urological group (12.9%; n = 54 patients; p = 0.001). Intestinal anastomotic leak (p = 0.001) and intra-abdominal collections (p = 0.001) were more common in the urological cohort. Ileal conduit formation was an independent predictor of major morbidity (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.24-3.07; p = 0.004). Independent prognostic markers for poor 5-year survival following urological procedures were recurrent tumour, cardiovascular disease, previous thromboembolic event and postoperative pulmonary embolism. CONCLUSIONS: Extended radical resections which include a urological resection are associated with significantly more major morbidity than those without urological resection. Ileal conduit formation is independently associated with the development of major morbidity. Five-year overall survival is no different for patients who had or did not have urological resection as part of extended radical surgery for locally advanced or recurrent pelvic malignancy.

13.
Eur Urol ; 77(3): 365-372, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679970

RESUMO

CONTEXT: There have been substantial changes in the management of men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) over the past 5 yr, with upfront combination therapies replacing androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) alone. A range of therapies have entered the space with no clear answer regarding their comparative efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and network meta-analysis to characterise the comparative efficacy of combination approaches in men with mHSPC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We searched multiple databases and abstracts of major meetings up to June 2019 for randomised trials of patients receiving first-line therapy for metastatic disease, a combination of ADT and one (or more) of taxane-based chemotherapy, and androgen receptor-targeted therapies. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) and we evaluated progression-free survival as a secondary outcome. We performed subgroup analysis based on the volume of disease. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We found seven trials that met our eligibility criteria using either docetaxel, abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, or apalutamide in combination with ADT. All agents in combination with ADT were shown to be superior to ADT alone; enzalutamide + ADT had the lowest absolute hazard ratio compared with ADT only (hazards ratio 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.37-0.75), and an estimated 76.9% probability that it is the preferred treatment to prolong OS compared with other combination treatments, or with ADT alone. Enzalutamide appeared to have better OS compared with docetaxel in men with low-volume disease, but there was no difference in other comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy with any of docetaxel, abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, or apalutamide provides a significant OS benefit when compared with ADT alone. We did not identify significant differences in OS between different combination therapies. Subtle differences between these options provide clinicians considerable flexibility when selecting options for individual patients. PATIENT SUMMARY: Many men with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer should be managed with upfront combination therapy instead of androgen-deprivation therapy alone. Clinicians may consider many factors during the decision-making process, and thus management should be tailored for patients individually.

17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(3): 614-628, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028290

RESUMO

Significant heterogeneity across aetiologies, neurobiology and clinical phenotypes have been observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neuroimaging-based neuroanatomical studies of ASD have often reported inconsistent findings which may, in part, be attributable to an insufficient understanding of the relationship between factors influencing clinical heterogeneity and their relationship to brain anatomy. To this end, we performed a large-scale examination of cortical morphometry in ASD, with a specific focus on the impact of three potential sources of heterogeneity: sex, age and full-scale intelligence (FIQ). To examine these potentially subtle relationships, we amassed a large multi-site dataset that was carefully quality controlled (yielding a final sample of 1327 from the initial dataset of 3145 magnetic resonance images; 491 individuals with ASD). Using a meta-analytic technique to account for inter-site differences, we identified greater cortical thickness in individuals with ASD relative to controls, in regions previously implicated in ASD, including the superior temporal gyrus and inferior frontal sulcus. Greater cortical thickness was observed in sex specific regions; further, cortical thickness differences were observed to be greater in younger individuals and in those with lower FIQ, and to be related to overall clinical severity. This work serves as an important step towards parsing factors that influence neuroanatomical heterogeneity in ASD and is a potential step towards establishing individual-specific biomarkers.

18.
Eur Urol Focus ; 6(1): 102-103, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177401
20.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The scientific impact of published articles has traditionally been measured as citation counts. However, there has been a shift in academia to a digitalized age in which research is widely read, disseminated, and discussed online. As part of this shift, each published article has a digital footprint. OBJECTIVE: To develop a urology social media score (#UroSoMe_Score) to predict citation counts from measures of online attention for urological articles. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We included articles published between June 2016 and June 2017 in the top ten highest-impact urology journals. We obtained data on the online attention received by each of these articles from Altmetric Explorer and 2-yr citation counts from Scopus. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We created a multivariable linear model using the forward stepwise regression method based on the Akaike information criterion to determine the best-fitting model using online sources of attention to predict 2-yr citation count. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: We included a total of 2033 urology articles. The median weighted Altmetric score for the articles included was 4 (interquartile range [IQR] 2-11). The median number of citations for all articles included was 7 (IQR 3-14). There was an association between Altmetric score and 2-yr Scopus citation count (p < 0.001) but the adjusted R2 value for this model was only 0.013. Our stepwise regression model revealed that citations could be predicted from a model comprising the following sources of online attention: policy documents, Google+, blogs, videos, Wikipedia, Twitter, and Q&A. The adjusted R2 value for the #UroSoMe_Score model was 0.14, which is superior to the full Altmetric score. CONCLUSIONS: The #UroSoMe_Score can be used to predict 2-yr citation counts for urological publications on the basis of online metrics. PATIENT SUMMARY: Online measures of attention can be used to predict citation counts and thus the scientific impact of an article. Our #UroSoMe_Score can be used in such a manner specifically for the urological literature. Outliers may still be present especially for popular topics that receive online attention but are not heavily cited.

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